Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply




Published in Spiritual
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Chapter Eight: Islam Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich
  • 2. Spread of Islam
  • 3. Muhammad and the Birth of Islam  Muhammad born in Mecca (570) – Founder of Islam – Reared in poverty and married a rich widow who had a daughter  Fatima (Muhammad’s daughter) – Model of piety and purity • Married the Imam (authoritative religious leader) of the Shiites
  • 4. Muhammad and the Birth of Islam  Muhammad retreated into caves to meditate and ponder reasons for his good fortune  Revelations of God through Gabriel – Preached against idolatry in Mecca; taught worship of one God  Fled From Mecca to Medina - Hegira (622) – Beginning of Muslim calendar
  • 5. Muhammad and the Birth of Islam  Developed a following in Medina  Returned to Mecca 10 years later  Qa’aba – (Arabic for “cube”) the Meccan pagan shrine that became focal point of the new religion  “Islam” means submission to God – monotheistic – Rejection of Christian doctrine of the Trinity
  • 6. Five Pillars of Islam  1. Recitation of the Muslim act of faith – One God; Muhammad is God’s messenger  2. Obligation of prayer – 5 times a day in a direction that points to the Qa’aba  3. Charity – give of one’s wealth (surplus)  4. Fasting during Ramadan – – Abstinence of all food and drink from sunrise to sunset
  • 7. Five Pillars of Islam  5. Pilgrimage (Haj) – Travel to Mecca at least once in a lifetime  Muhammad traveled to the purified and restored Qa’aba in 632 – Died the same year
  • 8. Qa’aba in Mecca
  • 9. Practices of Islam  No pork, alcohol  Male circumcision  Polygamy acceptable, but not practiced worldwide  Usury (loan interest) forbidden  Observation of feast days  Simplicity and asceticism (self-denial) – Rapid growth and spread of religion
  • 10. The Qur’an  Central text of Islam – Collation of Muhammad’s oral revelations – Word is Arabic for “recitation”  114 chapters (sûras) – Arranged in terms of length: longest to shortest  Written in Arabic – Cannot be translated b/c it came as the result of divine dictation – Read from right to left  Source of unifications for all Muslims – Only recited in Arabic
  • 11. The Qur’an  Memorization and recitation – Sign of devotion – Competitions for reciting the Qur’an  Qur’an, Hadith, Shari’a (“law”) – Hadith – authoritative commentators and explication of certain oral traditions about the Prophet and early Islamic community make this up – Shari’a – complex legal code based on Qur’an and Hadith
  • 12. Calligraphy  Greek for “Beautiful writing”  Kufic (most characteristic form of writing) see Fig. 8.2  Decorative feature of mosques as well as on the text of the Qur’an – Decorates great halls erected for assemblies for Friday prayers – “mosque” (from “masjid”) – a place for ritual prostration
  • 13. Calligraphy  Abstract, geometric designs with text – No depictions of divinity – Allah is beyond all imagining – Arabesque – highly complex interlaced lines (See Fig. 8.3) – No narrative scenes • Scenes usually depict nonhuman images of plants and flowers
  • 14. Page from the Qur’an, eighth century
  • 15. Islamic Architecture  Functions of Islamic mosques – Community gathering centers • Scholars study and debate • Courtroom • Place to sit and relax in courtryard  Large gathering area for prayer and meeting • Especially for Friday prayers – Minbar – the pulpit • No furniture in a mosque; rugs cover the floor
  • 16. Islamic Architecture  Michrab – niche in wall that indicates direction of Mecca  Fountains – in tradition Friday mosques  Devout may ritually cleanse their hands, feet, and mouth  Muezzin – the call the faithful to prayer five times a day from tower or minarets next to the mosque
  • 17. Islamic Architecture: The Dome of the Rock (see Fig. 8.4)  One of the earliest achievements of Islamic architecture  Caliph Abd al Malik - architect – Built on the Temple Mount, Jerusalem • An elevated space that was once the stire of the Jewish temple destroyed by the Romans in C.E. 70  Octagonal building, golden dome  Roman+Byzantine architecture  Lavish mosaics in interior
  • 18. Islamic Architecture: The Dome of the Rock (see Fig. 8.4)  Qur’anic verses in interior  Uncertain original functionality – Mausoleum – Mosque – Counterpoint to Church of the Holy Sepulcher • Rebuff in stone to Christianity – Possibly built as a rival to the Qa’aba
  • 19. The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
  • 20. Islamic Architecture: Mosque of Damascus (Figs. 8.5 & 8.6)  Abd al Walid – builder of mosque – Built on the site of a Roman temple turned into a Byzantine church • Used walls surrounding the church complex for walls of mosque  Lavish interior decoration – Marble – paneled lower walls – Byzantine mosaics – on upper walls • Depiction of heaven with palaces and fountains  Caliph’s palace – next to mosque for easy movement between both
  • 21. Mosque of Damascus
  • 22. Islamic Architecture: Mosque in Córdoba, Spain (Fig. 8.7 & 8.8)  Muslim capital in Spain  Al-Hakam – ruler of Córdoba – Al-Hakam wanted a rival of Great Mosque of Damascus • Columns support Roman arches (Fig. 8.8) – Requested Constantinople artisans, workmen – Emperor sent 17 tons of tesserae (cubes that make up a mosaic) along with the workers  Survived the Reconquista – Christians drove Muslims out of Spain in 1492 – Destroyed Islamic buildings
  • 23. Central dome in Mosque of Cordoba
  • 24. [Image 8.8] Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque Maqsura screen: of Cordoba Mosque
  • 25. Islamic Architecture: The Alhambra – Granada, Spain  Exterior : complex of towers and walls  Built in 13th & 14th centuries: Consists of two adjacent palaces:  Both have central courtyards w/ covered walkways or porches – Palace of the Myrtles • Named for the myrtles that grow there • Used for public occasions – Palace of the Lions (Fig. 8.9) • Used as a private residence • Pinnacle of opulence – slender columns, wooden ceiling work, molded plaster
  • 26. Islamic Architecture: The Alhambra – Granada, Spain  Possibly used for Islamic university – Study, teaching, and research  Lavishly Decorated:  Colored tiles and intricate woodwork  Infusion of interior streams that spring up into fountains – Water runs throughout all parts of the palaces
  • 27. Islamic Architecture: Taj Mahal in Agra, India  Mughal reign 1526-1858 – height of Muslim culture  Emperor Shah Jahan – Built as a tribute to wife, Mumtaz Mahal • House her body and honor her memory  Set on the river Jumna  Dome atop octagonal structure  Highly polished white marble – Restrained exterior decoration, little attempt to add color  Large garden setting w/ reflecting pools  Inspired by the description of paradise in the Qur’an
  • 28. [Image 8.10] Taj Mahal Taj Mahal
  • 29. Sufism  Sunni and Shi’a traditions – 85% of Muslims belong to Sunni tradition – Significant minority (the majority in Iran) belong to Shi’a branch of Islam  From literary perspective, Sufism is one of the most influential traditions  Sufism describes an ancient and complex movement of communities or small groups of sheyks and their disciples that emphasized practices and disciplines that would lead a person to a direct experience with God.
  • 30. Sufism  Sufism = mystical dimension of Islam – Sheyks and disciples – Retirement in poverty – Piety and repentance – Sometimes embraced with enthusiasm; other times viewed with suspicion  Sufi tariqas (communities) in North Africa, Egypt
  • 31. Sufi Writers  Two writers give insight to Sufi thought and expression: Saint Rabia & Rumi  Saint Rabia: Sufi woman, known as the flute player – Was a mystic poet – Expressed convictions in aphorisms, poems, meditations – Focus on the love of Allah – A focus of Allah’s love excluded any fear of damnation as well as hope for paradise – “possess nothing…except Allah”
  • 32. Sufi Writers  Rumi – mystic poet – Persian poems (rhyming couplets) • Wrote more than 3000 poems • Body of work: “the Qur’an in Persian” – Discourses on mystical experiences – Recitation of poetry and movement (dervishes) • Recite poetry while dancing in a formal but ecstatic fashion • Poetry and movement would focus total attention on Allah • Founded community of dervishes (see Fig. 8.11)
  • 33. The Culture of Islam and the West  Abbasid Dynasty – centered in Baghdad (present day Iraq) – one of the high points of Islamic culture – Built paper making factory in 794 – Learned the technique from a Chinese prisoner  Caliph Al-Mamun – built library & study center – Bait alhikma: “House of Wisdom” – Translated texts into Arabic • Preservation of works of Aristotle • Translation of Platonic works; medical texts of Galen, & other treatises – Translations of Greek texts
  • 34. The Culture of Islam and the West  Advances in mathematics, medicine – Al-Khwarizmi – greatest single scholar in House of Wisdom • Polymath researcher • Invented algebra • Adapted Hindu numerical system, and created the “zero” as a place holder and number – Al Hazen – crucial work in optic • Technology of grinding and making lenses – Rhazes – doctor; clinical observation of smallpox and measles (distinguished between the two diseases)
  • 35. The Culture of Islam and the West  Exchange of goods / ideas with Europe – Quality swords (Damascus, Syria & Toledo, Spain), silk (damask), coffee – Windmills (West learned from the Muslims) – Lexicon contributions (orange, lemon, sugar, saffron, syrup, alcohol) – Arabic words  Al-Ghazali – The Incoherence of the Philosophers: attacked Greek philosophy
  • 36. The Culture of Islam and the West  Averröes – responded to Al Ghazali and showed how Islam could be reconciled with Greek philosophy – “He of the Great Commentary” – The Incoherence of Incoherence