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Running head: HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 1 Hackasaurus: The Professional Development Curriculum Alicia Bradley, Helen Lee, Pauline Lee Teachers College, Columbia University C&T 4052: Designing Curriculum and Instruction Professor Cummings December 19, 2011
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 2 Table of ContentsRationale and Goals……………………………….……………………………………………...3Organization……………………………………………………………………………………...8Content Overview: Unit Map Hackasaurus Curriculum Map…………………..………………………………………..16 Sample Napoleon Unit Map………………………………………………………………18Learning Experiences Bank………………………………………………………………...……19Assessment………………………………………………………………………………………25Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………….28Lesson plans Lesson 1: Introduction to Hacking the Web & Rubric…………………………………….29 Lesson 2: Hacking the Web-Remixing HTML…...………………………………………..36 Lesson 3: Hackasaurus Collaboration & Rubric……………………………………….......45 Brainstorming Worksheet……………...………………………………………….51References………………………………………………………………………………….…….52 Annotated List of Resources and Materials…….…………………………………….……54 Annotated Bibliography……………………………………………………………….….. 56
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 3 Rationale The Hackasaurus curriculum was sparked by asking this question, “Can you imaginebeing able to read but not write?” Many students today are fluent in reading the web and areable to search the web independently. However, most of them have little knowledge of how theweb is constructed and lack the skill set to write and create original content online. Thephilosophy behind the Hackasaurus Professional Development (PD) curriculum is to help alleducators understand that the web is an open space that requires active participation frommembers of the community so that everyone, students and teachers, can actively contribute to theweb. This curriculum is developed using a learner-centered approach and challenge-basedlearning. There is very little lecturing and the activities are hands-on, so that learners have aninteractive experience throughout the curriculum. There are a total of three lesson plans basedon Wiggins and McTighe’s Understanding by Design framework (2005). In every lesson plan,learners are guided through series of mini-challenges, collaboration projects, and groupdiscussions that are designed to help learners develop the key concepts or skills required tobecome an active web participant. Educators who undertake this curriculum will eventually beable to facilitate their own Hackasaurus workshop and cater the lesson to their individualclassroom needs. Hackasaurus is an open source tool developed by the Mozilla Foundation designed tohelp participants learn Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)codes which are the essential languages for web making (Mozilla.org Contributors,2011). Hackasaurus is a tool that anyone can learn quickly and easily so that educators can useHackasaurus to teach about the web without being a web coding expert.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 4 Since this is a PD curriculum, the students are formal and informal educators who areinterested in integrating technology into their existing classrooms. Their role is not only to learnabout Hackasaurus, but to understand how to use it as a learning tool. At the end of the lesson,students are encouraged to come up with their own activities that combine the traditional contentknowledge with the newly acquired web skills and tools. The role of the teachers is to facilitateHackasaurus workshops. The teachers are not necessarily well-versed in web coding languages,but are able to guide students through the experience effectively and encourage participatorylearning. The social relevance of this curriculum is threefold. First, children today are proficient atbrowsing the web but most of them have little knowledge of how the web isconstructed. Therefore, it is important for educators to teach students about how the web isconstructed, as well as the language for web making, so all members can become activeparticipants of the online world. Second, there is an increased market demand for jobs thatinvolve technology and web design; preparing students at an early age will make them becomemore competitive for future careers (Wright, 2009). Third, Hackasaurus is an open sourceproject, meaning it is a free tool in which people from all over the world collaborate on in orderto provide services for the good of the online community. It is important as educators to pass onthe concept of open source tools so the web can remain an active participatory space rather thana commercially private space. This curriculum responds to the International Society for Technology in EducationNational Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and Students (ISTE.NETS, 2007). TheISTE.NETS Teacher Performance Indicators targeted in the Hackasaurus PD curriculum include:
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 5 • Standard 1 - Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity • Standard 2 - Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments • Standard 5 - Engage in Professional Growth and LeadershipThe ISTE.NETS Students Performance Indicators targeted in the Hackasaurus PD curriculuminclude: • Standard 1 – Creativity and Innovation • Standard 5 – Digital Citizenship • Standard 6 – Technology Operations and Concepts
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 6 Goals The overarching goals of the curriculum are to help educators understand that the web isan open space that requires active participation for all and students can easily learn the languagefor web making using Hackasaurus. The learning goals support the curriculum rationale bypresenting the knowledge and skill sets necessary to become active participants on the web. Thecreation of authentic challenges is the ideal learning environment for understanding complexconcepts (The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990). Therefore, the students, inthis case educators participating in the PD curriculum, are guided through authentic mini-challenges and interactive activities that break down major concepts such as web, hacking, andHTML into digestible chunks. There are three specific goals with corresponding lesson plans that are designed toscaffold students throughout the learning process. The first lesson plan targets the learning goalof understanding hacking and active participation on the web. This specific learning goal isachieved by establishing key concepts of hacking through physical activity and paper models,where students are challenged to hack and remix the contents of a dance and a paper face inorder to make new things through active participation. The challenge activity also simulates thestructure of HTML tags, so participants can recognize there are many similarities betweenhacking on traditional media and the web. After completing these activities, students can easilytransition to hacking on the web platform in the next lesson. The second lesson targets the learning goal of understanding basic HTML and CSSlanguages for writing the web using Hackasaurus. Participants are introduced to the X-rayGoggles tool within Hackasaurus and are asked to complete hacking challenges with specificguidelines, such as remixing two image elements and three style elements. By completing the
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 7challenge, participants acquire the necessary web making knowledge to develop their owninterdisciplinary learning activities that combine web making with traditional curriculumcontent. The third lesson plan targets the learning goal of understanding how Hackasaurus can beused as a learning tool. Participants are asked to reflect on their own experiences during thehacking challenge, brainstorm possible activities and share their lesson ideas with the rest of thegroup. Through the active participation of consolidating learning activities, participants exercisetheir newly acquired web knowledge and integrate them into traditional content that suits theirclassrooms.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 8 OrganizationContent Organization - Topical The Hackasaurus PD curriculum is organized topically. Each lesson plan contains itsown topic that explores different aspects of HTML. The first lesson plan’s topic is primarilyconcerned with hacking dance moves, being collaborative in making a face, and ends with alesson on the open web, hacking, and the X-ray Goggles. Generally, the first lesson plan’s topicis an introduction to hacking and is activity-based with a lesson at the end. The second lessonplan’s topic involves teaching students the specific technical aspects of how to navigate the X-ray Goggles. It is primarily challenge-based. The final lesson plan’s topic involves reflectionand brainstorming about possible uses of Hackasaurus in a curriculum. In summary, the topicsare as follows: 1) Collaborative activity, introductory lesson; 2) Technical challenge-basedexploration; and 3) Reflection and brainstorming. One final note about this curriculum’s contentorganization is that it is built in a way such that the beginning lessons build from basicknowledge, and later lessons use scaffolding to build on previous lessons.Organization and Rationale Throughout the curriculum, students are taught that the web is an open space that requiresactive participation from members of the community. This is played out in several ways in eachof the lessons. The first lesson is where they directly learn about how the web is an open space.The activities that come before this teaching include collaborative activities where learners areactively involved in participating and changing the dance moves or a face. By playing out theseactivities in real life, learners begin to understand that this concept can be applied to the web aswell. The second lesson also encompasses the idea of the web being an open space, becausestudents begin to discover that they can hack and make changes to a webpage. This discovery
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 9has great impact, and students feel empowered that they can make a difference in a webpage’scontent. The final lesson involving reflection and brainstorming is where the real potential ofthis curriculum can be elevated. Learners actively participate in discussions and group work tofigure out ways that Hackasaurus can be incorporated into a more traditional lesson plan. In allof these lesson plans, the concepts of the open web and active participation are being realizedmore and more. A learner-centered and challenge-based approach was chosen to teach Hackasaurus, inorder to once again hone in on the idea that the web is collaborative and requires activeparticipation (The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990). By crafting theactivities in such a way where learners need to interact with each other, brainstorm together, andshare their hacks, students mirror the way the web is created - through a collaborative anddynamic system. Each activity requires students to work independently on some parts, but alsoallows for them to come together in the end to show their work. This allows for further idea-making and brainstorming, so that if a student worked on something again, he or she could comeup with a more innovative and creative product. In light of the web, many companies look atvarious websites and use different pieces of design from different places, creating a place wheresharing and borrowing is rampant. Other important components that are taught in this curriculum are the concepts of HTMLand CSS, and being able to read the basic code. In the process of performing the hacks, copyingand pasting image locations, and remixing, students will become more and more familiar withthe language of HTML as the curriculum unfolds. This is the power of scaffolding - the firstlesson teaches the basics of the open web, the next one then uses the X-ray Goggles andintroduces students to HTML, getting students deeper and deeper into the code. However,
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 10students are not expected to become proficient in coding in a way that programmers are (whichmay scare them away from using this tool); rather this tool is used to familiarize learners with thelanguage of HTML and help them create original content.Timing This specific curriculum is created as a half-day workshop. The three lesson plans are 90minutes, 120 minutes (with or without a break), and 45 minutes respectively. The reasoning forthis timeline is that oftentimes teachers are very busy and do not have the time to attend full-dayor multiple-day workshops. This curriculum therefore offers a concentrated experience that issufficient to enable them to think of ways to use Hackasaurus in their classrooms. Because it isoffered in a more concentrated time period, the tradeoff is that students may need to spendadditional time outside of the workshop to think of creative ideas for incorporating Hackasaurusinto their classrooms. The table on the following page displays how this particular curriculum’sschedule could look:
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 11 Half-Day Hackasaurus Workshop - Sample Schedules With Lunch Morning Afternoon 8:00 AM Lesson 1 (90 min) 8AM - 9:30AM 9:00 AM Lesson 2 (120 min) 9:30AM - 11:30AM 10:00 AM Lesson 1 (90 min) 10AM - 11:30AM 11:00 AM Lunch Break (30 or 60 min) esson 3 (45 min) L 11:30AM - 12:30PM 11:30AM - 12:15PM 12:00 PM Lesson 2 (120 min Lesson 1 (90 min) + 15 min break = 135 min) 12:30PM - 2PM 1:00 PM 12:30PM - 2:45PM 2:00 PM Lesson 2 (120 min) 2PM - 4PM Lesson 3 (45 min) 3:00 PM 2:45PM - 3:30PM 4:00 PM Lesson 3 (45 min) 4PM - 4:45PM This curriculum could also be modified in order to be flexible to meet the needs ofeducators with more time and deeper interest in Hackasaurus, as well as varying types ofstudents. This curriculum could be envisioned as a one-day workshop with fuller lesson plansincorporating a few more lessons interspersed to enable educators to fully realize their potential
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 12as Hackasaurus teachers. Additionally, if Hackasaurus is taught to young students in elementaryschool or middle school, they may need more time to learn the material. Therefore, thisworkshop may span a full-day, with more support to teach younger learners. A modification that was created for high school students was a four-day workshop witheach day providing a four-hour hacking session. This workshop went into greater depth on eachlesson, contained more activities and challenges, and fully utilized the Mozilla Badges project towin badges and ultimately the Facilitator Certificate. As a final component of the lesson plan,students had a session on facilitating each other in order to enable them as Hackasauruseducators. The table below shows the various schedules for these modified curricula aspreviously discussed: Full-Day Hackasaurus Workshop - Sample Schedule Full Day 8:00 AM Lesson 1 (90 min) 8:30AM - 10AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM Break (15 min) Lesson 2 (120 min) 10:15AM - 12:15PM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM Lunch Break (30 or 60 min) 12:15PM - 1:15PM 1:00 PM Other Lesson (60 min) 1:15PM - 2:15PM 2:00 PM Other Lesson (60 min) 2:15PM - 3:15PM 3:00 PM Break (15 min) Lesson 3 (45 min) 3:30PM - 4:15PM 4:00 PM
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 13Learning Environment Factors Certain factors need to be considered when creating the learning environment, such asstudents with different needs and utilizing effective teaching strategies to initiate interest forstudents. Professional development students of Hackasaurus have different needs, since theymay have various levels of technological knowledge and are teachers for different subjects. Inorder to address these needs, the teacher may need to spend more time with certain students whoneed additional technological help. Additionally, it would be helpful for the teacher to create anopen environment where students can ask questions and also help each other on anytechnological needs. Another consideration that the professional development students ofHackasaurus need to keep in mind is the techniques they will use to teach their students in theclassroom. Various factors need to be considered to accommodate students with differingacademic, social, linguistic, physical, and cultural needs. In many cases, teachers will need tospend more time with their students who differ in any of these aspects. Additionally, teacherscan make the lessons simpler to accommodate these students. Finally, teachers have the powerto influence the subject matter of these lessons in order to cater to students with different needs. Teachers need to help students through various high-energy activities and innovativetechnological tools in such a way as to capture student interest. Because the energy level is highfor some of the activities, such as Lesson 1, teachers need to teach with a high energy level thatcreates a fun environment for students. Teachers also need to be patient when teaching theHTML and CSS portions, because those may be difficult for some students to grasp and navigate.Finally, in Lesson 3, teachers need to use facilitation skills to engender creative thought anddiscussion among their students. This skill is sometimes difficult, especially with children, sousing various prompting questions, and leveraging off of what students say is important.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 14 When considering the teaching technique for this curriculum, keeping in mind the theoryof multiple intelligences is useful to cater to different students’ needs (Denig, 2004). This theoryproposes that there are eight types of intelligences through which students learn. TheHackasaurus curriculum incorporates activities that utilize the kinesthetic intelligence (HackDance), the interpersonal intelligence (discussion and brainstorming), the linguistic intelligence(learning the tool), and the spatial intelligence (also learning the tool). Covering four of theintelligences in this curriculum creates better multi-dimensional learning that suits a broaderaudience. Employing these various techniques will help with building student interest anddeveloping continuity of experience for students. To layer onto the learning experience, the community and parents could also be involvedwith this curriculum, because Hackasaurus is an open source tool that exists to create a broadercommunity of interested learners who wish to contribute to the Hackasaurus project. These toolsinclude a Wiki, Google Group, Twitter, and Facebook. Learners can use any materials or lessonplans on the Wiki and Google Group, ask questions, and provide feedback, or upload their ownmaterials (MozillaWiki - Hackasaurus, 2011; Google Groups - Hackasaurus, 2011). Having aspace where learners can ask questions and have discussions is a good method to help studentslearn HTML (de Bra, 1996). Twitter and Facebook keep the community abreast of any majorevents and new information regarding Hackasaurus (Twitter - Hackasaurus, 2011; Facebook -Hackasaurus, 2011). Parents come into play when the PD learners move on to teach their ownstudents. These teachers could get parents involved through the publish feature of Hackasaurus,including having students email their hacked web pages to their parents, or print the hacks outfor students to share with their families. Other opportunities exist as well, such as incorporating
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 15this work if there is a student fair where students show parents what they have worked onthroughout the year, or during parent-teacher conferences. Providing a solid learning environment can spark interest not only during the time periodof the session, but for the future and further creative thought. One of the end goals of these PDsessions is to help educators think of ways they can incorporate Hackasaurus into their lessonplans and curricula, so it is crucial to create lasting interest during the sessions as well as throughcommunity involvement.
!"#$"%"&&%()&*#&+&,(-". 16The Hackasaurus Curriculum can be used in conjunction with other technology workshops to provide new skills to teachers and further enhance their abilities to use technology for learning. This curriculum unit map demonstrates how the Hackasaurus Curriculum could be included in aseries of technology for learning workshops. Performance Workshop Session Key Concepts & Terms Skills & Knowledge Learning Activities Assessment Standards Students will understand that... How the web is constructed Why it is important to actively participate on the web ISTE NETS Students will be able to... Hack Dance Observation: participation, enthusiasm, discussion, originality, aesthetics, collaborative hack, web, active participation,Hackasaurus Intro to Hacking (Students) Articulate definitions of key terms "Face" Your Challenge skills, completion of installation of X-ray Goggles. remix, HTML, CSS, tags 1a , 1b, 5b, 5d, 6a Argue the importance of knowing how to code PowerPoint Presentation See attached rubric Articulate the basic structure of how code is constructed through HTML tags and CSS codes Install Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles Students will understand that... Hackasaurus is a useful tool to remix web pages Hacking Demonstration, The student can successfully hack a webpage meeting the lesson specifications. HTML, CSS, HTML syntax- ISTE NETS HTML language represents certain images or style elements Superhero Hack, The student can publish the hacked page and is able to present it to the class. Hacking the Web <img>, X-ray Goggles shortcut (Students) 1a, 1b, Students will be able to... Holiday Hack, Template The student can answer questions about HTML and CSS elements when prompted. keys 5b, 5d, 6a Recognize basic HTML syntax Hack See attached rubric. Use the X-ray Goggles and shortcut keys to remix elements Students will understand that... Hackasaurus can be used as a learning tool hack, web, active participation, Hackasaurus can be used to make lessons more engaging and effective Observation: active participation, collaboration ISTE NETS Hackasaurus Reflection Hackasaurus remix, HTML, CSS, tags, Collaborating and sharing lesson plans with other educators can make lesson Evaluation: The lesson plan can be easily implemented. (Teachers) Hackasaurus Collaboration syntax, X-ray Goggles, shortcut planning more efficient and effective The lesson plan is applicable to the subject area. 1d, 2a, 5a, 5c Brainstorming keys, collaboration Students will be able to... See attached rubric. Collaborate with others to create a lesson plan Facilitate a lesson using Hackasaurus as a learning tool Students will understand that... There are spaces on the web to allow anyone to share information ISTE NETS The web has spaces for active participation The student can create a wiki page. wiki, active participation, Create a Wiki Wiki Create a Wiki (Teachers) 1d, 3b, How information can be added to a wiki page The student can add information to the page. embed Wiki Information 4a, 4d Students will be able to... The student can embed a video. Create a wiki page Embed videos on the wiki page Students will understand that... ISTE NETS Hackasaurus & Wikis can be used as educational tools Hackasaurus Plan The student can add their Hackasaurus lesson plan to a wiki. upload (Teachers) 1d, 3b, Wiki Students will be able to... Giving Instruction The student can provide detailed instructions about their lesson plan on the wiki. 4a, 4d, 5a, 5c, 5d Add their Hackasaurus lesson plans to a wiki so others can use it
17 Students will understand that…Google Groups is a web space where people with common interests can come together to share information ISTE NETS Google Groups is an open space Intro to Google The student can create a Google Group page. The student can add content on theGoogle Groups forum, rich-text editing (Teachers) 1d, 3b, Google Groups can be used as an educational resource Create a Google Group Groups Google Group page. 4a, 4d, 5a, 5c, 5d Students will be able to… Create a Google Group Use rich-text editing on their pages Students will understand that… Educators can use Google Groups to share lesson plan ideas and resources ISTE NETS Adding to Google Google Groups Resources can be shared with educators in any geographic locality The student can add a Hackasaurus lesson plan on Google Groups. comment, feedback (Teachers) 1d, 3b, Groups Commenting Collaboration Students will be able to… The student can comment and give feedback on lesson plans. 4a, 4d, 5a, 5c, 5d on Google Groups Add their Hackasaurus lesson plan to Google Groups Comment and give feedback on other educators lesson plans
Sample Napoleon Unit Map 18This is a sample unit map showing how Hackasaurus could be incorporated into a history unit on Napoleon.Day Date Objective Activity Homework Assessment To learn about Napoleons Read Napoleon Finish reading the Check students timelines to ensure they have included critical Family Life Chapter in Textbook; Napoleon Chapter components 27-Aug Begin Timeline 1 To learn about Napoleons Present Napoleon Finish the timeline Continue to check the timeline 28-Aug Military Career video; Continue 2 Timeline To learn about Napoleon and Critical History of Complete Napoleon Students are able to accurately complete the Napoleon worksheet 31-Aug his actions Napoleon article worksheet 3 To introduce students to Hackasaurus Remix Practice Hackasaurus, Students are able to use Hackasaurus to remix a webpage Hackasaurus Historical Figure Research images to use in 1-Sep Hack Napoleon hack 4 To create a Napoleon page In groups, students None Students actively participate in the activity using Hackasaurus hack a page Students create a page about Napoleon that includes factural (Facebook, Wiki, information taken from their timelines, textbook, and video 2-Sep Google) to create a page about Napoleon 5 To present the Hackasaurus Students present Study for quiz The webpage is informative and easy to understand 3-Sep page their pages to the The webpage contains factual information 6 class All students in the group participated in the presentation To test knowledge of Quiz None Students make 80% or higher on quiz 4-Sep Napoleon 7
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 19 Learning Experiences Bank The learning experiences in the Hackasaurus curriculum are divided between the threelessons. Each activity was chosen using backwards design to meet the goals of the individuallessons and enhance comprehension. Furthermore, the activities encourage the concepts ofparticipation and creativity, each of which help to construct a learning as knowledge creationculture (Hong & Sullivan, 2009). This culture can better allow students to learn how to useexisting technology for both creation and collaboration. To enhance the learning experience,there are three activities in the first lesson to promote understanding of the web, four in thesecond to aid understanding of HTML and CSS, and two in the last to enable students tounderstand how Hackasaurus can be used as a learning tool. The primary goals of the first lesson are to understand the concept of hacking,understand that the web is constructed of HTML tags and CSS codes, and understand theimportance of coding and active participation. The three activities that will support theunderstanding of these goals are the Hack Dance, “Face” Your Challenge, and Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles Installation. Because technological concepts can seem abstract to those who are not familiar withcomputer terminology, the Hackasaurus curriculum first explains the concepts throughinteractive, hands-on activities. The Hack Dance supports the goal of understanding the conceptof hacking. In this activity, students learn a dance, and then take turns changing individualmoves in the dance. In the end, the students have hacked the dance and created a newdance. Through this learning experience, students are able to understand that hacking is simplychanging aspects of something to make it different. By introducing the concept of hackingthrough a physical activity before a web activity, students are better able to grasp the concept.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 20 To continue with the practice of physically introducing a concept before applying it to theweb, the “Face” Your Challenge activity demonstrates that the web is created using bracketedbuilding blocks. In this activity, students work together to create a face from materials specifiedby the instructor. When creating the face, students are required to use identical objectsconnected by a string to form the face and use markers to fill in parts of the face that were notcreated with the string. The materials used represent HTML and the marker drawings representCSS codes. This activity also demonstrates that many people work together to build the web. Following these activities, there is a slideshow presentation to review the material learnedand introduce the content of the remaining lessons. The final activity of the first lesson isinstalling the Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles in preparation for the remaining lessons. The Hack Dance and “Face” Your Challenge activities were chosen to demonstrateconcepts of the web in a manner that can be easily understood by those who have little computerknowledge. Because the Hackasaurus curriculum is designed to allow anyone to participateregardless of technological knowledge, these activities are essential to thecurriculum. Furthermore, they fit into the organization of the curriculum because it is essentialto understand what HTML and CSS are before actually remixing them. Although installing theX-ray Goggles does not support the goals of the first lesson, they are essential to the curriculumbecause they are the tools that will be used to teach about HTML and CSS in the remaininglessons. The goals of the second lesson are to be able to identify HTML items and remix them andunderstand the basic concepts of CSS. Fulton (1997) posits that technological skills must beactively taught to students, rather than students learning simply by having access totechnology. The activities in this lesson strive to do that by having students actively work on the
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 21web through a Hacking Demonstration, Superhero Challenge, Holiday Hack, and TemplateHack. The Hacking Demonstration supports the goal of identifying HTML items. In thisactivity, the instructor will show students how to use the X-ray Goggles to identify HTML itemsand remix them. This is a simple way to show students that hacking is merely changing aspectsof a webpage, such as font colors and pictures to make it look different. For the second activity, instructors can choose between teaching the Superhero Challengeor Holiday Hack. Each of these expands on the concepts explained in the demonstration. Inboth challenges, the instructor sets parameters to which the students must adhere. For example,the superhero must have a name and visual representation or the holiday page must containpictures and a story about the page. In this way, students have guidelines of what they canchange, but are still free to change these aspects in the way they creatively choose. Without theparameters, the students could become overwhelmed with remixing the page. Adding theparameters gives a guideline to the students which makes hacking the page more straightforwardand easier to understand. These activities support the goals of remixing HTML items andunderstanding CSS codes. The final activity of the second lesson is the Template Hack. In this activity, studentscreate their own webpage and learn that web pages are made of many lines of code. This activitybuilds upon the previous activities in which students learned about single lines of code and howto remix them. In the Template Hack, students see the many lines of code that are needed tocreate a single webpage. Through this activity, students are able to understand how the conceptsthey learned in previous activities are applicable to web design. Again, this activity supports thetwo primary goals of the lesson.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 22 Because all of the activities in the second lesson aid students in meeting the goals of thecurriculum, they are essential to the curriculum. Furthermore, it is crucial that the activities betaught in the order they are presented because each activity builds upon the concepts practiced inthe previous activities. The goals of the last lesson are to understand how Hackasaurus can be used as a learningtool, the advantages of collaborating on lesson plans, and the benefits of sharing lessonplans. The activities included in this lesson are a reflection session and brainstormingsession. In the reflection session, students will think about their Hackasaurus experience andchoose which aspect of Hackasaurus they liked best. They will then brainstorm how to integratethis into a lesson plan. In the brainstorming session, students will think of innovative ways to useHackasaurus in a lesson and create a lesson using Hackasaurus. Both the reflection and brainstorming lessons support the goals of using Hackasaurus as alearning tool, collaborating on lesson plans, and sharing lesson plans. The brainstorming is anessential element of the Hackasaurus curriculum because it demonstrates how Hackasaurus canbe used as a learning tool. Although the reflection activity also does this, it is an enrichmentactivity which aids understanding, instead of being crucial to the curriculum. Both of theseactivities are important to the organization of the curriculum because they integrate theknowledge learned throughout the workshop and show how Hackasaurus can be used as alearning tool. Without this last lesson, students would understand how to use Hackasaurus, butnot how to use it as a learning tool. All of the activities in the Hackasaurus curriculum can be adjusted to meet the needs ofvarious types of students. Because the curriculum allows for individual learning, learningexperiences can be adjusted according to the development levels of students. Those who do not
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 23have much technological experience can work at a slower pace than those who have moreexperience. Furthermore, activities can be modified to cater to the subject areas of individualeducators. History teachers may prefer to hack a page about World War II, while a scienceteacher may prefer to hack a page about subatomic particles. Within the subject areas, thehacking can also be adjusted to accommodate the grade level of the students the educator will beteaching. All of the lessons encourage active participation, which enhances the learningexperience by capturing the students’ attentions and supports the rationale of the curriculum. Other activities can be incorporated into the Learning Experiences Bank to aid in theunderstanding of the primary goals. These activities can include a paper-prototype activity tointroduce hacking, hacking a biased website to correct the bias, hacking a site to make thecontent educational, and brainstorming using game cards. Although these activities could aidunderstanding of the Hackasaurus curriculum goals, the activities included in the lesson planwere deemed to better promote understanding. However, the activities listed above could beused as extension activities to further enrich the learning experience. The Hackasaurus curriculum is also designed so that the learning experience can beexpanded outside of the workshop and continued on an open web forum. Hackasaurus lessonplans can be uploaded onto a forum which educators around the world can access. McCade(2001) claims that computer literacy should be learned across all subject areas. By uploadinglesson plans to the web, teachers of any subject who have little computer experience can easilyuse technology in their lesson. Furthermore, Bitner and Bitner (2002), state that teachers musthave knowledge of available technological resources before being able to integrate technology inthe classroom. Through open web forums, teachers become aware of the available resources,such as Hackasaurus lesson plans, and how they can be used in their classrooms. Furthermore,
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 24educators continue their learning experience by continuing to create Hackasaurus lesson plansand teaching others how to use Hackasaurus in their lessons.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 25 AssessmentAssessment and Rationale The philosophy and rationale of the Hackasaurus PD curriculum encompasses the ideathat the web is an open space that requires active participation from members of the community.An initial assessment prior to conducting the session is an important step, to gauge the level oflearners and possibly group them in some way. The sign-up process of the session could includequestions that reveal the students level of comfort with technology and computers, the level ofinterest in incorporating technology into the classroom, and knowledge of HTML and CSS. Ifseveral sessions are being conducted, teachers with similar levels of knowledge and comfort withtechnology and HTML could be grouped into the same sessions. On the other hand, if a sessionwith a mixed group is conducted, activities could include people with varying levels ofknowledge so that students can help and teach one another. When conducting the actual Hackasaurus curriculum, teachers must keep in mind therationale that the web is an open space that requires active participation when assessing theirstudents. Assessment for the various lesson plans would therefore measure whether or notstudents are actively participating. Additionally, assessment would measure whether or notstudents are partaking in and exhibiting sound understanding in web making/hacking activities.Finally, the concepts of discussion, collaboration, and originality are other assessment items thatwould be helpful to observe. In order to create each rubric for the various lesson plans, aRubistar model was followed (2011). Bits and pieces from different rubrics of varying topicswere compiled to create the three rubrics for Hackasaurus.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 26Lesson Plan Assessment Each lesson plan incorporates the ideas of active participation, web-making and hackingactivities, discussion, collaboration, and originality in some way as part of its assessment. Someactivities focus more heavily on certain skills than others due to the nature of the lessons.Additionally, informal tests and quizzes are provided for further assessment in the form ofchallenges. When determining the assessments, the International Society for Technology inEducation’s Standards were used to measure against an outside resource, as previously discussed(2007). Some of the elements captured from these standards involved creativity, designing anddeveloping digital learning experiences, and engaging in professional growth and leadership. The following description will elaborate on each of the lesson plans, and provide someinformation as to how the assessment tool should be used. Lesson 1 is the most physically activelesson. As such, assessment is based heavily on participation and enthusiasm, especially duringthe Hack Dance. In the “Face” Your Challenge component of this lesson, assessment is based onoriginality, collaboration skills, and discussion. Finally, installation of the X-ray Goggles isbased on whether or not participants completed the task. Almost all of the assessments in thislesson are based on the teacher’s active observation of students’ performance. Lesson 2 is the most technical lesson. Assessment is therefore based on whether or notstudents develop an understanding of HTML and CSS, how to use the X-ray Goggles, andsuccessful hacking. This involves quantitative assessment - whether students changed at leastone image, one title, and wrote copy. Qualitative assessment comes into play in the form ofcreativity, discussion, and sharing in measuring whether students remixed a superhero/holidaypage that integrates different images and words in a cohesive and unique way, and whetherstudents are able to publish and share this information to the class. Additionally, this lesson’s
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 27assessment includes challenge-based components; for example, the Google Hack activity awardsa “Remixer Badge” if students perform well on the task of replacing the Google logo with animage and changing or adding text to the webpage in a unique way. This lesson plan, unlikeLesson 1, involves a mixture of quantitative and qualitative assessment due to the technicalnature of the content itself. Lesson 3 involves heavy discussion, and assessment is based on collaboration andcontributions to the discussion. Similar to the first lesson, Lesson 3 is again based on theteacher’s active observation of students’ performances. An assessment could be conducted after the workshop to determine whether theHackasaurus session was useful to professional development learners. At the very end of theworkshop, students could record ways that they can incorporate Hackasaurus into their specificclassrooms. Approximately one month later, a follow-up email could be sent to the students todetermine whether or not Hackasaurus was in fact incorporated into the students’ curricula, andif so, in what way. If the students have not incorporated Hackasaurus into their curricula, theycould state whether or not they have future plans to do so. The two pieces of information couldbe compared to see if Hackasaurus was implemented as the students originally envisioned, or tosee how the implementation changed. Neither way is better than the other, but observing whetheror not Hackasaurus was implemented, or is intended to be implemented, is a clear indication ofthe effectiveness of this curriculum.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 28 Conclusion The over-all aim of the Hackasaurus curriculum is multi-faceted. It is designed to teachbasic web skills to educators, to inform educators on the importance of the open web and activeparticipation, and to show educators how they can use technology as a learning tool. Afterattending a Hackasaurus PD workshop and learning about these concepts, educators are able topass this knowledge to their own students. The students of the educators benefit from thisknowledge by participating in creative and innovative lessons. However, they also benefit byrealizing that the web is an open space in which they can participate. In this way, knowledge ofthe open web spreads, which deters the web from becoming a private, commercial space.
29TitleLesson 1 - Intro to Hacking the Web.IntroductionThis lesson plan addresses key concepts of hacking and how the web operates. Participants will understand thathacking is remixing content to make new things for the web and the web is created through active participation. Thelesson plan is composed of three main activities. First, the hack dance addresses the concept of hacking throughphysical activity. The second activity "Face" your Challenge is meant to challenge participants to build a face oncardboard paper with restraints that simulate the structure of HTML tags and CSS codes when constructing anwebpage. Lastly, the third activity includes a slideshow presentation that wraps up all the key concepts and theninstructs participants on installing the Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles. Many of the activity assessments are based onparticipants level of enthusiasm, contribution to group discussions and team collaborative skills as outlined in theactivity assessment rubric. Learning Outcomes: Stage 1 - Identify Desired ResultsEstablished Goals: Learning OutcomesStudents will understand the concept of hacking through remixing dance moves and paper models.Students will understand the web is constructed by small building blocks and through active participation.Students will understand the web is constructed by HTML tags and CSS codes.Students will understand the importance of coding and active participation on the web.Students will learn how to install the Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles tool into their browser. Curriculum AlignmentISTE NETS and Performance Indicators for Students (2007)Standard 1 Creativity and Innovation1a - apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes1b - create original works as a means of personal or group expressionStandard 5 Digital Citizenship5b - exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity5d - exhibit leadership for digital citizenshipStandard 6 Technology Operations and Concepts6a - understand and use technology systemsAligning Learning Outcomes with ISTE StandardsStandard 1a & 1b - Students will understand the concept of hacking through remixing dance moves and paper models.Standard 5b - Students will understand the web is constructed by small building blocks and through activeparticipation.Standard 6a - Students will understand the web is constructed by HTML tags and CSS codes.Standard 5b & 5d - Students will understand the importance of coding and active participation on the web.Standard 6a - Students will learn how to install the Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles tool into their browser.What essential questions will be considered?What is hacking?What makes the web unique?Why should you know how to code?What is the basic structure of code?How do you install Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles?What understandings are desired?Students will understand that...Hacking is remixing content to make new things for the web.The web is made up of components that are like Lego building blocks that are coded in HTML tags and CSS.The web encourages remixing to make new things because that is how it is built.Knowing how to read and write code allows you to be an active participant on this world wide web. Lesson 1 - 1 of 5
30What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit?Key terms - hack, web, active participation, remix, HTML, CSS, tagsHow the web is constructed.Why it is important to actively participate on the web.Students will be able to...Articulate definitions of key terms including hacking and the web.Argue the importance of knowing how to code.Articulate the basic structure of how code is constructed through HTML tags and CSS.Install Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles. Stage 2 - Determine Acceptable Evidence Classroom time required90 minutes. Materials Needed & Technology ResourcesPreparing for the SessionRefer to Hacktivity Kit I.T. Checklist http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/it_checklist.pdfHack Dance ResourcesRobot Dance video - http://youtu.be/E-_iUHY8RBsTechnologic YouTube Video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtdWHFwmd2o"Face" Your ChallengeMaterials for the class:Provide the following items in even number multiplications (e.g. 2x, 4x, 6x).plastic water bottles, cans, big cups, small cups, toilet paper rolls in the middle, paper plates, forks, knives, straws,small ballsMaterials for each groupDepending on how many participants are in the session, each group of no more than 6 people would need thefollowing items:1 big piece of cardboard, scissors, tape, ball of string, set of markersSlideshow Presentation & Group DiscussionHackasaurus Slideshow - http://htmlpad.org/hackasaurus-presentation-01/Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles InstallationWebpage & video on how to install X-ray Goggles in the Browser http://hackasaurus.org/en-US/goggles/install/What evidence will show that students understand?Performance Tasks:Hack Dance - Participants remix sample robot dance moves and articulate their interpretation to hacking."Face" Your Challenge - Participants work together to build a face on cardboard paper with constraints that simulatethe structure of coding for the web.Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles Installation - All participants have Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles properly installed andworking at the end of the lesson.What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results?Other Evidence:Prompt after Hack Dance - How did you hack the dance? What do you think hacking is?Prompt during Hackasaurus Slideshow - What is hacking? What makes the web unique? Why should you know howto code?Student Self-Assessment and Reflection:Self-assess the definition and action of hacking.Self-assess the concept of the web and active participation. Lesson 1 - 2 of 5
31 Stage 3 - Planning Learning Experiences Pre-activities (if applicable)Preparing for the SessionFollow the Hacktivity Kit I.T. Checklist http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/it_checklist.pdf ActivitiesHack Dance (20 minutes)• Participants form a circle • Facilitator plays the “How To Do The Robot (Totally Rad 80’s Dances)” videoFacilitator tells the group that they are now going to hack the dance, starting with examining all of the steps inthe dance • Everyone practices the dance in its entirety • The first participant finds one step of the dance tochange • The participant demonstrates the hacked dance in the circle • The person to the left of the initialhacker must hack that move or repeat it • If hacking the move, the person has to demonstrate the new dancemove they are adding or replacing • Repeat until everyone in the circle has danced • When the last person inthe circle has made their hack, everyone in the whole circle needs to try out the new dance. If there is extratime, go around the circle againLeading questions to ask the group:How did you hack the dance? What do you think hacking is?Goal of discussion/prompt:Establish the concept of hacking as a group and frame the concept of hacking in the context of the web.Key point to cover:Define hacking as remixing content to make news things for the webTransition to project challenge."Face" Your Challenge (50 minutes)This particular challenge is broken into two parts as described belowPart I - Build a Face (30 minutes)• Divide the class into small groups of no more than 6 people per group • Pass out 1 set of Materials for eachgroup • Lay out Materials for the class at the center or the front of the room so each group has easy access tothem • Facilitator tells the group that they are now going to work together and build a face on the cardboardpaper using the materials given, but there are some rules:1) Use materials laid out for the whole class by connecting 1 identical object on one end and the otheridentical object on the other end with strings. For examples, connect 1 plastic bottle on one end and the otherplastic bottle on the other end to make a smiling face. Simply think of the object as the ends to a pair ofbrackets and the string as the space inside the brackets.2) The strings can be of any length.3) You can use the markers to draw anywhere on the carboard as decoration as long as they are bracketswithin 2 identical objects connected by the string. For example, once you have connected 2 cans with a stringas the mouth of a smiling face, you can use markers to draw out the teeth and lips by the string.4) There can be smaller brackets of objects within larger brackets of objects. For example, if you haveconnected 2 big paper plates as the eyes, in between the 2 paper plates, you can create a small bracket of 2paper cups as irises.• The class now has 20 minutes to work on their challenge while the facilitator walks around to monitorindividual group progress, while counting down the time and answer any questions that may arise • After 20minutes have passed, the facilitator asks each group to stop and take turns presenting their facesPart II - Takeaway from the Challenge (20 minutes)• Facilitator wraps up the challenge, and goes over the challenge learning goals. The web is created in thesame way as the faces were built, similarities between the two include:- The web is created by many building blocks like the objects given- The web is built through active participation where different people work together using different tools- Coding for the web is not hard and its rules are similar to the challenge where each building block isbracketed together using tags and content is placed between 2 identical HTML tags (i.e. identical objectsconnected by strings), the styling of the content between each tags are determined by CSS codes (i.e. themarkers) • Facilitator answers any additional questions from participants.Goals of the activityAllow students to understand the web is made up of many building blocks such as HTML tags and CSS codesMany people come together to work on the web in the form of active participation. Coding for the web is notdifficult because there are many similarities between coding for the web and the "Face" Challenge. Lesson 1 - 3 of 5
32Transition to the Hackasaurus Slideshow.Slideshow Presentation & Group Discussion (20 minutes)• Facilitator plays Hackasaurus Slideshow and goes over each slide to answer essential questions while facilitatingparticipant responses to the essential questions as they show up on the slide.Leading questions to ask the group:What is hacking? What makes the web unique? Why should you know how to code? How do you installHackasaurus X-ray Goggles?Goal of discussion/promptEstablish key concepts such as hacking, web, active participation as a group and introduce the Hackasaurus X-rayGoggles.Key point to coverThe web is unique because it is made of building blocks that are constantly hacked and remixed by different people.We should know how to code because knowing how to code equals becoming active participants of the web.Transition to the last few slides of the Hackasaurus Slideshow which has step-by-step screen shots with instructions onhow to install X-ray Goggles in the browser.Install Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles in the browser (20 minutes)• Follow instructions at the end of the slideshow to install X-ray Goggles on the browser • Walk around the room toassist with the Goggle installation and ensure all participants have the Goggles properly installed and working.Goal of activityEnsure all participants have Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles properly installed and working so everyone is ready to moveonto the next Lesson. AssessmentAssessment Rubric can be found following this lesson plan. ModificationsP2PUPeer 2 Peer University (P2PU) is an open education project that provides creative learning outside of an institutionalsetting and gives learners recognition for their achievements. This tool provides a platform in which people worktogether to learn about a particular topic by completing tasks, assessing work, and providing feedback. Four schoolsmake up the P2PU platform - Webcraft, Social Innovation, Mathematical Future, and Education. The modification ofthis lesson plan will be under the School of Webcraft where educators from all over the world can learn the importantconcepts of hacking, web and active participation so they can integrate Hackasaurus as part of their education toolsafter going through the P2PU online training.The three activities would be modified as in the following:1) Hack Dance - upload a video of yourself hacking the dance move and share it with other members who are alsotaking the P2PU challenge on the challenge discussion page.2) "Face" Your Challenge - transfer the cardboard paper onto electronic platform on free drawing programs such asPicasso Head (http://www.picassohead.com/). Participants need to upload their faces onto the discussion page of thechallenge to share with others. Participants will also be asked to comment on other peoples designs.3) Slideshow Presentation & Discussion - Participants will follow the Hackasaurus slideshow and answer questionsraised in the slides on the P2PU discussion page. They can refer to the responses written by previous participants andwill also be asked to comment on other peoples responses.Youth FacilitatorThe Hackasaurus project not only targets formal and informal adult educators. This curriculum also aims to trainteams of youth facilitators who can teach their peers about hacking using Hackasaurus. The targeted youth facilitatorsare high school students age 16-18. The activities and assessments will be the same as adult facilitators.Other Web Experiences CurriculumThe Mozilla Foundation has developed other web experience tools such as Popcorn.js (http://popcornjs.org/) thatallows hacking to be done to multimedia video clips, as well as MoJo (https://www.drumbeat.org/en-US/journalism/)that encourages hacking to happen in professional news and journalism sites. The same activities introduced in thisLesson Plan, hacking through dancing and designing a face are great introductions to the concepts of hacking andbecoming active participants of the web. Similar to Hackasaurus, other web experience tools are also designed toencourage learners to become active participants of the web. Therefore, the same activities in this Lesson Plan canhelp learners build prior knowledge of hacking for other web-based media tools. Lesson 1 - 4 of 5
33 Alternative AssessmentsMozilla Open Badges ProjectMozilla Foundation is developing and testing out the Open Badges Project (https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges) wherelearners of 21st century skills are awarded badges as part of their online profile. The badges provide credibility andrecognition for skills and achievements outside of school. Participants receive badges by accomplishing differentprojects, courses or challenges. Earned badges can be posted as part of the learners personal website, social andprofessional profiles such as LinkedIn, Facebook and personal resumes or portfolios. Since the lesson plan targetsweb skills, the badges project is the ideal alternative assessment for the three following modifications.P2PUUsing the P2PUs current School of webcraft as a template, the assessment would be the distribution of Mozillabadges upon completion of each challenge.Youth FacilitatorThe regular assessment rubric used for the Lesson Plan will be applicable for assessing youth facilitators throughoutthe activity. However, upon completing each challenge, youth facilitators can pledge for the "Hacksaurus YouthFacilitator" badge.Other Web Experiences CurriculumIt is up to the other web development tools such as Popcorn.js and MoJo to develop their own assessments. However,since they are all Mozilla projects, it is very likely that the creators of these tools will create badges that correspondwith their tools learning goals. Supplemental InformationAdditional resources for teachers on the content of the lesson include- P2PUs School of Webcraft (http://p2pu.org/en/schools/school-of-webcraft/)- Mozilla Open Badges Project (https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges) Critical VocabularyKey terms - hack, web, active participation, remix, HTML, CSS, tagsHacking as remixing content to make news things for the web.The web is a unique space made of building blocks that are constantly hacked and remixed by different people.Active participation is the active engagement in the online communitites. Active participation on the web requiresknowing how to code.Remix is to change things on your own in order to make something better or create something new.HyperText Markup Language (HTML) tags are the special language used to tell computers how to build webpages sothat humans can consume them. HTML gives a page structure and meaning.CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) tells a computer how to style the content inside HTML tags. When you want to give apage style that’s specific to a particular medium, you use CSS to code and design.Tags are HTML codes that tell the computer what content to place between them. Websites (if applicable)Hackasaurus Website - www.hackasaurus.orgHacktivity Kit I.T. Checklist - http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/it_checklist.pdfHacktivity Kit - http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/hacktivity_kit.pdfRobot Dance video - http://youtu.be/E-_iUHY8RBsTechnologic YouTube Video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtdWHFwmd2oHackasaurus Slideshow - http://htmlpad.org/hackasaurus-presentation-01/Webpage and video on how to install X-ray Goggles in the Browser - http://hackasaurus.org/en-US/goggles/install/P2PU School of Webcraft - http://p2pu.org/en/schools/school-of-webcraft/Mozilla Open Badges Project - https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges Lesson 1 - 5 of 5
34 Lesson 1 Rubric – Intro to Hacking the WebHack Dance - hacking ● Level of participation & enthusiasm 2 1 0 Always participating in movement - whether it be Sometimes participates in Never participates in dancing, signing, or actions movement movement ● Discussion (quality of discussion & relating experiences to essential questions) 4 3 2 1 The participant seems to The participant seems The participant relates The participant has not be speaking from to be drawing on some of his own tried to transform the knowledge or knowledge or knowledge or information in a personal experience. The experience, but there experience, but it adds way. The ideas and the participant has taken the is some lack of nothing to the way they are expressed ideas and made them ownership of the topic. discussion of the topic. seem to belong to "his/her own." someone else.Face Your Challenge - building blocks, active participation, web is not hard ● originality/aesthetics 4 3 2 1 Product shows a large Product shows some Uses other peoples ideas Uses other amount of original original thought. Work (giving them credit), but peoples ideas, but thought. Ideas are shows new ideas and there is little evidence of does not give them creative and inventive. insights. original thinking. credit. ● collaborative skills 4 3 2 1 Almost always listens to, Usually listens to, Often listens to, shares Rarely listens to, shares with, and shares with, and with, and supports the shares with, and supports the efforts of supports the efforts of efforts of others in the supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries others in the group. group but sometimes is others in the group. to keep people working Does not cause not a good team member. well together. "waves" in the group. Often is not a good team member.
35 ● Discussion (quality of discussion) 4 3 2 1 The participant seems to The participant seems The participant relates The participant has not be speaking from to be drawing on some of his own tried to transform the knowledge or knowledge or knowledge or information in a personal experience. The experience, but there experience, but it adds way. The ideas and the participant has taken the is some lack of nothing to the way they are expressed ideas and made them ownership of the topic. discussion of the topic. seem to belong to "his/her own." someone else.Install Goggles - completion 2 1 The participant successfully installs X-ray Goggles and takes The participant successfully installs X- initiative to help his/her peers. ray Goggles.
36TitleLesson 2 - Hacking the Web - Remixing HTMLIntroductionThis lesson involves introducing learners to Hackasaurus, and helps them become familiar with the basics ofthe Hackasaurus tools, functionality, and HTML hacking. The Understanding by Design curriculum model isused in this lesson plan. In this lesson, learners will first learn about the X-Ray Goggles tool, gain someunderstanding of HTML and CSS, then apply their knowledge in a few activities where they will go to a newwebsite and remix an image (<img> element) to create a Superhero, or spruce up a website for the holidays.Next, learners will explore hacking html code, with the corresponding changes appearing to a webpageadjacent to the code to learn the relationships between the two platforms. Learning Outcomes: Stage 1 - Identify Desired ResultsEstablished Goals: Learning OutcomesTool Competencies - Students will demonstrate knowledge in using the Hackasaurus goggles to identify htmlitems on webpages and remix these items. This involves…• Inspecting the HTML of an element on a webpage by using the X-Ray Goggles• Changing webpage content locally by hacking and using shortcut keys• Sharing webpage content by sharing a hack• Demonstrating ability to impact the design of a webpage by changing compositional elements (i.e. header,footer, background navigation)• Demonstrating ability to work collaboratively by sharing hacks with peersConcept Competencies - Students will demonstrate conceptual knowledge by demonstrating understandingof...• The basic concept of HTML and how each item on a webpage has a code behind it that controls thedifferent elements• The basic html object tags• The basic concept of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and how these control style elements such as font,layout, colors, etc.• Educators will understand Hackasaurus and be able to teach others how to use it. Curriculum AlignmentISTE NETS and Performance Indicators for Students (2007)Standard 1 Creativity and Innovation1a - apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes1b - create original works as a means of personal or group expressionStandard 5 Digital Citizenship5b - exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity5d - exhibit leadership for digital citizenshipStandard 6 Technology Operations and Concepts6a - understand and use technology systemsAligning Learning Outcomes with ISTE StandardsStandard 1a & 1b - Students will understand the concept of hacking through remixing images, words, colors,etc. to create their own original works from existing websites.Standard 5a & 5b - Students will share their websites with others, publish their remixes for people to see, aprovide feedback and comments in a collaborative wayStandard 6a - Students will understand the web is constructed by HTML tags and CSS codes. Lesson 2 - 1 of 6
37 What essential questions will be considered? What understandings are desired?• What is HTML and CSS, and why is this important to Students will understand that…learn?• What does an effective Hackasaurus educator look • Hackasaurus is a useful tool to remix webpages.like? • The html language represents certain images or style elements, and have a basic understanding of html syntax. • Hackasaurus is a tool that can be used flexibly in the classroom, and begin to think about how this can be done.What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit?Students will know… Students will be able to…• Key terms - html, css • Recognize basic html syntax, and identify what• Basic html syntax - <img>, <element> the item is - image, element, etc.• Hackasaurus X-Ray Goggles shortcut keys (R, C + • Use the X-Ray Goggles and shortcut keys tospacebar, P) remix the various items - images, or elements, and know the difference. • Share their hacks, and collaborate with others to hack Stage 2 - Determine Acceptable Evidence Classroom time required2 Hours. Materials Needed & Technology Resources• Computers with high-speed Internet connection• Computers available for participants/team of participants• Hackasaurus X-Ray Goggles installed on a modern web browser such as FireFox, Chrome, Safari, Opera,with the latest b rowser versions updated. (Note: Hackasaurus currently does not support Internet Explorer)• HTML and CSS cheat sheetsWhat evidence will show that students understand?Performance Tasks:Try on X-Ray Goggles - Students learn about the basic functionality of the X-Ray Goggles in a lesson taughtby the instructor demonstrating its features. Next, students will choose a webpage to begin remixing on theirown, creating a page for their superhero or holiday hack. Students will then share their hacks with the rest ofthe class. FInally, students will hack a template to make their own homepage.What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results?Other Evidence:Prompts - what is HTML? What is CSS?Student Self-Assessment and ReflectionReflect on the elements students want to change, and putting the pieces together for a final output.Reflect on power and flexibility of tool.Self-Assess the quality of each hack, and whether students have learned the concepts and shortcuts. Lesson 2 - 2 of 6
38 Stage 3 - Plan Learning Experiences Pre-activities (if applicable)• IT checklist• X-Ray Goggles installed ActivitiesHacking Demonstration (20 minutes)• Tell participants they will be hacking a website.• Start off with Hackasaurus.org, or another simple website.• Turn on the Goggles. You can do this by clicking on the bookmarklet in your bookmark tool.• Using the Goggles, hover the cursor over objects so that participants can see that the tool is inspecting thecode and showing the object tags for each object.• Explain some of the basic tags - <div>, <img>, <input>, <label>, <select> while explaining them, and alsoindicate that at the bottom right-hand corner each tag is briefly explained with the Goggles. Refer users toHTML Cheat Sheet for an overview.• Hover over an image or some text on the page and hit "R" on your keyboard. Keep this screen up so thatparticipants can see that the code is revealed at this stage.• Ask participants for help hacking the code. If you are editing text, ask participants what text they would liketo replace the text with; if you are changing an image ask participants to name their favorite musician (orother) and do a search for that image.• After you have acquired the assets and made the changes, hit the OK button and show everyone the hack.• Now, show everyone how to do this step by step and, whenever possible, refer back to the steps that youdefined for hacking with the Hack this Dance module.• Steps: • Look at the code, point out the tags, attributes and elements. • Find the object tags that you want to change or replace (e.g. <p> or <img>). Hit "R" to open up the revealed code. • Change one part of the webpage. • Hack: hit the "commit changes" button to save changes locally on your computer. • Share the hack: hit "P" to publish the new webpage on the internet.• Guide students as they complete their first hack with the following tasks: • Go to www.google.com. • Using the Goggles, replace the Google logo with an image. • Using the Goggles, change or add text to the webpage. • Upon completion, users will qualify for the Remixer Badge (See "Alternative Assessment" section). Lesson 2 - 3 of 6
39Superhero Challenge (optional between this activity or the Holiday Hack) (60 minutes)• Next, introduce the Superhero Challenge.• Create a superhero identity to protect the open web: Parameters: The superhero must have a name and visual representation The superhero must have a biography What are his/her superpowers? How did he/she get them? How do his/her superpowers help to protect the web? Does the superhero have a nemesis or face a particular challenge? Hack into a news site using the Goggles to write a story about how the character saved or protected the open web Put the content on a webpage that was created or hacked and present it to the group at the end of the day.• Tell students to feel free to use the X-Ray Goggles cheat sheet to help them feel more comfortable whenthey are hacking the site.Holiday Hack (optional between this activity or the Superhero Challenge) (60 minutes)So many websites have been looking boring lately! We need some holiday cheer! Spruce up a website ofyour choice with all things for the holidays - Christmas, Hanukkah, New Years, etc.!• Choose a holiday, or be creative and remix your own holiday (eg: Christmukkah).• Decorate your webpage with your chosen holidays ornaments/decorations/pictures as well as words andstories that represent your holiday. Be creative! Write an exciting story about Santas adventures into thenight, the dreidel that got away, the perfect New Years celebration, your holiday wish list, and the list goeson!• Put the content on a webpage that was created or hacked and present it to the group at the end of the day.• Tell students to feel free to use the X-Ray Goggles cheat sheet to help them feel more comfortable whenthey are hacking the site.Template Hack (40 minutes)To hone the concepts further, and to have a direct comparison between the actual full code and a webpage,have users hack the template located here: http://toolness.github.com/webpage-maker-prototype/• Tell learners they will be making their own personal webpage.• Have students begin the match up the code with the text on the screen, and start to make revisions basedon their own information. Have students find a picture on the web and upload that to replace the picturealready on the screen.• Explain that Hackasaurus shows bits and pieces of html, but that a full website requires a list of code, andthat each item is coded and listed out as they have just witnessed. Explain that this is the fundamentallanguage of the web, and that all webpages have many lines of code in order to be created. AssessmentAssessment Rubric can be found following this lesson plan. Lesson 2 - 4 of 6
40 ModificationsP2PUPeer 2 Peer University (P2PU) is an open education project that provides creative learning outside of aninstitutional setting and gives learners recognition for their achievements. This tool provides a platform inwhich people work together to learn about a particular topic by completing tasks, assessing work, andproviding feedback. Four schools make up the P2PU platform - Webcraft, Social Innovation, MathematicalFuture, and Education. The modification of this lesson plan will be under the School of Webcraft whereeducators from all over the world can learn the important concepts of hacking, web and active participationso they can integrate Hackasaurus as part of their education tools after going through the P2PU onlinetraining.The activities would be modified in the following way:1) Superhero Challenge - Hack into a news site using the Goggles to write a story introducing yoursuperhero, and how he or she saved or protected the open web. Publish your hacked page and share it withothers on the P2PU website with others who are also taking the challenge.2) Holiday Hack - Hack a website to spruce it up for the holidays. Write a story as part of the hack. Publishyour hacked page and share it with others on the P2PU website with others who are also taking thechallenge.2) Template Hack - Complete the template hack and make your own personal webpage. Publish your hackpage and share it with others on the P2PU website with others who are also taking the challenge.Youth FacilitatorThe Hackasaurus project not only targets formal and informal adult educators. This curriculum also aims totrain teams of youth facilitators who can teach their peers about hacking using Hackasaurus. The targetedyouth facilitators are high school students age 16-18. The activities and assessments will be the same asadult facilitators. Alternative AssessmentsMozilla Open Badges ProjectMozilla Foundation is developing and testing out the Open Badges Project (https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges)where learners of 21st century skills are awarded badges as part of their online profile. The badges providecredibility and recognition for skills and achievements outside of school. Participants receive badges byaccomplishing different projects, courses or challenges. Earned badges can be posted as part of thelearners personal website, social and professional profiles such as LinkedIn, Facebook and personalresumes or portfolios. Examples of the badges that can be earned in this Lesson Plan are as follows:• Remixer Badge - To qualify, participants need to complete the Google.com portion at the end of the firstactivity, the Hacking Demonstration (See Activities section).• Producer Badge - To qualify, participants need to complete some of the tasks in the Superhero ChallengeOR Holiday Hack (See Activities section). The following tasks need to be completed: Design the visualrepresentation of a superhero or holiday decorations, place content on a website.• Wordsmith Badge - To qualify, participants need to complete some of the tasks in the Superhero ChallengeOR Holiday Hack (See Activities section). The following tasks need to be completed: visit a news website,using the X-Ray Goggles, hack into a paragraph on the site, write a story about how the participantscharacter saved or protected the open web OR write a story about the holidays.P2PUUsing the P2PUs current School of webcraft as a template, the assessment would be the distribution ofMozilla badges upon completion of each challenge.Youth FacilitatorThe regular assessment rubric used for the Lesson Plan will be applicable for assessing youth facilitatorsthroughout the activity. However, upon completing each challenge, youth facilitators can pledge for the"Hacksaurus Youth Facilitator" badge. Lesson 2 - 5 of 6
41 Supplemental InformationAdditional resources for teachers on the content of the lesson include- P2PUs School of Webcraft (http://p2pu.org/en/schools/school-of-webcraft/)- Mozilla Open Badges Project (https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges) Critical VocabularyKey terms - remix, HTML, CSS, tagsKey concepts Basic vs Advanced mode in the X-Ray Goggles Basic object tag headings (<div>, <img>, <input>, <label>, <select>, etc) Remixing shortcut keys (R, C + spacebar, P) Images being posted on the web and html code calling these images to appear Critical concepts learned in the last lesson, about HTML, CSS, the open web, remixing, etc. Websites (if applicable)Hackasaurus Website - www.hackasaurus.orgHacktivity Kit I.T. Checklist - http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/it_checklist.pdfHacktivity Kit - http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/hacktivity_kit.pdfHackasaurus Website - www.hackasaurus.orgHackasaurus Website - www.hackasaurus.orgP2PU School of Webcraft - http://p2pu.org/en/schools/school-of-webcraft/Mozilla Open Badges Project - https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges Lesson 2 - 6 of 6
42 Lesson 2 Rubric – Hacking the Web – Remixing HTMLHacking Demonstration ● Google Hack – Awarded with the “Remixer Badge” for scores of 3 and 4.4 3 2 1The participant successfully The participant successfully The participant The participantreplaced the Google logo with replaced the Google logo with replaced one of is unsuccessfulan image and changed or added an image and changed or the elements – the at completingtext to the webpage. Remixing added text to the webpage. Google logo or either hack.is unique and is the students Remixing is not unique or text. Remixingown work. Remixing changes mundane. The hacking of the may or may not bethe look and feel of the two elements seem arbitrary unique.webpage, and the hacks make and do not make sensesense together. together.Superhero Challenge ● Background character development4 3 2 1The participant has provided all The participant has The participant has The participantof the background information provided most of the provided some of the has notabout the superhero, either background information background information providedverbally or on the website (Name, about the superhero, about the superhero, informationvisual representation, either verbally or on the either verbally or on the about thesuperpower, nemesis (optional), website. Information is website. Information is or superhero.how superpowers protect the or is mostly unique and is not unique and mayweb (optional). Information is interesting. have been copied fromunique and interesting. somewhere. ● Tool and Concept Competencies4 3 2 1The participant’s website The participant’s website The participant’s website Thecontains at least 1 <img> contains three of the following contains one or two of the participant’shack, 1 title change, copy four elements: 1 <img> hack, following four elements: 1 website doesabout the superhero, and 1 1 title change, copy about the <img> hack, 1 title not containCSS change. If prompted, superhero, and 1 CSS change, copy about thestudents are able to change. If prompted, students superhero, and 1 CSS any of thearticulate the following: are able to articulate some of change. If prompted, elements, andshortcut keys (R, C+space the following: shortcut keys students are not clearly is not able tobar), how to perform a hack (R, C+space bar), how to able to articulate shortcut articulatein basic and/or advanced perform a hack in basic keys, performing a hack, remixing inmode, and the concept of and/or advanced mode, and and the concept of html Hackasaurus.html tags. the concept of html tags. tags.
43 ● Sharing and Publishing4 3 2 1The participant uses The participant uses the The participant needs The participant doesthe Publish shortcut to Publish shortcut to share his significant help with the not publish nor shareshare his or her hack or her hack with the rest of Publish shortcut to his or her hack withwith the rest of the the class. The participant share his or her hack the rest of the classclass, and speaks does not speak about the with the rest of the even when help isabout the website website elements that have class, and is unable to given and iselements that have been remixed in much share about what he or prompted to.been remixed. depth, even when prompted. she remixed.Holiday Hack ● Holiday development4 3 2 1The participant has The participant has The participant has created a The participantcreated a holiday hack created a holiday hack holiday hack representing 1 has notrepresenting 1 holiday, or representing 1 holiday, or holiday, or a remixed holiday developed aa remixed holiday that a remixed holiday that that does not seem cohesive holiday hack, orintegrates different pieces integrates different pieces or does not make sense. has hackedin a cohesive way. in a cohesive way. Information is or is not unique irrelevantInformation is unique and Information is mostly and may have been copied material.interesting. unique and interesting. from somewhere. ● Tool and Concept Competencies4 3 2 1The participant’s website The participant’s website The participant’s website Thecontains at least 1 <img> contains three of the following contains one or two of the participant’shack, 1 title change, copy four elements: 1 <img> hack, following four elements: 1 website doesabout the holiday, and 1 1 title change, copy about the <img> hack, 1 title not containCSS change. If prompted, holiday, and 1 CSS change. If change, copy about thestudents are able to prompted, students are able holiday, and 1 CSS any of thearticulate the following: to articulate some of the change. If prompted, elements, andshortcut keys (R, C+space following: shortcut keys (R, students are not clearly is not able tobar), how to perform a hack C+space bar), how to able to articulate shortcut articulatein basic and/or advanced perform a hack in basic keys, performing a hack, remixing inmode, and the concept of and/or advanced mode, and and the concept of html Hackasaurus.html tags. the concept of html tags. tags.
44 ● Sharing and Publishing4 3 2 1The participant uses The participant uses the The participant needs The participant doesthe Publish shortcut to Publish shortcut to share his significant help with the not publish nor shareshare his or her hack or her hack with the rest of Publish shortcut to his or her hack withwith the rest of the the class. The participant share his or her hack the rest of the classclass, and speaks does not speak about the with the rest of the even when help isabout the website website elements that have class, and is unable to given and iselements that have been remixed in much share about what he or prompted to.been remixed. depth, even when prompted. she remixed.Template Hack4 3 2 1The participant has The participant has created a The participant has The participant’screated a personal personal homepage that created a personal website doeshomepage that contains contains three of the following homepage that contains not contain anyat least 1 <img> hack, 1 four elements: 1 <img> hack, one or two of the following of the elements,title change, copy about 1 title change, copy about four elements: 1 <img>him or herself, and 1 him or herself, and 1 CSS hack, 1 title change, copy and is not ableCSS change. If change. If prompted (with about him or herself, and to articulateprompted (with yes/no yes/no questions), students 1 CSS change. If knowledgequestions), students are are able to articulate some of prompted (with yes/no about html.able to articulate that understanding that html questions), students arehtml requires a whole list requires a whole list of code, not clearly able toof code, and that each and that each hacked item articulate that htmlhacked item only makes only makes up one small part requires a whole list ofup one small part of the of the code. code, and that eachcode. hacked item only makes up one small part of the code.
45TitleLesson 3 - Hackasaurus CollaborationIntroductionThis is the final lesson in the Hackasaurus learning unit. In this lesson, students will use the knowledge and skillslearned in previous lessons to understand how Hackasaurus can be used as a learning tool. Students will brainstormand collaborate ways in which Hackasaurus can be used in a formal classroom environment or in an informalenvironment. Students will understand that collaboration in lesson planning can lead to new ideas of how to teachdiverse topics. They will also understand that sharing ideas among educators is important in improving the educationof students. Learning Outcomes: Stage 1 - Identify Desired ResultsEstablished Goals: Learning OutcomesStudents will understand how to use Hackasaurus as a teaching tool.Students will understand that sharing their lesson plans on the web can expand and enhance available teachingmaterials which can improve the quality of the learning experience.Students will understand that collaboration can lead to new ideas and methods in teaching. Curriculum AlignmentISTE NETS and Performance Indicators for Teachers (2007)1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity1d. model collaborative knowledge construction by engaging in learning with students, colleagues, and others in face-to-face and virtual environments.2. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments2a. design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources to promote studentlearning and creativity.5. Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership5a. participate in local and global learning communities to explore creative applications of technology to improvestudent learning.5c. evaluate and reflect on current research and professional practice on a regular basis to make effective use ofexisting and emerging digital tools and resources in support of student learning.Aligning Learning Outcomes with ISTE Standards1d - Students will collaborate with other teachers to form new lesson plansStandard 2a - Students will prepare lesson plans that incorporate HackasaurusStandard 5a - Students will participate in the Hackasaurus brainstorming session to imagine ways of usingHackasaurus as a learning toolStandard 5c - Students will evaluate the use of Hackasaurus as a learning toolWhat essential questions will be considered?How can technology be used to facilitate learning?How can technology be used in lesson planning?How can collaboration enhance lesson planning?What understandings are desired?Students will understand that...Hackasaurus can be used as a learning tool to teach topics in many different subject areasHackasaurus can be used to make lessons more interesting and effectiveCollaborating and sharing ideas with other educators can make lesson planning more efficient and effective through anincrease of shared resources and ideas Lesson 3 - 1 of 5
46What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit?Knowledge-Technology can be used effectively in lesson planningCollaboration can enhance and expand materials available to teachers to use in their lessonsSkills-Create a lesson using technologyStudents will be able to...Collaborate with others to create a lesson planFacilitate a lesson using Hackasaurus as a learning tool Stage 2 - Determine Acceptable Evidence Classroom time required45 minutes. Materials Needed & Technology ResourcesPreparing for the SessionComputers with high-speed Internet connectionComputers available for participants/team of participantsHackasaurus X-Ray Goggles installed on a modern web browser such as FireFox, Chrome, Safari, Opera, with thelatest browser versions updated. (Note: Hackasaurus currently does not support Internet Explorer)Brainstorming worksheetsWhat evidence will show that students understand?Performance Tasks:Students are able to reflect on their Hackasaurus experience and explain how they can use the tool in their lessonplansStudents are able to collaborate with others to create a lesson plan incorporating HackasaurusWhat other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results?Reflection Prompt: What has been your favorite part of the Hackasaurus workshop?Collaboration Prompts: Have you ever collaborated on lesson planning? How can this be helpful?Student Self-Assessment and Reflection:Students assess their lessons in terms of relevance to the topic and ease of implementationSelf-assess the concept of collaborating with lesson planning Lesson 3 - 2 of 5
47 Stage 3 - Planning Learning Experiences Pre-activities (if applicable)Preparing for the SessionHacktivity Kit I.T. Checklist http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/it_checklist.pdf ActivitiesReflection:Students reflect on their favorite parts of the Hackasaurus workshop.Students brainstorm ways they can use this part of the workshop in their lesson plans.Students discuss their ideas as a group, expanding and making modifications where necessary.Brainstorming:Students are divided into groups.Each group receives a worksheet which has topic, lesson objective, grade, and teaching method.Groups fill out the form using a method they would traditionally use to teach a lesson in their class or a way in whichthey were taught that lesson when they were students.Groups then pass their worksheet to a new group.The new group must create a lesson plan using Hackasaurus rather than the traditional method.Students share their ideas as a class.The class discusses the lesson plans and evaluates them on practicality and ease of implementation.Analysis:Changes can be made to improve the lessons from the reflection and brainstorming sessions.Students discuss their lesson plans with other groups and talk about the pros and cons of each lesson.Students have the option of posting their lesson on the web so others can use it. AssessmentAssessment Rubric can be found following this lesson plan.Students are observed throughout the lesson.They are assessed on active participation and collaboration.The final lesson plans are assessed by the group in terms of the practicality of implementation. ModificationP2PUPeer 2 Peer University (P2PU) is an open education project that provides creative learning outside of an institutionalsetting and gives learners recognition for their achievements. This tool provides a platform in which people worktogether to learn about a particular topic by completing tasks, assessing work, and providing feedback. Four schoolsmake up the P2PU platform - Webcraft, Social Innovation, Mathematical Future, and Education. The modification ofthis lesson plan will be under the School of Webcraft where educators from all over the world can learn the importantconcepts of hacking, web and active participation so they can integrate Hackasaurus as part of their education toolsafter going through the P2PU online training.The Hackasaurus Collaboration can be modified in the following way:Reflection: Students will reflect on their Hackasaurus experience and how they can create a lesson plan using theirfavorite parts of the experience. They will then upload their ideas for others to see and leave comments. If needed,students can modify their lesson plans using the comments of the other students.Brainstorming: Students will upload their brainstorming ideas onto a blog. Students will read the blogs of otherstudents and add comments at the bottom. Students will then create their lesson plans and upload them for others tosee. Lesson 3 - 3 of 5
48Youth FacilitatorThe Hackasaurus project not only targets formal and informal adult educators. This curriculum also aims to trainteams of youth facilitators who can teach their peers about hacking using Hackasaurus. The targeted youth facilitatorsare high school students age 16-18. The activities and assessments will be the same as adult facilitators.Other Web Experiences CurriculumThe Mozilla Foundation has developed other web experience tools such as Popcorn.js (http://popcornjs.org/) thatallows hacking to be done to multimedia video clips, as well as MoJo (https://www.drumbeat.org/en-US/journalism/)that encourages hacking to happen in professional news and journalism sites. The same activities introduced in thisLesson Plan, hacking through dancing and designing a face are great introductions to the concepts of hacking andbecoming active participants of the web. Similar to Hackasaurus, other web experience tools are also designed toencourage learners to become active participants of the web. Therefore, the same activities in this Lesson Plan canhelp learners build prior knowledge of hacking for other web-based media tools. Alternative AssessmentsMozilla Open Badges ProjectMozilla Foundation is developing and testing out the Open Badges Project (https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges) wherelearners of 21st century skills are awarded badges as part of their online profile. The badges provide credibility andrecognition for skills and achievements outside of school. Participants receive badges by accomplishing differentprojects, courses or challenges. Earned badges can be posted as part of the learners personal website, social andprofessional profiles such as LinkedIn, Facebook and personal resumes or portfolios. Since the lesson plan targetsweb skills, the badges project is the ideal alternative assessment for the three following modifications.P2PUUsing the P2PUs current School of webcraft as a template, the assessment would be the distribution of Mozillabadges upon completion of each challenge.Youth FacilitatorThe regular assessment rubric used for the Lesson Plan will be applicable for assessing youth facilitators throughoutthe activity. However, upon completing each challenge, youth facilitators can pledge for the "Hacksaurus YouthFacilitator" badge.Other Web Experiences CurriculumIt is up to the other web development tools such as Popcorn.js and MoJo to develop their own assessments. However,since they are all Mozilla projects, it is very likely that the creators of these tools will create badges that correspondwith their tools learning goals. Supplemental InformationAdditional resources/ideas for extension & extra credit/background reading for teachers on the content of thelesson/further discussion of instructional strategies- P2PU School of Webcraft as reference- Create a new badge for beginning hacker Critical VocabularyKey terms - hack, web, active participation, remix, collaborateHacking as remixing content to make news things for the web.The web is a unique space made of building blocks that are constantly hacked & remixed by different people.Active participation on the web requires knowing how to code.Remix is to remix and change things on your own in order to make something better or create something new.Collaborate is to work together to form a new plan Lesson 3 - 4 of 5
49 Websites (if applicable)www.hackasaurus.orghttp://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/it_checklist.pdfHacktivity Kit - http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/hacktivity_kit.pdfRobot Dance video - http://youtu.be/E-_iUHY8RBsTechnologic YouTube Video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtdWHFwmd2oHackasaurus Slideshow - http://htmlpad.org/hackasaurus-presentation-01/Webpage & video on how to install X-Ray Goggles in the Browser http://hackasaurus.org/en-US/goggles/install/P2PU School of Webcraft - http://p2pu.org/en/schools/school-of-webcraft/ Lesson 3 - 5 of 5
50 Lesson 3 Rubric – Hackasaurus CollaborationCollaboration Work Skills CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Working with Almost always Usually listens to, Often listens to, Rarely listens to, Others listens to, shares shares, with, and shares with, and shares with, and with, and supports supports the supports the efforts supports the the efforts of efforts of others. of others, but efforts of others. others. Tries to Does not cause sometimes is not a Often is not a keep people "waves" in the good team good team working well group. member. player. together. Focus on the Consistently stays Focuses on the Focuses on the Rarely focuses task focused on the task and what task and what on the task and task and what needs to be done needs to be done what needs to be needs to be done. most of the time. some of the time. done. Lets Very self-directed. Other group Other group others do the members can members must work. count on this sometimes nag, person. prod, and remind to keep this person on-task. Contributions Routinely provides Usually provides Sometimes Rarely provides useful ideas when useful ideas when provides useful useful ideas participating in the participating in ideas when when group and in the group and in participating in the participating in classroom classroom group and in the group and in discussion. A discussion. A classroom classroom definite leader strong group discussion. A discussion. May who contributes a member who tries satisfactory group refuse to lot of effort. hard! member who does participate. what is required.
51 Hackasaurus BrainstormingGroup 1: 1. Think of a topic you teach in your subject area. If you are not a teacher, think of your favorite subject in school and a topic you studied in that subject. Write it on the line. ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What grade do you teach or in what grade did you learn about this topic? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What are the objectives when teaching this topic or when you learned about this topic? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. How do you traditionally teach this topic or how did you learn about it as a student? Ex: lecture, class presentation, essay, reading, PowerPoint ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Pass this paper to a new group.Group 2: 1. Using the guidelines above, create a lesson plan on the given topic using Hackasaurus. You can incorporate traditional methods, but must also include Hackasaurus as a learning tool. Remember to include the subject, topic, grade level, and objectives. Create an example of a Hackasaurus page that can be used to teach this topic. You can use the back of this page for brainstorming and mapping.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 52 ReferencesBitner, N., & Bitner, J. (2002). Integrating technology into the classroom: Eight keys to success. Journal of Technology and Education, 10 (1), 95-101.de Bra, P. (1996). Teaching hypertext and hypermedia through the web. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 2(12), 797-804.Denig, S. J. (2004). Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles: Two Complementary dimensions. Teachers College Record, 106, 96-111.Facebook - Hackasaurus. (2011). Hackasaurus. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://www.facebook.com/pages/Hackasaurus/140459162682866.Fulton, K. (1997). Learning in a digital age: Insights into the issues. Technological horizons in education journal, 25(7), 1-59.Google Groups - Hackasaurus. (2011). Hackasaurus. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://groups.google.com/group/hackasaurus.Hong, H., & Sullivan, F. R. (2009). Towards an idea-centered, principle-based design approach to support learning as knowledge creation. Education Tech Research Dev, 66, 613-627.McCade, J. (2001). Technology education and computer literacy. The Technology Teacher, 9-13. Retrieved from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-79027161.htmlMozilla.org Contributors. (2011). Hackasaurus Homepage. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://hackasaurus.org/en-US/.MozillaWiki - Hackasaurus. (2011). Hackasaurus. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from https://wiki.mozilla.org/Hackasaurus.Rubistar. (2011). Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://rubistar.4teachers.org/.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 53The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1990). Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition. Educational Researcher, 19(6), 2-10.The International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). National Education Technology Standards. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://www.iste.org.Twitter - Hackasaurus. (2011). @hackasaurus. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from https://twitter.com/#!/hackasaurus.Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Chapter 1: Backward design. Understanding by design (expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Wright, B. (2009). Employment, trends, and training. Occupational outlook quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2009/spring/art04.pdf.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 54 Annotated List of Resources and MaterialsDaft Punk (Artist). (2008, February 19). Technologic. Video retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtdWHFwmd2o • The music video is used as part of Lesson Plan 1 - Intro to Hacking the Web as part of the Hack Dance activity.Mozilla.org Contributors. (2011). Hackasaurus Slides: How to hack the web. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://htmlpad.org/hackasaurus-presentation-01/ • This HTML slideshow is used as part of Lesson Plan 1 - Slideshow Presentation & Group Discussion where the class discusses key concepts of hacking, the web, active participation and installation of the Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles.Mozilla.org Contributors. (2011). Installing the x-ray goggles. Video retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://hackasaurus.org/en-US/goggles/install/ • This is an instructional video on how to install X-ray Goggles in various browsers. It can be used at the end of Lesson Plan 1 as an additional resource on installing X-ray Goggles.Mozilla.org Contributors. (2011). I.T. Checklist. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/it_checklist.pdf • This I.T. Checklist is part of the Hackasaurus Hacktivity. It contains a list of technical requirements for operating the activities listed in Lesson Plan 1 and 2.Mozilla.org Contributors. (2011). X-ray Goggles Cheat Sheet on December 17, 2011 from http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/goggles_cheatsheet.pdf • This is a quick reference of all the Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles hot keys and functions. This cheat sheet should be distributed to participants during the Hacking Challenges in Lesson 2.
HACKASAURUS: THE PD CURRICULUM 55VideoJug (Producer). (2009, April 20). How to do the robot (Totally rad 80’s dances). Video retrieved on December 17, 2011 from http://youtu.be/E-_iUHY8RBs • The dance video is used as part of Lesson Plan 1 - Intro to Hacking the Web as part of the Hack Dance activity.
Running head: HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Hackasaurus Annotated Bibliography Alicia Bradley, Helen Lee, Pauline Lee Teachers College, Columbia University
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 Introduction When preparing the annotated bibliography for the Hackasaurus project, we consideredwhat information we should research in reference to the topic, curriculum, and instructionalstrategies. For topic-related information, we reviewed articles about using technology inteaching and teaching hypertext. We also looked at the Hackasaurus website for directinformation about our topic. In order to gain information about curriculum development, weassessed material based on backward design and how this curriculum has been used in teachingtechnology courses. We also examined information about national standards which we could usein preparing our curriculum. Our research on instructional strategies was two-fold. First, wereviewed articles related to training teachers. Second, we examined articles based on studentlearning and how students with different learning techniques can be taught in ways that promotesunderstanding. This annotated bibliography is divided into two parts. The first section is academicarticles. This is followed by the online resources we found to support our curriculum. Thearticles were researched and divided by the participants equally, with each member providingseven sources from each of the three categories.
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 Academic ArticlesBitner, N., & Bitner, J. (2002). Integrating technology into the classroom: Eight keys to success. Journal of Technology and Education, 10 (1), 95-101. The article, “Integrating Technology in the Classroom: Eights Keys to Success” includeseight facets that should be considered in order for teachers to successfully integrate technology inthe classroom. These eight areas are fear of change, training in basics, personal use, teachingmodels, learning based, climate, motivation, and support. The authors state that it is important tobegin with ensuring teachers understand the basics of computer use before integratingtechnology into the classroom. Furthermore, they state that teachers must be aware of the kindsof programs that are available to use in the classroom and have a model of how these programsare used. This was a very useful source as it relates to our curriculum of integrating technology inthe classroom. The information it contains is based on observations made by the authors and ona conglomeration of previous research, and thus, is reliable. The goal of this article is to considerwhat factors aid teachers in successfully using technology in the classroom. Because our curriculum is focused on teacher training, the article was very useful inoutlining what factors should be considered to help the teachers use Hackasaurussuccessfully. We can refer to this article when we are creating our lesson plans to ensure that wehave included elements that will help the teachers succeed in their use of Hackasaurus in theclassroom.de Bra, P. (1996). Teaching hypertext and hypermedia through the web. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 2(12), 797-804. In “Teaching Hypertext and Hypermedia through the Web,” de Bra discusses theobstacles encountered in teaching hypertext and hypermedia through an online course atEindhoven University of Technology. These obstacles include inaccurate evaluation techniques,the inability of students to track their own progress in the course, and creating a place for studentdiscussion on the web. To overcome these obstacles, tools were introduced for use in the coursesuch as tools for tracking student progress, evaluating tests, uploading assignments, and Web-discussion. The goal of this article is to state how Eindhoven University of Technology has improvedits hypertext and hypermedia course. It is a reliable source; however, the information is frombefore 1996, which makes it not as relevant as other articles in our bibliography. Because the information in this article relates to one specific hypertext course, it is not ashelpful as other sources in regard to our curriculum. However, it did pose questions aboutevaluations and tracking student progress which made me think about how we could implementthese aspects into our curriculum.Collins, A. (1996). Design issues for learning environments. In Vosniadou, S., Corte, E.E., Glaser, R. & Mandl, H. (Eds.), International perspectives on the design of technology-
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 supported learning environments (pp. 347-361). Hisdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Collins uses the apprenticeship framework to address a broad set of issues in the designof learning environments. He breaks it down to four main sections: 1) Learning Goals -Memorization vs. Thoughtfulness, Whole Tasks vs. Component Skills Tasks, Breadth vs.Knowledge, Diverse vs. Uniform Expertise, Access vs. Understanding, and Cognitive vs.Physical Fidelity. 2) Learning Contexts - Interactive vs. Active vs. Passive Learning, Incidentalvs. Direct Learning, Fun vs. Serious Learning, Natural vs. Efficient Learning, and LearnerControl vs. Computer/Teacher Control. 3) Sequence - Grounded vs. Abstract Learning,Structured vs. Exploratory Learning, Systematic vs. Diverse Problems, and Simple vs. ComplexTasks. 4) Teaching Methods - Modeling, Scaffolding, Coaching, Articulation, and Reflection. This is a useful source for curriculum-organizing and instructional strategies designbecause the article summarizes all the possibilities of different learning environments anddescribes their advantages and disadvantages across each spectrum. The source is objective andprovides a quick overview of all major curriculum design possibilities. This article includes many of the design possibilities for us to consider in the project. Ithelps guide our curriculum design and is a great source for supporting our final designdecisions. The article has broadened our curriculum design possibilities by analyzing all theaspects to consider when in instructional design.Denig, S. J. (2004). Multiple intelligences and learning styles: Two complementary dimensions. Teachers College Record, 106, 96-111. Denig’s study presents two theories of learning - multiple intelligences and learningstyles - and proposes a research format that may help investigate how these two styles arecomplementary. When comparing the two styles, Denig observes key differences between thetwo theories - multiple intelligences addresses what is taught (the product), and learning stylesaddresses how it is taught (the process). Denig concludes with a synthesis of multipleintelligences with learning styles, in order to discern the specific educational theory required byeach intelligence. He displays multiple intelligences and learning styles in two dimensions,graphically represented by a grid with the eight multiple intelligences on the horizontal axis, andthe twenty-one learning style elements on the vertical axis. Any correlations between theseelements can be investigated in order to help develop intelligences further. This source is helpful in looking at several intelligence/learning theories that observedifferent aspects of intelligence, and seeing how they are complementary. Doing so helps fleshout the theories in more detail, and aids in applying theory to practice. Each theory on its own isreliable, but further research and study would need to be conducted to see how both theories arein fact complementary. This source is helpful for the Hackasaurus project when looking at each intelligencetheory individually. When creating the lesson plans, it would be helpful to keep in mind each ofthese theories in order to create multi-dimensional learning that suits many different types oflearners. Several facets of this theory will be incorporated - the kinesthetic intelligence will beused when learners learn the Hack Dance; the interpersonal intelligence will be used whendiscussing and working with others on brainstorming uses for Hackasaurus, and the linguistic
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5and spatial abilities would be used when actually learning how the Hackasaurus tool works. Interms of learning styles, this would serve as more of a backdrop in creating and observing thelearning environment.Fulton, K. (1997). Learning in a digital age: Insights into the issues. Technological horizons in education journal, 25(7), 1-59. The main idea of “Learning in a Digital Age: Insights into the Issues” is how students areeducated to be technologically fluent. Not only does she discuss the ways in which technology istaught and assessed in schools, but she also addresses policy issues such as teacher competency,equity, and testing to track progress. She lists computer skills curriculum for various schoolsystems and how these skills are integrated with other subjects taught at each grade level. Fultonconcludes by stating that policy must be enacted to address technology fluency for all studentsrather than expecting fluency to result from just having technology available. Because the goal of this article is to analyze what policies must be addressed and enactedfor students to become fluent in the use of technology, it is very useful for our project. Itemphasizes that technology must be actively taught rather than simply giving students access totechnology and expect them to become fluent on their own. It is a reliable source based onextensive research and interviews. This source is very helpful as we plan our curriculum. It gives information fortechnology curriculum goals that are in place around the U.S., to which we can refer whencreating our lesson plans. Furthermore, it addresses issues teachers encounter whenimplementing technology in their lessons which we can also evaluate when planning ourcurriculum.Gisbert, M., Adell, J., & Rallo, R. (1996). Training teachers with hypertext: Using HTML and internet tools as didactic resources. Proceedings of INET, 96, 13-25. In “Training Teachers with Hypertext: Using HTML and Internet Tools as DidacticResources,” Adell and Rallo explore using new technology in curriculum as an educativeresource and also as an important factor to consider when planning and developing newcurriculum strategies. To do this, they created a course in which education students learned howto use internet tools and how to utilize these tools in their lessons. In order to aid the educationstudents in learning hypertext, the authors related the underlying concepts with more familiarconcepts found in learning to read and write. During the course, the concepts were firstexplained theoretically, and then students created projects in groups to present to the class. The goal of this experience was to enable students to use the internet as a didacticresource for navigation, information recovery, and authoring. It is a reliable source based on twoyears of an educational experience. However, more information on the success of the educationstudents once they entered the classroom would make the experience more valid. This source was very useful because it is an example of a technology course created totrain teachers on the use of the internet. When creating our curriculum, we can refer to thisarticle to understand the steps involved in planning a technological curriculum includingconceptual mapping, global-thinking, and contextual applications.
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 6Hong, H., & Sullivan, F. R. (2009). Towards an idea-centered, principle-based design approach to support learning as knowledge creation. Education Tech Research Dev, 66, 613-627. Hong and Sullivan propose the idea for the need to move away from efficiency-orientedinstructional design, to innovation-oriented instructional design in the context of learning asknowledge creation. The authors begin by explaining three learning metaphors, and highlight thethird metaphor - 1) learning as acquisition in which learning is a process of acquiring desiredpieces of knowledge, 2) learning as participation in which learning takes place whenparticipating in various cultural practices and shared learning activities, and 3) learning ascreation, whereby learning takes place when something new is created and the initial knowledgeis enriched or transformed during the process. To create a learning as knowledge creation culture,learners must encourage members to collaboratively contribute to knowledge to the communityand build upon and improve one another’s ideas towards advancing collective knowledge. Hong and Sullivan provide sound advice on the type of collaborative culture ofknowledge-sharing and building-upon needed in a learning as knowledge creation context. TheHackasaurus tool is a great example that provides a learning as knowledge creation context,because it is an open-source tool that anyone can modify and contribute to. This sourceencourages a knowledge goal as not merely to achieve individual knowledge growth or topromote distributed knowing, but to collectively advance community knowledge as a publicproduct. This source is therefore extremely useful to the mission of Hackasaurus, and creating acollaborative culture is essential to its success. Several resources to support knowledge-sharing and knowledge-creation exist to supportcollaboration, such as the Google Group intended to propose and share ideas, Twitter to followthe latest updates and spread the word, and the Localization Wiki which calls for help to translate.To apply the theory used in this discussion, Hackasaurus must showcase these items prominentlyin the website and make certain that users know the tool is open-source, and that collaboration isthe intent of developing this tool. Additionally, the Hackasaurus curriculum is made to keep theidea of collaboration in mind, and a session of idea-sharing for how the tool can be used in theclassroom will be an integral part of the training.Liaw, F. R. (2007). Investigating students’ perceived satisfaction, behavioral intention, and effectiveness of e-learning: A case study of the blackboard system. Computers and Education, 51, 864-873. Liaw conducts a study to determine whether and how perceived satisfaction andbehavioral intention have an effect on e-learning using the Blackboard e-learning system. Hestudies 424 university students using a standard questionnaire and Likert scale. The results ofthis study showed that perceived self-efficacy is critical in terms of influencing learners’satisfaction with the Blackboard system. That is, the higher the perceived usefulness andperceived satisfaction is for students, the better learning experience the students attain.Additionally, the results found that e-learning effectiveness is influenced by multimediainstruction, interactive learning activities, and e-learning system quality. This source is useful when attempting to create an online learning platform. The goal ofthis source is to not only investigate how perceived satisfaction affects e-learning, but also
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 7attempts to understand how to increase e-learning effectiveness. This can be achieved byincreasing multimedia instruction, interactive learning activities, and e-learning systems quality. If the Peer 2 Peer University (P2PU) platform, which is an online open education project,is used to teach Hackasaurus, then this study can provide helpful tips on how to structure theonline learning. One component of this research found that learners’ self-efficacy and self-directedness affects perceived satisfaction and perceived usefulness; since these characteristicsare inherent in a learner, that component cannot be changed as students learn Hackasaurus online.The other component which can be changed includes multimedia instruction, system quality, andthe actual online learning activities. These components can be modified to help increase userengagement, so Hackasaurus should be created using a high-quality system, and with highinteractivity in the challenges and tasks.Lin, X. (2001). Designing metacognitive activities. Educational Technology Research & Development, 49(2), 23-40. The article examines two basic approaches to supporting metacognition: 1) strategytraining and 2) creation of a supportive social environment for metacognition. It also evaluatesthe two kinds of content, domain-specific knowledge and knowledge of self-as-learner withineach approach. Under the approach of strategy training, some of the metacognitive strategiesinclude modeling and prompting. Under the approach of creating a supportive socialenvironment for metacognition, some of the strategies include fostering a community ofmetacognitive practices and creating virtual learning communities. Metacognition is crucial indeveloping cognitively and socially competent learners. Therefore, educators should coordinatebetween strategy training and creating sociocultural support in everyday classroom activities. Lin explicitly defines metacognition and provides concrete examples and practicalinstructional strategies such as modeling and prompting. The source is very useful for us asnovice curriculum designers to receive concrete examples of strategy implementation for such anabstract concept such as metacognition. This source is useful in helping us cultivate the metacognitive knowledge oflearners. Since much of the HTML and CSS skills would require learners to be aware of whatthey are doing in each step of the challenge, creating a social environment for metacognition andimplementing some of the metacognitive strategies such as prompting would be greatlybeneficial for our project.Linn, M. C. (2006). The knowledge integration perspective on learning. In R. K. Sawyer (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 245-265). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. The knowledge integration perspective integrates research findings from a broad range oftraditions, including developmental, sociocultural, cognitive and constructivist. Different designpatterns and principles are more effective for different types of learners. There are four typicaltrajectories for students in formulating their repertoire of ideas: 1) Conceptualizer, 2)Experimenter, 3) Strategizer and 4) Contextualizer. However, if we just follow the instructionaldesign patterns as listed in the article, we would still fail as educators because we need a variety
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 8of design patterns to stimulate all students. Our ultimate goal is to have students continuouslyresearch their own repertoire of ideas and seek criteria to guide the process, then learners willgain lifelong knowledge. This is a useful source in terms of designing the lesson plans to accommodate differenttypes of learners. The knowledge integration perspective provides a great argument indiversifying our curriculum design. The goal of the source is to stress the importance of having awide range of design strategies that fulfill the needs of different learners. This source has helped us reassure that diversifying the learning experience is beneficialfor all learners. We can use the source to divide our learners into the four different types listed inthe article and design learning strategies that encompass all types of learners.McCade, J. (2001). Technology education and computer literacy. The Technology Teacher, 9-13. Retrieved on November 11, 2011 from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1- 79027161.html The author of “Technology Education and Computer Literacy,” Joseph, McCade,researches what kinds of information technology-related experiences should curricula all includeand which information technology-related experiences should students encounter in anyclassroom. He posits that the responsibility of computer literacy should be shared across manysubject areas. Furthermore, McCade uses the Understanding by Design Framework to establishthe essential content needed in a technology curriculum. The goal of this source is to create dialogue that will help school officials understandwhat content is important in teaching computer skills to students. It also gives a framework fordetermining what essential understandings can be obtained from computer courses and how theseunderstandings can be applied in other areas of the student’s life. Because this source uses the Understanding by Design framework to establish atechnology curriculum, it is very useful to our curriculum. We can refer to this article whenestablishing our overarching goals. Furthermore, the author posts questions which relate to theinformation students have learned in the course. We can use these questions to determine if ourstudents are learning transferable skills.Molenda, M., Pershing, J. A., & Reigeluth, C. M. (1996). Designing instructional systems. In R. L. Craig (Ed.), The ASTD training and development handbook 4th ed. (pp. 266-293). New York: McGraw-Hill. This source breaks down the phases and steps of the ADDIE (Analysis, Design,Development, Implementation, Evaluation) Instructional Design model. The model begins withan initial needs analysis, followed by Analysis of learner, setting and job. The Design partincludes objectives specification, test development, sequencing, and strategies and tacticsselection. The Development part includes materials preparation, users’ manuals and prototypetesting, followed by Production. The Implementation part includes installation andmaintenance. The model ends with evaluation.
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 The authors break down the ADDIE model into small chunks so it is easy for novicecurriculum designers to digest. However, the ADDIE model would be more applicable in acurricula reform project rather than a small scale unit design since it involves an elaborate designprocess. Unfortunately this source was not useful for our project development because the ADDIEmodel applies more for larger scale projects. For instance, the ADDIE model would be an idealtemplate for developing a brand new set of curricula for the school year. However, for thepurpose of this project the ADDIE model is not applicable.The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1990). Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition. Educational Researcher, 19(6), 2-10. Anchored instruction aims to overcome students’ inert knowledge transfer problem bycreating environments that permit sustained exploration and enable the class to understand theproblem and knowledge. The article provides two examples of anchored instruction wherelearners are placed in a problem-solving environment where they are told to overcome anauthentic task. In this particular design framework, a major challenge is feasibility. However, inthe examples provided, educational technology tools are used to overcome this challenge bystimulating an authentic environment. This source is very useful because the anchored instruction examples in the articleinvolved using educational technology tools to present an authentic challenge, which is similar tohow we would like to design the learning experience. The concrete learning examples are usefulsamples for us to follow in our project design. We will refer back to this article when presenting the challenge-based authentic taskcomponent of anchored instruction in designing our learning experience. This model is veryapplicable to the HTML and CSS inert knowledge transfer problem when learning how to useHackasaurus.Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Chapter 1: Backward design. Understanding by design (expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. The first chapter of Wiggins and McTighe’s book provides the basic framework for theUnderstanding by Design (UbD) curriculum model. The authors argue that “backward design” iseffective in order to figure out what students need to learn, and catering to those needsspecifically. The chapter also provides three stages of backward design--1) Identify desiredresults, 2) Determine acceptable evidence, and 3) Plan learning experiences and instruction.Furthermore, this chapter organizes the three stages into a template that can be used to create acurriculum. The UbD framework provides a solid basis by which to create a curriculum based onlearning objectives. The beginning of this chapter speaks powerfully about how traditionalpractice may not be the most effective, because too many teachers focus on the teaching and notthe learning. Additionally, the “twin sins” of traditional design--activity-oriented design, andcoverage-based design--are too common in curricular design. The UbD stages hone in on desiredoutcomes, measuring these outcomes, and planning learning experiences in order to reach thelearner effectively in light of achieving certain learning goals.
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 The UbD framework was used to create the Hackasaurus professional developmentcurriculum. If the framework was not used, one way that this curriculum could have gone is thatit may have turned out to be more activity-based, and would have fallen prey to one of the twinsins based on the nature of the Hackasaurus learning experience. The UbD framework andtemplate served to be very useful in creating a learning plan with clear objectives that drive theactivities and lessons.Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Chapter 4: The six facets of understanding. Understanding by design (expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Wiggins and McTighe discuss six different facets of understanding in this chapter, whichinclude explanation, interpretation, application, perspective, empathy, and self-knowledge. Thischapter defines understanding as apprehending the meaning or import of an idea, and breaksunderstanding down into further facets. In a nutshell, each facet is described as follows:explanation involves sophisticated and apt theories and illustrations which provideknowledgeable and justified accounts of events, actions, and ideas; interpretation involvesinterpretations, narratives, and translations that provide meaning; application is the ability to useknowledge effectively in new situations and diverse, realistic contexts; perspective entails criticaland insightful points of view; empathy is the ability to get inside another person’s feelings andworldview; and self-knowledge is the wisdom to know one’s ignorance and how one’s patternsof thought and action inform as well as prejudice understanding. As the authors reveal,understanding is a multi-faceted and complex subject that involves many different aspects. Wiggins and McTighe offer great insight into a seemingly simple topic. This chapterreally hones in on precisely capturing all of the different elements of understanding, and goesinto great detail on each facet. The information is objective and reliable, and helps to really learnunderstanding in a profound way. The depth of coverage of understanding in this chapter helps to uncover some importantconcepts essential for creating curriculums. It would be useful to teach Hackasaurus in a multi-faceted way as to help learners deeply understand the material. One of the goals of Hackasaurusis for educators to come up with their own ideas of incorporating the Hackasaurus tool into theirclassrooms, so by helping them gain a deeper understanding of the tool, educators will have havethe chance to make Hackasaurus their own.
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 Online ResourcesMozilla.org Contributors. (2011). Hackasaurus Homepage. Retrieved on November 11, 2011 from http://hackasaurus.org/en-US/. The Hackasaurus Homepage provides overview information and tools to begin hackingwebsites using html. The main homepage leads a user directly to installing the “X-Ray Goggles,”the key tool used to hack websites, in three easy steps. Additionally, certain shortcut keys arelisted, allowing a user to use the functionality of the X-Ray Goggles, such as pasting from theclipboard, publishing hacks, and other commands. Other links refer to resources, such as “TheHacktivity Kit,” which provides background information and lesson plans for running a hack jam.Finally, other links such as future hack sessions, a blog, and other links round out theinformation in this website, making it a comprehensive source for people interested in hacking. This is a very useful source to use as the backbone of a Hackasaurus lesson plan forprofessional development. It contains the critical tools needed to hack a webpage, the X-RayGoggles. It also contains a very detailed lesson plan for preparing for a hack jam. TheHackasaurus Slides contain a lesson about hacking, the open web, and how to hack. Essentially,the existing information provided in this website can be re-used and modified to form a lessonplan targeted to teachers and other professionals for professional development. Information from the website would be critical in forming a professional developmentlesson plan. This website would be an integrated part of the learning plan, because it would bethe first webpage that users would go to when beginning the hacking portion of the lesson.Additionally, portions of The Hactivity Kit could be used and modified to create lesson plansthat cater to adult learners. Furthermore, the Hackasaurus Slides would serve as a very usefultool for introducing the concepts of hacking and the open web. This webpage contains so muchmore information and insight than discussed presently, and further examination is necessary tomake full use of this source.Mozilla.org Contributors. (2011). Hackasaurus Slides: How to hack the web. Retrieved on November 11, 2011 from http://htmlpad.org/hackasaurus-presentation-01/. The Hackasaurus Slides act as an essential tool in conducting a Hack Jam. It explains theimportant concepts of hacking using visual aid and introduces the unique characteristics of theweb, such as participatory culture. The slides also explain why understanding how to code isimportant and provides a brief guide on installing the Hackasaurus X-ray Goggles tool. The source is useful but it cannot stand by itself in a lesson. It is a useful tool inshowcasing important key concepts using visual aid but it needs a lot of elaboration andexplanation that are dependent on the instructor delivering the lesson. The slides can be used as an initial introduction in explaining key concepts of hackingand unique characteristics of the web. However, in order to ensure a successful lesson, theinstructor needs to be a content expert who can clearly explain these abstract concepts andconnecting these ideas by applying them in the lesson.
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 12Mozilla.org Contributors. (2011). The Hacktivity Kit. Retrieved on November 11, 2011 from http://labs.toolness.com/temp/hackasaurus-pdfs/hacktivity_kit.pdf.The Hacktivity Kit provides an extensive introduction to Hackasaurus, an open educationalresource tool that helps youth understand the building blocks that make up the web, includingHTML (hyper text markup language) and CSS (cascading style sheets). Learners are encouragedto develop “hacker habits” - a combination of technical and social skills to become active co-creators of the web and take charge of their own learning. After detailed explanations of all thehacking tools, the kit encourages educators in using the tools to facilitate their own webmakingevents or classes. This source is extremely useful serving as a model template for us to create ourchallenge-based curriculum. The Hacktivity Kit is generated by the project leaders ofHackasaurus at Mozilla Foundation. Therefore, it is a great source with recommendations onhow the hacking tools should be implemented. A lot of the technical term definitions such as hack, HTML and CSS would be useful toincorporate in clarifying key concepts. Step two and Step three of the Hacktivity Kit includesample learning modules which are useful acting as sample activities for us to refer to whendrafting lesson plans for our project.Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2011). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation-Open Educational Resources. Retrieved on November 9, 2011 from www.oecd.org. The Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation forEconomic Co-operation and Development has created a project to determine why educationalresources are being shared over the web, who is sharing the information, and what theimplications of this sharing are. The project analyzes the sustainability of open educationalresources. It also analyzes barriers and incentives of educators delivering their materials as openeducational resources (OER) and how to improve access and usefulness for OER users. Although this source is reliable, it is not as useful as other sources to our curriculumbecause it seems to focus more on the impact of OER on higher education and the sharing ofmaterial by professors. However, the website is objective in presenting the material and resultsof the project. Although Hackasaurus is an open educational resource, this website is not very helpful toour curriculum development. However, one helpful aspect is its analysis of how to make OER’ssustainable. We may be able to use information from that segment to ensure the sustainability ofHackasaurus. Furthermore, the website articles discuss property rights of online resources andwe should keep that in mind as we plan our curriculum.P2PU Contributors. (2011). P2PU. Retrieved on November 11, 2011from http://p2pu.org/en/. The Peer 2 Peer University (P2PU) is an open education project that provides creativelearning outside of an institutional setting and gives learners recognition for their achievements.This tool provides a platform in which people work together to learn about a particular topic by
HACKASAURUS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 13completing tasks, assessing work, and providing feedback. Four schools make up the P2PUplatform - Webcraft, Social Innovation, Mathematical Future, and Education. The relevantschool for this discussion is the Webcraft school, in which students can learn web development. The featured challenges in the School of Webcraft contain some useful learning tools,some of which involve learning html. Each challenge is divided into around three to six tasks,and each task is explained in more detail when clicked on. Additionally, a discussion boardprovides helpful hints and comments by peers. The goal of the different challenges, tasks, anddiscussion board are to provide a structured method of learning the information, as well as acommunity of people who have gone through the challenges before and can provide commentsand suggestions. This source appears to be useful in creating a collaborative online learningexperience. The P2PU platform would be helpful in terms of structuring Hackasaurus, if it was to beoffered in an online format. One way to use this source is to offer a teaching certification, onceall of the challenges are completed. Within each challenge would be more detailed tasks thatrequire using the Hackasaurus tool to perform certain functions. An overarching theme couldpotentially be used for all of the challenges, such as a superhero theme. Finally, P2PU fits intothe heart of the Hackasaurus project, because P2PU promotes collaboration and knowledge-sharing, which is at the heart of Hackasaurus.The International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). National Education Technology Standards. Retrieved on November 9, 2011 from http://www.iste.org. The International Society for Technology in Education provides standards for bothstudents and teachers. Standards for students include demonstrating creativity and innovation,communicating and collaborating, thinking critically, and using technology effectively andproductively. Standards for teachers include engaging students in exploring real-world issuesand solving authentic problems using digital tools and resources, modeling collaborativeknowledge construction, and providing students with multiple varied learning assessments. Thiswebsite also lists professional development courses and conferences in which teachers can learnmore about using technology in education. The purpose of this website is to advance the effective use of technology in PK-12 andteacher training. This is a useful source because it presents guidelines to consider for bothstudents and teachers when implementing a technology curriculum. I believe it is a reliablesource because it is a collaboration of educators overseen by a board of directors who have beeninvolved with technology in education for many years. Because it presents standards for both teachers and students, this site will be helpful aswe consider the overarching goals of our curriculum. By considering the standards, it will behelpful in determining content as we plan our lessons. Furthermore, the standards support one ofour aims of teaching digital citizenship.