Tunnel ventilation ppt tunnel asia 2013

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THis presentation deals with Tunnel Ventilation concepts, with special reference to T80, India's longest transportation tunnel across Pir Panjal range, connecting Jammu region to Kashmir valley

THis presentation deals with Tunnel Ventilation concepts, with special reference to T80, India's longest transportation tunnel across Pir Panjal range, connecting Jammu region to Kashmir valley

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  • 1. TUNNEL VENTILATION AND FIRE SAFETY A case study of Pirpanjal Tunnel T80 0f USBRL Project -Hitesh Khanna & Sandesh Srivastva Ircon International Limited
  • 2. PIR PANJAL TUNNEL- AN OVERVIEW• IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED is the principle execution agency for DHARAM-QAZIGUND- BARAMULLAH section of USBRL project of Northern Railway.• Pir Panjal Tunnel, between Qazigund and Banihal, is the landmark tunnel of the project, connecting Kashmir Valley to Jammu Region.• At 11.215 Kms., it is the LONGEST transportation tunnel in India. 2
  • 3. T 80 ON USBRL PROJECT 3
  • 4. T80 SECTION AND PLAN 4
  • 5. • Max Over burden 1100 mts.• B. G. Rly. S/L Track• 3 mts. Road• 48.5 m2 X-Sec Area• Water Proof 5
  • 6. Ventilation Requirement• Normal Operation (Depends on Traction Mode): – Maintain Sustainable Air Quality in side the Tunnel • Pollutant Levels • Oxygen Levels • Temperature• Emergency Rescue Management (Depends on Fire Load): – Fire and Smoke Management to Assist Emergency Evacuation Strategy – Fire Effect Mitigation 6
  • 7. • Detailed Design Consultants – M/s Geoconsult- RITES JV – Overall Tunnel Design and Top level Supervision, observat ions based On-site design with NATM approach – Ventilation, Rescue, E &M Design 7
  • 8. • HBI Haerter – Ventilation Design Proof Check 8
  • 9. STANDARD THRESHOLD POLLUTION LEVEL (1) (2) (3) CO 50 75 400 NO 25 37.5 35 NO2 5 5 5 American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists and Continuous Limit for working environment. (Ref. DPR)1) Long Term Sustainable Threshold Values for Industrial Working Environment (8 hours working)2) Non-Continuous Exposure, with intermittent Air Exchange3) Limits up-to 15 minutes exposure 9
  • 10. ADOPTED THRESHOLD ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS Design 8 Hours Element 15 Min. Exposure Limit Exposure Pir Panjal CO 50 ppm 200 ppm 50 ppm NO 25 ppm 35 ppm 90% of NOx NO2 4 ppm 5 ppm 10% of NOxSum: NOx 29 ppm 40 ppm 25 ppm CO2 5000 ppm 10000 ppm 5000ppm SO2 5 ppm 5 ppm 5ppm < 0,012m^-1Particulates Not defined Not defined (extinction (PM) coefficient)Temperature 40°C 50°C for a train passing, max.65°C - 10
  • 11. LOCO MOTIVE EXHAUST DATAemission Standards measured emission data US EPA (line haul locomotive, WDM2/ALCO WDM3A/AL WDM4/ALCO g/kWh ORE UN UIC Tier 0) 2530HP CO 3073HP 4000HP CO 3 6.7 3 6.71 0.52 0.72 0.56 NOX 12 12.7 10 10.73 13.56 12.42 7.62Particle 0.5 0.8 0.25 0.30 ??? ??? 0.39 11
  • 12. Ventilation For Fire and Smoke ManagementWhat happens if a tunnel fire occurs ? the tunnel roof fills with smoke even in the upstream direction against the longitudinal velocity!! 12
  • 13. Ventilation For Fire and Smoke Management • Smoke To Be Directed, to Permit Escape in other direction • AvoidBACKLAYERING" Backlayring – Critical Velocity of Airflow to be Maintained 13
  • 14. Stratification Of Smoke • Smoke Rises to Top – Permits Escape Underneath in cooler air – Flashover Control • Typically Stratification lasts for 500-800mts – 30-40 MW fire – Tunnel Geomtry, Slope – Air Flow Conditions 14
  • 15. VENTILATION DESIGN INPUTS SMOKE CONTROL• Input Parameters – What is the maximum size of any fire, which may reasonably be expected to occur, given the use of tunnel • (Design Fire Curve- Fire/Smoke Vs. Time) – What Corresponding Ventilation is required to prevent smoke Backflow • Critical Velocity to be attained 15
  • 16. VENTILATION SYSTEMS• Longitudinal – Air Set in Motion along Tunnel Axis • Portal to Portal, Same speed though out the Tunnel Length • No Division into Aerodynamic Segments • Low Cost, Does not need Transverse air Egress Points • Time to Purge Foul Air depends on Air Flow Velocity, Tunnel Length 16
  • 17. VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.)• Transverse – Two Independent Ducts (Fresh Air Inflow and Exhaust air exit) • Can create Aero dynamic Sections (In case of Fire) • May Need Transverse Exit Routes (Low Overburden Ventilation Shafts, Stations in Metros • Costlier to Install, and operate (More Aerodynamic Losses) 17
  • 18. VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.)• Semi-Transverse – Combination of Longitudinal and Transversal System: • Separation of Fresh and Exhaust air • Reversible- • Fire Case Fresh Air through Portal, Exhaust through Ventilation Stack, Permitting Aerodynamic Separation • Normally, Fresh air Through Ventilation Stacks • Larger Tunnel X-Section 18
  • 19. VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.)• Considering the merits and demerits of each ventilation system and since there is no station and stop in pir-panjal tunnel; longitudinal ventilation system has been considered fit to apply in this tunnel & worldwide also, only longitudinal ventilation is applied to rail/road tunnel or underground projects. Only in underground stations and stops, transversal and semi transversal might be applied. 19
  • 20. Boundary Conditions (Geometric Data) 20
  • 21. Boundary Condns. (Geometry) Description Details Tunnel length 11.215 m Length from Banihal Station to South 1450 m portal Length from North Portal to 4774 m Qazigund Section Finished cross section 48.50 m2 Average elevation above sea level 1734.75 m 21
  • 22. Thermo Dynamic Data ITEM REFERENCEGeothermal Heat Input Para 3.2.2Depending on Parent RockTemperature and Temp. Gradientto Tunnel Rock SurfaceTemperature, Pressure and Density Para 3.2.2.1Gradient of Air Inside the TunnelPortal Meteorological Data Para 3.2.3Portal Temperature, Wind Pressure, Para 3.2.3.1, 3.2.3.2, 3.2.3.3, 3.2.3.4Natural Buoyancy Pressure and PressureDifferential between the Portals 22
  • 23. Aero Dynamic Data ITEM REFERENCETunnel Characteristics: Para 3.4 Portal Losses, Tunnel Wall Friction, Wind Velocity at Portals Air Pressure and Temperature Air DensityCritical Velocity Critical Velocity to prevent Back Layering Critical Froude Number Constant Air flow to Blow the Smoke Temperature Near The Fire Scene away from Passengers Exiting in Other Direction, Drive HC Vapours Away from Fire Source to avoid Flash OverJet Fan Installation Factor & Para 3.5 & 3.6Piston Effect Of The Train andTrain Data 23
  • 24. THERMODYNAMICS ...buoyancy… a thermodynamic effect warm mass of rock temperature rise leads to lower density of air heat of train…. and to longitudinal velocity - chimney effect 24
  • 25. ...wind pressure andmeteorological effects...wind pressure effect depends on: Tunnel - meteorological situation - tunnel data wind pressure 25
  • 26. AERODYNAMICS ...piston effect … depends on:for the Pir Panjal tunnelthe piston effect leads to: Tunnel - speed of train and aerodynamic drag• longitudinal velocity of about 5.34 m/s• fresh air of about 241 m3/s - ratio between tunnel and train cross section area - tunnel resistance: length of tunnel, wall friction and others 26
  • 27. Calculation Of Fresh Air Flow• Para 3.6.2 – Fresh Air Demand due to Gaseous Emissions – Fresh Air Demand due to Particulate Emissions – Fresh Air Demand oxygen Depletion (Diesel Engine) – Normalization Of Temperature (Below 40 deg. C) after passage of 5000T train Uphill• Ventilation Design (Normal Case) Para 4.0 – Time to restore Safe Conditions Inside the Tunnel – Waiting Time for Next Train to enter (after exit of Uphill Loaded Train) 27
  • 28. TRAIN SIMULATION TO ASSESS VENTILATION NEEDlongitudinal velocity longitudinal velocity 5,00 4,00 3,00 2,00 1,00 [m/s] 0,00 0 60 120 180 240 300 -1,00 -2,00 -3,00 -4,00 -5,00 time [min] For normal operatrion No artificial ventilation is needed Train with 40 km/h needs about 17 min to pass tunnel 28
  • 29. Ventilation Design ApproachNatural velocity achieved inside tunnel : 29
  • 30. Emergency Ventilation Design Fire • Select Design Fire Load: Investigations were performed by Deutsche Bahn AG – Diesel Loco → Peak 20 MW – Electric Loco → Peak 12 MW – Passenger train → Peak 25 MW – Freight train → Peak 8- 52 MW (depending on load) • Design Fire Adopted 40 MW (Two Dsl. Loco in Tandem) 30
  • 31. Emergency Ventilation Design Approach: TEMPERATURE / SMOKE PROGRESSION ALONG THE LENGTH HEIGHT Computation fluid dynamics (camatt) – Design Fire – Tunnel Geometry – Fan design & Configuration – Thermo Dynamics – Fluid Dynamics 31
  • 32. Emergency Ventilation Design Approach: TEMPERATURE / SMOKE PROGRESSION ALONG THE LENGTH HEIGHT BY NEAR FIRE CONDITIONS BY 3DCFD Objective:- – To clarify condition d/s of fire – Influence of longitudinal flow velocity on the tenability d/s from fire – Design Fire load 25 MW – Smoke plum should remain 2.5m above rail level during self evacuation time – Use of Deutsche Bahn Fire curve for smoke release rate and critical velocity 32
  • 33. Ventilation Requirement with Electric TractionNo ventilation required for regular operationFire load for electric locomotives < Diesel powered onesAccording to design procedure and UIC→ fire load depends on type of train→ typical criteria *: * According to Deutsche Bahn AG● Diesel → Peak 20 MW● Electric → Peak 12 MW● Passenger train → Peak 25 MW● Freight train → Peak 8-52 MW (depending on load)Chosen design criteria → 40 MWElectric traction does not impact ventilation design Page 33
  • 34. FINAL VENTILATION DESIGNJet Fan (Main Tunnel)Jet Fan (Access Tunnel) 34
  • 35. Proposed E&M System Outline World Standard Pir Panjal UIC CommentsRedundant Power Supply   ~ I-67, I-65 I-68CCTV System   Emergency and Service Phone System    I-42 I-66, I-2Tunnel Radio System   Public Address System (SpeakerSystem)   ~Fire Detection System   Fire Fighting System (Water I-24, I-64Line, Extinguishers)   Ventilation System    I-25Emergency Lighting    I-41Control Centre   ~ Page 35
  • 36. FUNCTIONAL X-SECTION OF T80 36
  • 37. E&M System Consists of the following433/250V – 50 Hz Power SupplyEmergency Power SupplyEarthing & Potential Equalisation SystemTunnel LightingTunnel FittingsFire Detection SystemBuilding Power & Lighting InstallationsRoom Ventilation & Air Conditioning 37
  • 38. Ventilation Control Eqpmnts Visibility detection Airflow measurement Automatic operation Basic ventilation Visibility data Airflow direction Wind speed Fire Ventilation Fire Alarm Visibility data Airflow direction Wind Speed 38
  • 39. VENTILATION CONTROL STRATEGYREQUIREMENTS TO THE STAFF (NORMAL OPERATION)Train staff►Report about type and direction of train entering the tunnel►Break down: Report the location of the break downControl center staff►Know about train type and direction►Monitor emission levels in the tunnel►Monitor appropriate operation of ventilation►Instruct the train driver to shut down engines (if necessary) 39
  • 40. Ventilation Control Strategy Requirements to the staff (emergency operation)Train staff►Guide passengers in the right direction►Communicate and Local Guidance for Passenger RescueControl center staff►Select and confirm the appropriate mode of operation►Monitor the appropriate mode of ventilation►Support rescue operation (e.g. coordinate the rescue train) 40
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