English I & II genre and literary elements
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  • 1. The Genres & LiteraryAnalysis English I & II
  • 2. Fiction Narrative: telling of a story Short story: often focuses on a single event or incident and usually can be read in one sitting Novel: an extended work of fiction. - longer than short story, more complex plot, more characters Novella: longer than short story, shorter than novel. - short time span, limited number of characters
  • 3. Poetry Form: arrangement on the page Composed of lines and stanzas (groups of lines) Rhythm and rhyme: way a poem sounds Imagery: language that recreates sensory experiences; helps reader see, hear, and feel what a poem describes
  • 4. Drama Plot is carried by dialogue and action (what the actors say and do) Acts: groups of scenes Stage directions: writer’s instructions for the actors, director, and other people working on the play - often printed in italics
  • 5. Nonfiction and Informational Texts  Literary nonfiction: biographies, speeches, essays, etc.  Informational texts: news articles, train schedules - provide factual information  Types of nonfiction: - autobiography/biography: true story about a person’s life - essay: short work that focuses on a single subject
  • 6. Nonfiction and Informational Texts - speech: oral presentation of ideas, beliefs, or proposals of the speaker - news/feature articles: newspapers, magazines - feature articles focus on human-interest topics - functional documents: serves a practical purpose - consumer documents, instruction manuals, workplace documents, memos, resumes
  • 7. Media Media literate: knowing the basics and thinking critically about all messages Feature films: motion pictures that use narrative elements to tell a story News media: accounts of current events - TV, internet, radio, newspapers, and magazines TV shows: dramas, sitcoms, and reality shows Advertising: sponsor’s paid use of media to promote products, services, or ideas Web sites: collections of pages on the internet or WWW
  • 8. Literary Analysis- Plot Stages and Conflict Plot: series of events in a narrative Conflict: struggle between opposing forces - internal conflict: struggle within a character’s mind - centers on a choice or decision the character must make - external conflict: clash between a character and an outside force (e.g., another character, society, or force of nature) - introduced at the beginning of a narrative
  • 9. Plot Stages 1st - Exposition: introduces setting and characters, introduces the conflict 2nd – Rising Action: presents complications that intensify conflict, builds suspense 3rd – Climax: turning point and the moment of greatest suspense, makes the outcome of the conflict clear 4th – Falling Action: eases the suspense, reveals the outcome of the story’s climax, shows how the main character resolves conflict 5th – Resolution: reveals the final outcome, ties up loose ends
  • 10. Sequence and Time Chronological order: events follow a linear structure - a writer may manipulate time for a variety of reasons Flashback: account of a conversation, episode, or event that happened before the beginning of the story Foreshadowing: writer’s use of hints or clues in early scenes to suggest events that will occur later These help you more closely follow a story and better understand characters and events Suspense: Makes a reader want to know what will happen next. *
  • 11. Character and Point of View (POV) POV: The perspective from which a story is told. Narrator: The voice that tells you the story. First-Person POV: The narrator: Is a main or minor character in the story Refers to him/herself as I or me Presents his/her own thoughts and feelings Does not have direct access to the thoughts and feelings of other characters
  • 12. Character and Point of View (POV) Third-Person POV: The narrator Is not a character in the story May not be an identifiable person but merely a voice that tells the story Is called OMNISCENT if he/she knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters Is call LIMITED if he/she focuses on the thoughts and feelings of one character
  • 13. Character Traits and Motivation Character Traits: qualities shown by characters Physical appearance Speech, thoughts, and actions Other characters Reactions to the character Relationships with the character Impression of the character’s reputation Motivation: reasons behind a character’s actions Helps us understand the character better
  • 14. Setting, Mood, and Imagery Setting: the time and place of a story Can influence characters Can create conflict Can serve as a symbol Represent an idea, or a character’s hopes, future, or predicament Mood: feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for readers - e.g., ominous, uplifting, dark, brooding, joyful Setting helps establish mood
  • 15. Setting, Mood, and Imagery Imagery: words or phrases that recreate sensory experiences for readers Sensory details: words or phrases that appeal the senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch Helps you “be” in the scene as a bystander watching the action
  • 16. Theme and Symbol Theme: the meaning behind a story It’s the underlying message or big idea that the writer wants you to remember. Universal themes: themes that are common across virtually all time periods and cultures. Learning from mistakes and triumphs of past generations Family, War, Love, Growing up, Death, Birth The theme is NOT the subject or plot of the story. Clues to theme: title, plot and conflict, important statements, characters, setting, and symbols
  • 17. Theme and Symbol Symbol: a person, place, object, or activity that stands for something beyond itself. Examples: A fork in the road ( an important decision) The color red (a character’s anger) A torrential rainstorm (an emotional upheaval)