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Antebellum southrevised

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  • 1. CRCT Review – Explain the significance of the following events: 1) Battle of Kettle Creek 2) Battle of Bloody Marsh 3) Proclamation of 1763  
  • 2. The Antebellum South Special Thanks to Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  • 3. Early Emancipation in the North
  • 4. Missouri Compromise, 1820
  • 5. Antebellum Southern Society
  • 6. Characteristics of the Antebellum South
    • Primarily agrarian
    • Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South”
    • “ Cotton Is King!” * 1860--> 5 mil. bales a yr (57% of total US exports)
    • Very slow development of industry
    • Rudimentary financial system
    • Developing transportation system
  • 7. Antebellum Social Ladder Planters, bankers, lawyers, and merchants Yeoman farmers Poor whites Free blacks Black slaves
  • 8. Yeoman Farmer’s Dogtrot Cabin
  • 9. Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.
  • 10. Southern Society (1850) “ Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3,200,000 250,000 Total US Population --> 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
  • 11. Georgian Society (1850) “ Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 600,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 381,600 3,500 Total US Population --> 23,000,000 [985,100 in Georgia = 4.3%]
  • 12. Southern Population (1860)
  • 13. Antebellum Southern Economy
  • 14. Graniteville Textile Co. Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA
  • 15. Southern Agriculture
  • 16. Slaves Picking Cotton on a Plantation
  • 17. Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
  • 18. The Growth of King Cotton 1820 1860
  • 19. King Cotton in Georgia Late 1700s – Sea Island Cotton 1793 – Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin Short-fiber variety grows inland Georgia’s Piedmont and Coastal Plain ideal Georgia’s Fall Line attracted planters – fast moving water could power cotton gins, textile mills, and factories 1820s – Steamboats and 1840s – Railroad By 1850 “Empire State of the South”
  • 20. Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports
  • 21. “ Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings” William Henry Brown, 1842
  • 22. Antebellum Southern Plantation Life
  • 23. Tara – Plantation Reality or Myth? Hollywood’s Version?
  • 24. Jarrell Plantation - Reality Jones County, GA Version
  • 25. Life of a Planter
    • Successful Plantation required hard work
    • Minimum of 20 field slaves
    • Often used overseers or trusted slaves to assist in running the operation
    • Typical plantation home - plain, unpainted, and modestly furnished
    • The wife often oversaw day-to-day needs
    • *food, clothing, and health needs of family and slaves
  • 26. Slave-Owning Population (1850)
  • 27. Slave-Owning Families (1850)
  • 28. A Real Georgia Plantation
  • 29. Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.
  • 30. The Southern “Belle”
  • 31. The Privileged Class…
    • Elite of Georgian society
    • Enjoyed a comfortable life
    • * barbecues and political gatherings, church functions, frequent visitors, riding , hunting and traveling abroad
    • With a successful plantation, planters could spend time on political office
    • Many prided themselves on an extensive library
    • Young sent to private schools close to home
    • Sons often sent to the North for education and daughters to female seminaries
  • 32. Scarlet and Mammie (Hollywood Again!)
  • 33. A Real Mammie & Her Charge
  • 34. The Ledger of John White
    • Matilda Selby, 9, $400.00 sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $425.00
    • Brooks Selby, 19, $750.00 Left at Home – Crazy
    • Fred McAfee, 22, $800.00 Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $1200.00
    • Howard Barnett, 25, $750.00 Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $540.00
    • Harriett Barnett, 17, $550.00 Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00
  • 35. Antebellum Southern Society Social Change
  • 36. Education
    • Legislature called for schools in each county, but did not fund
    • Most Georgians believed education best left to the family, not the government
    • “ poor school funds” – many too proud to send their children
    • “ old field schools” – rural, one-room schools often built in old cotton fields
    • As late as 1850 – 1 in 5 white adults were illiterate
    • Higher education fared much better…
  • 37. Old Field School
  • 38. Higher Education
    • 1785 The General Assembly chartered The University of Georgia (first classes 1801)
    • *with the help of Joseph Henry Lumpkin and T.R.R. Cobb would include one of the premier southern law schools
    • 1828 Medical College of Georgia in Augusta
    • Religious denominations built new colleges
    • * Emory College in 1836 – Methodist
    • * Oglethorpe College in 1835 – Presbyterian
    • * Mercer University in 1837 – Baptist
    • Georgia Female College (Wesleyan College) began classes in Macon in 1839 – Methodist
  • 39. The University of Georgia
  • 40. Wesleyan College - Macon
  • 41. Religion
    • Early Protestant – Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Moravian, and Baptist
    • Early 1800s, the Great Revival swept the South – camp meetings and revivals
    • Predominant churches became the Baptists and Methodists
    • Early on, slaves often attended church services with their master
    • African Methodist Episcopal (AME) and African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AME Zion) developed in North and were anti-slavery
    • Black churches in the South were primarily Baptist and could not preach about slavery
  • 42. Southern Slave Church
  • 43. Georgian Social Reform
    • Began to deal with criminals and needy in a more humane approach
    • Abolished laws that allowed for cruel punishments
    • 1817 state opened first penitentiary (repent)
    • 1818 provided blankets, food, clothing, etc. to county prisoners
    • 1842 an asylum was built in Milledgeville
    • 1847 a school for the deaf in Cave Springs
    • 1852 took responsibility for helping the blind at the Georgia Academy for the Blind in Macon
  • 44. Georgia Academy for the Blind
  • 45. Georgia Lunatic Asylum
  • 46. Ticket Out the Door – Which compromise was the best for the nation? The worst?