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Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)
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Rawe Report (Hitesh Karkar)

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  1. 2008 Rural Fisheries Work Experience Programme By Hitesh K Karkar College Of Fisheries Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh Gujarat
  2. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME (RFWEP) YEAR – 2008 FIELD REPORT SUBMITTED BY Name : - HITESH K. KARKAR Roll No. : - 03 Reg. No. : -J3-04-2004 Class : - B. F. Sc. Semester : - VIII. Maximum Marks: 30 Marks Obtain: ------- PLACE: - Veraval Signature of Examiner DATE: - COLLEGE OF FISHERIES JUNAGADH AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY VERAVAL College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 2
  3. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar C ERTI FIC AT E This is t o c ert ify th at a n in ter nship pr og r amm e s atisfa c tor y car ri ed o ut i n 8th semest er and h en c e r ec ord ed i n this rep ort is bo naf i ed wo rk of M r . H I T E S H K . K ARK A R h a v ing Re g. no . J 3 -0 4 - 2 0 0 4 d urin g t h e a cad e mi c y ea r 2 0 0 7 - 2 0 0 8 . Dat e: Pla ce: Ve raval Si gn of FR W EP Pri nc ipal In ch a rg e Col le g e of fisher ies College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 3
  4. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar CONTENTS Sr.No. TOPICS Page No. 1 Acknowledgement 1 2 Introduction 2 3 Aims and objectives of FRWEP 3 4 Report on experience in: A) Fish Processing 4 a) Fish processing plant 5 b) Survey of fishery products 17 c) Surimi Plant (HUL) 18 d) Pre-processing handling 23 e) Fish curing yard 24 f) Fish meal plant 26 g) SUMMARY 28 B) Fishing Experience and Activities 29 a) Co-operative society, Mangrole 30 b) Royal shipyard, Mangrole 31 c) Fishing experience, Jafrabad 33 C) Study of fish catch composition 34 a) Production of yield from landing center 35 b) SUMMARY 36 D) Socio-Economic Survey In Fishing Villages 37 a) Socio-economic aspect of village fishermen 38 b) SUMMARY 72 E) Fisheries Co-Operative Society 73 Assessment on the performance and significance Of Fishery co- 74 operative society b) SUMMARY 77 F) Aquaculture And Allied Work 78 a) Shrimp farm structure, design and management 80 b) Fisheries research station, Okha 89 c) Fisheries research station, Sikka 98 d) Inland fisheries research station, Junagadh 103 e) Maharaja Chinese circular hatchery, Bharuch. 106 f) SUMMARY 108 5 Study tour report and advantages of study tour 109 6 Summary of field work report 128 7 FEED BACK AND SUGGESTION TO IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 129 RFWEP effective College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 4
  5. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express sincere gratitude to Dr. A.Y.Desai, Dean, College Of Fisheries, Veraval and Prof. C.R.Trivedi coordinator of RFWEP for conducting and coordinating RFWEP. I also express my sincere thanks to Dr.S.M. Zofair, Dr.K.L.Mathew, Prof. N.G.Akolkar and Prof. K.H.Vadher for providing and arranging facilities in respective field. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 5
  6. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar INTRODUCTION RFWEP was conducted with a basic aim of gaining fieldwork experience in various discipline of fisheries science. The programme was divided into following categories. Fish processing technology: - 35 days Fish catch composition analysis: - 21 days Socio economic survey: - 7 days Fisheries co-operative society: - 7 days Aquaculture and allied work: - 35 days In addition to this our college had arranged a study tour of 14 days. We visited four major states of Indian coastline i.e. 1. Maharashtra 2. Goa 3. Karnataka 4. Kerala We visited various national fisheries institute, fisheries colleges and private organizations for better exposure in fisheries science. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 6
  7. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE "RFWEP"  To develop skill and confidence among the student to tackle the various situation.  To collect the data regarding fishery and allied sector.  To know the gap between theory and practical.  To provide scope and opportunity to get better expose in the fisheries world.  To know how to deal with the fisherman, manager and officer.  To tackle the people at their gross root level.  To familiarize with the socioeconomic condition of the fisherman and status of the fishery in society, country and world.  To develop the understanding of rural community life and situation Prevailing in the village.  To provide opportunity for practical training through extension teaching method.  To know the role of fisherwoman in fishery and allied sector.  To know the factor affecting the adoption of modern technology.  To develop confidence and competence among the students for solving the problem related to fishery. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 7
  8. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar FISH PROCESSING College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 8
  9. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar FISH PROCESSING PLANT Under RFWEP I visited the JINNY MARINE TRADERS, GIDC, Veraval to obtain training regarding fish/shellfish processing technology. The plant is EU approved. The entire internship program for fish processing technology is of 20 days started from 30th December 2007 to 18th January 2008. The general information related to processing plant is given below. (1) Owner: - Mr. K.P. Thomas (2) CEO: - Mr. K.P. Thomas (3) Plant manager: - Mr. Pathan (4) Production manager: - Mr. K.S. Babu (5) Q/C In charge: - Mr. D.S. Bisth (6) Lab Incharge: - Mrs. Khyati Mr. K.P. Thomas is first person to establish fish processing plant in veraval. He had a good experience in various aspects of this business and technology. The plant has various sections like… 1. Raw material receiving room 2. Raw material chill room 3. Pre-processing section 4. Ice-crushing room 5. Processing section 6. Blanching room 7. Flake ice room 8. Processing material chill room 9. IQF section 10. Packaging section 11. Daily packaging material room 12. Cold storage 13. Ant room 14. Freezing section PLANT DETAILS The plant was commissioned in September 1996. Total land area: - 5319 m2 Ice plant: - 30 m ton/day R.M. Chill room: - 20m ton/day Freezing facility: - 3 Blast freezer : - 2-plate freezer : - 2 IQF Units College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 9
  10. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Water treatment plant: - 12000 Ltr/hr R.M. capacity: - 20 ton/day Block ice plant: - 25 ton/day Flake ice plant: - 15 ton/day Whole R.M. freezing capacity: - 38 ton/day Tunnel freezer: - 4 ton/ 8 hrs IQF NO.1: - 3750 ton/day NO.2: - 1.5 ton/day Production capacity: - 20 ton Cold storage NO.1: - 175 M ton NO.2: - 275 M ton NO.3: - 150 M ton Storehouse: - 3 No. (For packaging materials, Chemicals, cleaning agent) 15. No. Of Workers: - 600 No. OTHER FACILITIES Apart from these other facilities include well-equipped In house laboratory for bacteriological and chemical tests like Histamine, Indole, TMA, and TVBN. Water treatment plant is there to provide portable water. Separate change room male and female workers. Foot dip and hand dip facility is available in every section. Adequate no of toilet far from seafood handling and processing area. LOCATION The plant (JMT) is located in veraval G.I.D.C. near by fish landing center. The distance between plant and landing center is about 3 kms. GMP is incorporated in handling and processing of seafood. They also follow HACCP system very strictly. Monitoring and improvements are done regularly in sanitation and hygiene conditions. The personnel involved in handling and processing of fishes are trained regularly for better hygienic seafood products. Chlorine level DESCRIPTION CHLORIN LEVEL Processing water and glaze water < 2 ppm Floor and wall washing 100-200 ppm Hand dip 20 ppm Foot dip 100-200 ppm Utensil and table washing 50 ppm SPECIES USED FOR PROCESSING In JMT only shell fishes are processed these include cuttlefish, squid, shrimp and octopus. Among these, various species are used to process according to demand and supply. (A). CUTTLE FISH: - College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 10
  11. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 1. Sepiella inermis (Unda goti) 2. Sepia prasadi (Long Bone), (LB) 3. Sepia subaculeata (Dedka) 4. Sepia pharonis (Makul), (Biggest size) (B). SQUID: - 1. Loligo duvacelli (Indian squid) 2. Loligo indica (Semi needle) (C). OCTOPUS: - 1. Octopus memranicus 2. Octopus vulguris (D). SHRIMP: - 1. Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Tiny) 2. Parapenaeopsis solenosera 3. Penaeus monodon (Tiger shrimp) 4. Metapenaeus dobsoni (Flower tail prawn) 5. Metapenaeus affinis 6. Metapeneaus monoceros (Kapsi) PRODUCTS They have many kind of products prepared from above fishes. The one of special feature of this plant is their value added product. Some products prepared here are not found any other processing plant. The some products prepared in JMT are listed below. SPECIES PRODUCTS (A) CUTTLE FISH CFW, CFWC, CFST, CFTN, CFSK. (B) SQUID SQWC, SQW, SQTN, SQRG, SQRGBKN, SSQ, SQFT, PUD Stuffed squid (SQ tube+PUD shrimp+Tentacle), SQT & SQTN, Frozen skewer with or without capsicum. (C) SHRIMP HO, HL, HLSO, PUD Shrimp, PD (Block frozen). GRADING SYSTEM By grading one can sort out material of uniform size and of weight. In JMT the grading is done manually by workers. These grades are universal and depend on buyer’s demand and subject to change. e.g. 40/60: - It indicates that in this grade in 1 kg of fish more than 40 pieces and less than 60 pieces should be there. In JMT only shellfishes are processed and packed. The grade system for these species is as follows. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 11
  12. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar SECIES/ PRODUCT GRADE 1.CUTTLE FISH: - (A) CFWC U/1= 1050 gm, 1/2 =550-1050 gm, 2/4= 260-555 gm, 5/7= 160-255 gm, 8/12= 95-155 gm, 13/20= 55-90 gm, 20/40, 40/60, 60/Up or 60/80. (B) CFW U/20= Less than 20 gm, U/50= Less than 50 gm, 50/100, 100/150, 150/300. 2. SQUID: - (A) SQWC U/10, 10/20, 20/40, 40/60. (B) SQW U/3, 3/6, 6/10, 10/20. (C) SQRG 40/60, 60/Up. (D) SQTN 60/Up. 3.OCTOPUS: - (A) GUTTED 16/25, 20/40, 40/60. 4. SHRIMP: - (A) PUD (Peeled and Un Deveined) 10/25, 20/40, 40/60, 60/80, 80/100, 10/200 200/300, 300/600. 10/30, 30/50, 50/70, 70/100, 100/200. (B) HL (Head Less) 21/30, 31/40, 41/50, 51/60, 61/70. (C) HO (Head On) 11/16, 16/20, 21/25, 26/30, 31/35, 36/40, 41/50. YIELD RATE: - Yield rate shows the quantity (Wt.) of product obtained after processing at final stage. It depends on condition of raw material. If the raw material is fresh the yield rate is more and as the quality of raw material deteriorate yield rate also less. In some products yield rate is… (1) SQW: 100% (2) SQWC: - 80% (3) SQRG: - 40% (4) PUD (HO): - 60% (5) PUD (HL): - 45% PUD STUFFED: - PUD Stuffed is prepared mainly from squid. Their ingredients are as follows… INGREDIENT QUANTITY WEIGHT Squid head 1 NO. 8 gm PUD shrimp 16 No. 24 gm Squid tube 1 No. 25 gm Squid wings 1 Pair 3 gm Total weight 60 gm College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 12
  13. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar WATER AND ICE REQUIREMENT: - In the processing and cleaning of fishes/seafood portable water is used for that water treatment plant is also set up. For the processing of 1 kg fish 8-10 ltr water is required. This depends on condition of raw material. If raw material is fresh then less water requires to process it and vice versa. Ice plays very important role in maintaining quality of fish/fish products for longer time. As much as ice is used to store the fish better it will be. In JMT daily ice requirement is… Ice used/ day = Wt. of ice block * Ice blocks used/ day = 110 kg * 150 Nos. = 16500 Kg Ice/day. RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIER ITEM SUPPLIER’S NAME CODE PLACE Fish Ankoor seafood A Veraval Fish Super star seafood S Veraval Cephalopod Narendra seafood N Veraval Cephalopod Roshni seafood R Veraval Shrimp Jay somnath seafood J Veraval Shrimp Haji seafood H Veraval Capsicum Sheetal seafood SH Rajkot CODE LIST For packing they use 5 ply-corrugated cartons. When the products are packed in cartons information about product is printed on carton in code form. Product name Grade Production year Production month Production date Type of packing Supplier code Shift (Day, Night) For production year month wise alphabets are used and these are accepted universally. Only “I” is not used in this. CODE MONTH A January College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 13
  14. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar B February C March D April E May F June G July H August J September K October L November M December E.g. SQRG IQF 60/Up 6A07 1*10 kg D R SQRG= the product name (Squid ring) IQF = Type of freezing 60/Up= grade of product 1*10 kg= wt of product D= shift (day) R= supplier name (Roshni sea food) 6A07= production date, month and year (7/1/2006) FLOW CHART (A). PREPARATION OF CEPHALOPOD PEELED PRODUCT BLOCK FROZEN (SQWC, SQT & SQT, SQT, SQRG, SQTN & SQWC): - College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 14
  15. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar SECTION PROCESSING WORK R.M. receiving R.M. received washing, sampling, Visual inspection, weighing and icing  Pre-processing Peeling Deskining, gutting  Agitating 2.5 % brine sol. For15-20 min  Washing In portable water  Processing Grading Size wise sorting  Weighing & Jali setting for freezing  Freezing Freezing 6-8 hrs in tunnel freezer  Glazing In portable chilled water.  Ant room Packing In 5 ply corrugated carton.  Cold storage Frozen storage at -18 C or below.  Packaging Final packing As per buyer’s demand.  Shipment (B). PREPARATION OF SHRIMP PRODUCTS (HO, HL, PUD and BLOCK FROZEN): SECTION PROCESSING WORK R.M. receiving R.M. received Deicing, washing, Inspection, weighing College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 15
  16. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar  R.M. chilling room  Pre-processing Beheading/peeling/ Head and offal removal Deveining  Washing Using chilled portable Water.  Processing Grading Size wise setting  Jali setting Size wise setting  Freezing Freezing IQF freezing  Packing 5 ply corrugated carton.  Frozen storage At -18 C or below.  Shipment The flow of process should be in one-way i.e. unidirectional, ones material comes to processing section should not send to pre-processing section. It helps to save energy and reduces chances of cross contamination. MICROBIOLOGY LAB In JMT well-equipped microbiology lab is there for to do bacteriology. The equipments they have in the lab are.  Centrifuge machine  Hot plate/magnetic stirrer  Digital pH meter  Electronic/Digital balance  Colony counter  BOD Incubator  Auto clave  Oven  D.W. Unit  Water bath  Incubator  Refrigerator, etc. Microbial Tests 1. TPC 5. vibrio cholera 2. E.coli 6. vibrio parahaemolyticus. 3. Streptococcus 7. Salmonella 4. Interobactor College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 16
  17. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar For the isolation of pathogens various media are used. These media favors the growth of specific pathogens only. The media used for isolation of various pathogens is as follows. Sr. No. PATHOGENS MEDIA 1. TPC TGBE, N- Agar, PCA (Plate count Agar) 2. S.coccus BP- Agar 3. E.coli T-7 agar 4. V.P. APW 5. V.C. SPW 6. Enterobacter VRVG WORKING AREA OF MICROBIOLOGY LAB 1. Media preparation room. 2. Sterilization room. 3. Inoculation room. 4. Incubation room. 5. Discarding room. MICROBIOLOGICAL TEST SAMPLE PARAMETER FREQUENCY NO. OF SAMPLE Raw material and S. aureus, V.C., E.coli, Daily finished products Salmonella, TPC Sanitation and hygiene TPC, Coliform, V.C. Every 15 days Salt S. aureus, E.coli, Lot wise/monthly AS REQUIRED sulphite reducing bacteria Water and Ice TPC, Coliform, V.C. Every 15 days LIMITS OF MICROBS, PESTICIDES & METALS (A) METALS SR. METAL LIMIT (ppm) NO. 1. Cadmium 1 2. Lead 1 3. Mercury 0.5 4. Arsenic 76  Sulphite as So2 limit:- (a) For U.K. and FDA (U.S.): - 100 ppm (b) For EU: - 500ppm College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 17
  18. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar (c) Should not exceed 100 ppm in raw meat and 30 ppm in cooked meat. (B) MICROBS IN FROZEN PRODUCTS SR. NO. MICROBS LIMIT 1. E.coli 20/gm 2. Staphy 100/gm 3. Enterobacter N.D. 4. V.C. N.D. in 25 gm 5. V.P. N.D. 6. Salmonella N.D. in 25 gm (N.D. = Not detected) (C) PRSTICIDE SR. NO. PESTICIDE LIMIT (ppm) 1. Dieldrin 0.3 2. DDT, DDE, 5 TDE 3. Heptachlore 0.3 ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION Organoleptic evaluation is done to check freshness of material or product. Generally it is used to check any dehydrated pieces, total pieces, over size and under size pieces, general appearance, etc. Info on carton: - KING GRORGE – SASHA CFWC IQF 13/20 D R 1*8 Kg 9-1 SHARVAN Master carton Wt. (Mc Wt.): - Fr. Wt.: - Count: - Fr pieces Wt. = Wt. of total pieces in 1 kg + extra pieces to compensate glaze wt. Total piece Wt. = Individual Wt. of previously taken pieces (1 kg) Total pieces in M.C. = Any Deformity = Yellow shade Pink shade Shape less Head broken Color/appearance Shape For Organoleptic evaluation No. /quantity of sample required is as follows. For R.M. 1 kg or 10 pcs from every 500 kg source wise and variety wise. For frozen product: - as per sampling scale. Type wise, variety wise and from days production. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 18
  19. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar UNIFORMITY The individual wt. avg wt. of the pieces in the range of (+,-)25 %variation. Avg. wt. = Fr. Wt. / count Eg. Fr.Wt. = 100, 86, 88, 98, 96, 86, 90, 124, 110, 112. = 1010/10 = 101 gm. (+, -) 25 % variation is acceptable so, For +25% variation = 101+25 = 125 For -25% variation = 101-25 = 76 The minimum wt/piece = 76 gm. The maximum wt/piece = 125 gm. DOCUMENTATION FOR EXPORT For export of seafood container for Euro plant documents required for one container are as follows. 4 copy CFE 3 Copy invoice 2 copy Code list Health certificate G.S.P. The consignment we are exporting is insured against any damage occur to it. The payment of shipping of consignment is done by two ways. One is payment by processor and another is by buyers. But in most cases payment is done by processor. RECORD KEEPING In JMT they maintain certain records/register.  Raw material register  Water tank washing register  Cold storage register  Meeting register  Online check register  Cloth washing register  Waste disposal register  Water treatment plant register  Ice production register  Worker’s training register  Cooking and blanching register  Freezer log book  Ingredient check list  Processing register  Daily production and packaging register  Periodic or monthly sanitation control record  EIA certificate register College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 19
  20. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar  Calibration register  Chlorine testing register  Bacteriological register  Dispatch register SURVEY OF FISHERY PRODUCTS Under RFWEP I visited Khara kuva local fish market at veraval. At there various fishery products were sold.  Salted jelly fish  Processed fish vertebrae  Fish gut lining College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 20
  21. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar  Squid meal  Air bladder of catfish  Dried Bombay duck  Fish maws  Dried jawala prawn  Chitin  Glucosamine  Essential amino acid  Shark bone  Fish silage  Shrimp extract powder  Fish liver oil  Fish body oil  Fish wafer  Shark skin leather  Shark fin rays  Squaline  Dried Scolidon  Gonad of Bombay duck  Liver of catfish  Salted Hilsa  Dried shrimp  Dried Bombay duck  Dried Mendali  Dried reef cod  Dried Herring  Dried Silver Pomfret  Dried and saltedshrimp  Dried Steak and Bumbla  Dried Khagri  Dried Bangra  Dried Dhoma HINDUSTAN UNILIVER LTD CHORWAD INTRODUCTION: - Under RFWEP I visited Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL), Chorwad to observe and get knowledge about Surimi production. The first time Surimi production was by “Gadhrimarine” in 1994. The plant was established in 1996. They operate two Surimi plants one in Chorwad and another in Manglore. Traditional and advanced system was used for Surimi production. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 21
  22. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Director of plant: - Mr. Sudhakar Dhande Q/C in charge: - Mr. Sameer Nayer SELECTION OF RAW MATERIAL Various species of fish used for Surimi production such as...  Rani fish (Nemipterus spp.)  Dora (Priacanthus spp.) (Kinmedai)  Bhunger (Saurida spp.)  Turi (Johnius spp.)  Dhoma (Johnius spp.)  Jeera (Sphyraena spp)  Bagga (Trichurus spp.) For Surimi production meat should be white so fishes having white meat were selected. The raw material selected for Surimi production should be  Cheap  Easily available  More flesh  Low market price The Flow Chart of Surimi Production Raw material (Head less and gutted)  Screw conveyer  Fish washer – 1 (10ppm chlorinated water)  Net conveyer  Quantity feeder (Double screw conveyer)  Fish washer – 2 (10ppm chlorine water) `  Net conveyer  Crusher  College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 22
  23. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Meat separator  waste  outside  Continuous leaching tank- 1 (CLT – 1)  Vacuum pump  Rotary screen 1 & 2  Washed water   Continuous leaching tank – 2 Correction rotary screens  Vacuum pump  Rotary screen 3 & 4  Washed water  Batch leaching tanks 1 to 5  Washed water  Fat trap tanks  Vacuum pump   Holding tank  Correction rotary screen  Vacuum pump  Rotary screen  Washed water  Refiner Correction rotary screen   Screw press  Water  Vacuum pump  Screw conveyer  Hi-Knidder [It mixes the meat and Cryoprotectants, 100kg meat + 6kg sugar + 200 gm STPP (Sodium trio polyphosphate) + 200 Gms egg white powder (if required)]  Stuffer (Extruder)  Packing (10kg blocks are packed in polythene bags)  Freezing (In plate freezer for about 2 hrs.)  Metal detector  College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 23
  24. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Packaging in master carton (Two slabs are packed in one master carton)  Storage QUALITY INSPECTION OF SURIMI Sample Preparation For quality inspection of Surimi sample was taken at every 100 carton. 1kg meat as sample was taken from the block and was kept for thawing for 20-25 min. To prevent protein denature thawing was done in control air condition. After thawing it was grinded in Silent cutter for about 3 min temperature maintained at -2 to -3 C now salt (30 gm) was added and again 5 minute grinded. During grinding temperature was maintained at 150C. After grinding tapping was done (10-15 times, but standard is 22-23 times) to remove air bubbles. Then meat was filled in Stuffer to prepare tubes. Tubes were made up of Vinyledene chlorine, which is a heat resistant plastic. Tubes were prepared using stuffer. Generally 3 tubes were prepared from 1 kg meat. These tubes were then kept in chill water for 10 min after that placed in hot water (90 0C) for 40 min. Then it was kept in ice for 10 min. and incubated for 12 to 24 hrs. at 200C. After that following tests were done.  MOISTURE: - Moisture is measured in moisture meter (moisture content of surimi should be 75.5). 5gm sample was placed under infrared lamp for 15-20 min. GEL STRENGTH = DEPTH (cm) x BREAKING (gm)  GEL STRENGTH: - Gel strength is measured by RHEO TEX meter. It decides the quality of surimi.  COTAMINATION TEST (Sand check): - Sand particles were checked and points given to decide the quality of surimi.  = 1 Point, if size of sand particle is more than 5 mm. ∆ = ½ point, if size of sand particle is less than 5 mm. POINT TABLE POINT CONTAMINANT 10 0 9 1-2 8 3-4 7 5-7 6 8-11 5 12-15 4 16-19 3 20-25 2 26-30 1 31-Up College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 24
  25. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar  WHITENESS: - It was checked by whiteness meter.  MEAT PH: - Meat pH is tested using pH indicator.  ASHI TEST: - Ashi test is done by piercing the teeth into meat. In addition to quality checks water Hardness, water PH, TDS and Chlorine tests were also done. Microbiological tests are also done such as TPC, Salmonella, E-Coli, Vibrio etc. Grade Determination After completion of above test grading was done. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 25
  26. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Grade Moisture Minimum Minimum Total Whiteness Contaminants Ashi Braking Depth Gel . (Gm) (Cm) Strength (Gm X Cm) SSSA 75-76 900 1.4 1260 49 7 UP 9 UP SSA 75-76 800 1.3 1040 48 7 UP 8.5 UP SA 75-76 617 1.17 700 47 6 UP 8 UP AA 75-76 175 1.05 522 46 6 UP 6.5 UP A 75-76 400 1 400 44 6 UP 5.5 UP KA 76-77 333 0.9 300 44 6 UP 5 UP (A) 76-77 250 0.8 200 44 6 UP <5 C 76-77 <250 <0.8 100 44 6 UP - Grades were written on the carton after two days of packaging. And after that it was exported to Japan and other countries PRE-PROCESSING HANDLING Under RFWEP I have sanctioned to observe pre-processing handling of fish and shellfish. So for that I had visited the landing center at Veraval. Here I had observed following things. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 26
  27. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar The handling of fish is not in hygienic manner. When boat lands on jetty the fishes are removed using spade from the fish hold to cartons. The cartons are very dirty. The quantity of ice used for storage of fish is not enough. For the weighing fishes traditional weighing system is used. Drainage system is not proper to drain water from fish wash. There is no fencing to prevent rodents like cats, dogs, etc. get entry in pre-processing handling area of landing center and damage the fish quality. Fishermen and the buyers are not bothering about quality of fish. Fishes are dumped in hazardous manner. The spade used for transferring the fish from fish hold is rusted and sharp, which may damage the fish. Ice which plays important role in maintaining quality of fish for longer period is of poor quality. Some fishermen use thermocol boxes while going for fishing, which play a role of barrier between ice and atmosphere so ice will melt at very slow rate. The condition of fish hold is good in some boats and in some cases some of its part was rusted. The fishes are stored in fish hold in bulking method. Generally most fishermen go for 10 days fishing. After washing, weighing and icing the fish at landing center fishes are transported to processing plants in “chhakdo rickshaw”. These rickshaws are very dirty and inner surface is rough having crevices and cracks so, the dust particles, scales, etc accumulate and deteriorate the quality of fish. There is no facility of facility of insulation or shade in it so the temperature of fish rises to high and deteriorates the fish quality. Still the landing center of Veraval needs lots of improvement. It has good potential if proper facility and development is done. FISH CURING YARD Under RFWEP I visited fish curing yard at veraval. I visited S.S. Fisheries and Jose & Bros. to get knowledge and experience on various aspects of fish curing. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 27
  28. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar In curing yard at very small and thin fishes like anchoviella were dried whole without salting. Small fishes like sole fishes, small Crockers were salted whole and dried. Splitting or cutting into pieces before salting was done in case of bigger fish. While big fish like big ray, cat fish, shark etc. are split and deep sores are made in the exposed layer before salting for more contact with salt and to increase the surface area for faster evaporation of moisture. Salting is better in brine rather than in dry salt. When fatty fish is salted air should be excluded during brining to prevent rancidity. Salt are added in appropriate ratio 1:3. They use raised platform for drying of fish it prevent fish from contamination through dust, animal and also from water. Dried fish has shelf life of 15 days in summer and 30 days in winter. After drying fishes were packed in wooden box and cover with gunny bag. Each box contains 45 kg of fish. Soon after packing it was transported. Species used for curing  Ribbon fish  Sandhi  Dhoma  Turi  Bombay duck  Sole fish  Jibh  Eel  Kati  Shark  Magra  Barracuda  Bangda Dry salting method they follow is as under. B-grade quality raw material  Grading (Big, fatty and small fishes)  In big fishes were spilited, Small fish gill cover was removed  Dry salting for 1 to 2 days  Excess salt removed  Cleaning (fat removal)  Small fishes dried for 3-4 days  Packing (Polybags) College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 28
  29. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Products were prepared as per the buyers demand.  Light salt full drying for West Bengal, Tripura, Assam  Light salt semi dried for Kerala, Tamilnadu. The cured fishes were exported in Srilanka and Singapore. FISH MEAL PLANT During internship in fish processing technology I visited fishmeal plant. I visited Star fish meal plant at veraval G.I.D.C. generally fish meal was prepared from kutto and used for feeding in poultry farm due to good nutritional content. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 29
  30. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar For the fishmeal preparation they receive raw material from the Veraval, Porbandar, Jakhaw, Mangrole, and Okha. They also receive raw material from fish processing industries, which include trash fishes, damaged, and rejected fishes & fish processing industrial waste. The raw materials were purchased at the rate 1.50 to 2 Rs/kg According to protein level fishmeal was graded. GRADE: - A Sr. No. COMPOSITION % 1. Protein 45 2. Moisture 10-12 3. Sand/silt 5 4. Salt 5 GRADE: - B Sr. No. COMPOSITION % 1. Protein 35 2. Moisture 10-15 3. Sand/silt 8-10 4. Salt 5 FISH MEAL PRODUCTION Method: Raw material was washed and then spread in a thin layer over a raised platform for 8 to 10 hrs for drying under sun to maintain moisture level. After drying dried raw material was sieved sand & silt separated from it and kept in gunny bags. Each bag contains 25kg of dried fish. These dried fishes were grinded in the grinder. The grinder has a 50 hp motor. Now microbial test was done for protein, moisture, sand/silt & silt. The production capacity of the plant was 10-12 ton/day with 6-8 working hrs/day. After grinding the powdered dried fish were packed in gunny bags and stored in cool and dry place.  Storage: - They store the fishmeal in gunny bags of 50-55 kg.  Shelf life: - 6 months.  Storage capacity of plant: - 1000 ton.  Market price of fishmeal: - Rs. 8000/ton.  Marketing: - they sold it to poultry farm  Problem: - during storage insect infestation and moisture level. I visited another fishmeal plant "OCEAN AQUATICA". The entire fish meal production was mechanical and very less manual work was involved. The fishes that are commercially not important (trash fish), damaged and low market price were generally used in fishmeal production. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 30
  31. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar METHOD OF FISH MEAL PRODUCTION Raw material received (Dumped in pit)  Screw conveyor  Cooker (Cooking for 10-15 min)  Screw press (Removal of excess water)  Dryer (As per required moisture content)  Crushing (In hammer mill as per required size) This entire process takes about 1.5 - 2 hrs. Fishmeal is then packed in 50kg polythene bags and stored in cool and dry place. SUMMARY: -  During my RFWEP in processing section, I have gone through all practical aspect regarding post harvest technology. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 31
  32. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar  For the fish-processing unit, I was engaged in JMT Ltd. Where I gained all the practical knowledge regarding finfish & shellfish processing in various forms as per buyer’s demand. In that plant the fishes & shellfishes were processed starting from pre-processing, grading according to different size, freezing, and finally packing in various forms. We also gone through some of the microbial aspects like detection of specific microbes in seafoods.  At last I engaged in Survey of various fishery-based products where I observed various by products.  For the surimi production process I was engaged in HUL, Chorvad. Where I observed aspects related to surimi.  For the preprocessing handling process observation, I was engaged at Veraval harbour. Where I observed preprocessing handling of fish& shellfish onboard vessel & at harbour during unloading.  We were engaged at “Joes & Bros“ curing yard. Where I was well aware that how fishes were preserved by dry curing method. By using of salt & sunlight they can preserve the fishes up to months.  For the study & practical experience of Fishmeal production, I had visited “S.S. Fish meal plant”. Where I got practically information regarding Fishmeal composition, their use & application in various fields.  Thus through out this programme I was very much well aware with all that post harvesting activity conducted in Veraval. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 32
  33. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar FISHING EXPERIENCE AND ACTIVITIES SHRI MAHAVIR MACHIMAR SAHKARI MANDLI LOCATION: MAHAVIR MACHHIMAR SAHKARI MANDLI-MANGROLE. DATE: 23/02/2008 Under RFWEP I have take visit of co-operative society at Mangrole. I have concerned Mr. Ramjibhai Gohel, he is in charge of this society has give information about various activities of this co- operative society. This co-operative society was established on 26th FEB 1954 at Mangrole. Since College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 33
  34. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar establishment the society is working for the progress and socio-upliftment of fishermen community of Mangrole village. Activities of society : -  This society possess diesel pump so, member fishermen of this society get diesel at low cost then market price.  It provides fishing gears, equipment and accessories to fishermen at low price.  Society provides subsidy on purchase of fishing gears and small boat.  If there is any problem arise in fishers regarding fishing or any other, society intervene it and put in front of government.  Society takes helps of information collected by satellites, in which information regarding availability of fishes with respect to fishing ground is present. So, that fisherman gets more catch at less effort.  The society remains in contact with port authority and collects information of weather and tide condition and provides it to fishermen.  It also helps fishermen for sell of catch so, that they get maximum possible returns from it. Membership To obtain member of this society any person (fisherman) of that area having at least 18 yr old can be a member of this society. For this he has to pay 51 Rs. SUMMARY Shri Mahavir Machhimar co-operative society, Mangrole working efficiently and actively for development and success of fisher community. The infrastructure and management of the society is very good. The personnel of society are always ready to help and to solve the problem of fishers. ROYAL FIBER LOCATION: “ROYAL FIBRE” SHIPYARD MANGROLE. DATE: 21/02/2008 I have taken a visit of “Royal fibre” at mangrole. They mainly prepare fibre boats in this shipyard in different sizes according to the buyer’s requirement. I have first concerned Mr. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 34
  35. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Mohammad Hussein. Mr. Mohammed has make me familiar about how to prepare FRP boat sand gave information about various chemicals and materials required for preparing FRP boats.  Chemicals & Materials required for FRP boat construction are:  MAT: - Met is a fibrous material prepared from synthetic fibre. Chopped strand mat having specific gravity of 300-800 gm/mt2.  ROUISE: -It is a kind of synthetic material.  RASIN: - It is a one type of polyester.  WAX or POLISH: - To make smooth surface of the mould.  COBALT: - It is mixed with resin to provide stickiness.  CATALYST: - It is mixed with resin for proper application of resin.  PIGMENT: - To give color.  GEL COAT: - It is a semi-liquid type of material and is used to mix the color well. Resin is mixed with cobalt and catalyst just prior (5 to 10 min) of its use. Cobalt is used because it provides stickiness & strength while catalyst is added to accelerate the chemical reaction. All above chemicals and materials are brought from local shop in mangrole. In addition to all these chemicals and materials mould is prepared for the preparation of FRP boats. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF FRP BOATS: -  First inner surface of entire mould is cleaned to make it free from dust. The surface of the mould should be clean and smooth before its use.  After that apply thin layer of wax (polish) on it with clean and soft cloth and then immediately wipe off the wax. Repeat this process until a lustrous surface is obtained. So, the material can be easily removed after the process is completed.  Then apply gel coat and color on the waxed surface of the mould.  Apply one layer of mat on the surface of mould by using resin, which is already mixed with cobalt and catalyst. On this layer one layer of rouise is spread using resin.  Likewise alternate layers of mat and rouise is applied with the help of resin. Total number of layers of mat and rouise to be applied is mainly depends upon the size of the boat. It differs with the size of boat.  Then the mould is kept for drying under the sunlight.  After complete drying mould is removed and finally using wooden frame two parts are jointed together and strength is given th FISHING EXPERIENCE LOCATION: JAFRABAD DATE: 10/4/2008 Under RFWEP I got the opportunity to experience a fishing trip in Jafrabad. We have started our trip in early morning. The fishing boat takes about 2 hours to reach to the fishing ground. Here in Jafrabad generally Dol-net is used for fishing. Dol-net is a one type of passive gear. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 35
  36. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar We were observed the entire operation of Dol-net fishing. About 4-5 dol nets was used in fishing boat. After reaching to the fishing ground the fishermen set the net using sinkers and floaters (buoys). The net is kept as such in the water for about 6 to 7 hrs. Then after 6 – 7 hours after that 7 to 8 fishermen hauled the net. Net hauling is very tough job. After hauling, net was again set in the water and then sorting of fishes was done on the boat deck and then second net was hauled, likewise this process continuously done in whole day. We help them in sorting of fishes and also in the net hauling. Various spps of fishes were caught by Dol-net such as shrimps, sole fish, bhunger, Bombay duck, croaker, miscelineous, etc. After sorting these fishes are stored in the cold storage. We observe the entire operation very carefully. We also observed how to use the VHF and how to operate the boat. The fishing trip was only one day so, we return at evening time. The trip was very informative and joyful. The fishermen were very kind to us, they explain us the entire fishing operation. This experience was amazing and I will never forget this in my rest of the life. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 36
  37. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar STUDY OF FISH CATCH COMPOSITION VERAVAL FISHING HARBOUR I have visited veraval fishing harbour & landing centre. I had collected some information regarding fish catch composition in which various fishing vessels, their input costs, catch quantity & output (revenue) were also included. I had surveyed 60 fishing vessels in veraval fishing harbour. Data analysis from the survey carried out from 60 various boats on the basis of their fish catch composition. I concluded that about 9-10 species are generally caught in veraval and near by area in the month of Feb. So on this basis of this data; I prepared a final statistical report in which every species was individually coded like A, B, C ….Due to slake season the total catch of each boat was near about 1-4 ton. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 37
  38. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar The main benefit for statistical data analysis is that, I find the various species available at veraval landing center. Catch of 60 boats is 48722 kg, so we can calculate average catch & annual catch from this data.  Total catch of 60 boats = 48722 KG  Total trip/yr = 32  No. of boat = 3000 Average catch = Total catch No. Of boat = 48722 60 = 803.78 kg/trip Annual catch = average catch x Fishing trip in year x No. of boat = 803.78 x 32 x 3000 = 2411340 kg/yr SUMMARY:  In the internship of Fish catch composition study, I was engaged to know Catch composition of various species available at Veraval harbour.  For that I collected catching related information & data from harbour. I also came to know which are the various species available at Veraval. I also got knowledge regarding various gear used in catching of various species.  One day I was engaged to the “Royal Fiber ship yard”, Mangrole, where I got information regarding FRP boat building process, various materials used for the making of the FRP boat construction. I also got well aware with advantage of using FRP boats. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 38
  39. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar  We were engaged in making of various models of Aquaculture pond construction and site selection.  At last we were engaged in fishing experience and activities, Jafrabad. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 39
  40. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY IN FISHING VILLAGES Annexure V Fisheries Economics Survey Guidelines (Questionnaire) 1. Identification Village: - Chorvad Mouza/district: - Junagadh Block: - Chorvad Name of student: Hitesh K Karkar Date of survey: - 27/2/2008 1.1 Location and approach a) How far is the village from the district and sub division: - 25 km College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 40
  41. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar b) Has the village easily accessible in all seasons of the year? If not, in which part of the year and what is the mode of approach? : - Yes c) Topography: - Sloppy gradient d) Give the distance from Approximate distance from the Center village Taluka head quarters 25 km Post office/telegraph office 9km Railway station/RTC bus depot 4 km All weather motor able road 4 km Primary/middle school 4 km High school/collage 4 km Godown/ware house - Cooperative credit society 1 km Commercial bank/RRB/GB 4 km Police station 0 km Health center 1 km Communication, transport & marketing facilities a) What kind of transport facilities is available in the village: - Diesel rickshaw & S.T. Bus b) Note storage the facilities available, with details of no, capacity and rate Charge: - No facility available c) Mention the market wholesale and retail market (give details of location, Distance and produce handled): - Local market available in village & Wholesale market in VRL 19km d) Is there any regulated market near by? : - Yes, in Chorvad e) Sale scope of agriculture and other animal product: - No Vital Statistics Census Increase or decrease over Population year 19 (percentage) 1. Males a) Adults 65 % b) Children (below 15 year) c) Sub-total 2. Females Data not available a) Adults 35% b) Children (below 15 year) c) Sub- total Grand total 6000 Sex ratio (female per 1000 male): - 60 % (1000 males: 600 female) Occupation distribution College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 41
  42. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Particulars 1971 1981 1991 Difference (+, -) 1) No. of fisheries labor 2) No. of non fisheries workers Data not provided 3) Other total 2. Land Utilization, Water Supply and Fish Farming Pattern 2.1 Natures of soils a) Sandy b) Type of land: Up Land 2.2 Land utilization pattern in past 3 years Items 1980 1990 2000 1) Geographical area Data not Data not Data not available available available 2) Forests = = 3) Barren and uncultivable land = = 4) Land put to non fisheries use = = = 5) Cultivable waste = = = 6) Permanent fish pond and other farming land = = = 7) Land under misc. tree crops and groves = = = 8) Current fallows = = = 9) Other fallows land 2.2A Water supply to the village Source Number Area water supply 1. Canals Data not available 2. Tanks 1 no. 3. Well 10 no’s. Data not available 4. Tube well Aprox 60 No. Data not available 5. Others Data not Data not available available 6. Total net area water Data not Data not available supplied available 7. Total area water supplied Data not Data not available available 3. Fisheries credit a) Institutional S.T. Loan Cooperative Commercial Banks Government R.R.B. Crop wise S.F. R.I. S.F. R.I. S.F. R.I. S.F. R.I. 1 They Not provide Credit to Fishermen College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 42
  43. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 2 3 (S.F.: - Scale of Finance; R.I.: -Rate of Interest) 4. Village Industries 4.1 What are the different agro based industries existing in the village: - No 4.2 Indicate further scope to set up any other type of agro-based Industry: - Yes, coconut utilizing industries. Wholesale and retail price of fisheries products Sr. No. Product Source Prices (in Rs.) 1 Dhoma 2 Mackerel 3 Shark 4 Pomfrate 5 Crocker ANNEXURE VI FAMILY BUDGETS Name of respondent: - Karim Memon Village : - Chorvad 1. General a) Educational qualification of the respondent (head) :- Illiterate b) Religion of the family :- Muslim c) Whether nucleus/joint family :- Joint d) Occupation/status :- Owner e) Social participation of the respondent :-Members of co-operative Society & “Swadhyay” f) Fuel used : - Kerosene 2. General living condition a) Nature of house: - Pucca College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 43
  44. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar b) No. of room : - Two room, one Kitchen c) Toilet facility : - NA 3. House hold composition NAME M/F AGE EDUCATIONAL OCCUPATION LEVEL Karim Memon M 35 Yrs Illiterate Fishing Firoza F 32 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Salim M 4 Yrs - - Reshma F 11 Yrs 4 th - 4. Income of household (i) Farm income a) Income from land owned : No b) Income from land taken on lease : No c) Lease amount : No (ii) Non farm income a) Source :- Fishing b) Total income: - 4000 – 6000 Rs/month 5. Family expenditure Consumed/ Frequency Sr. Name of Qty/ Cost/ Total Unit Month of NO. commodity day unit expenditure Year week consumption 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 They can’t provide us any type of expenditure and Income of their Family 1. Fish 2. Agriculture product a. Cereals b. Pulses c. Cereal substitute d. Pulses products and substitutes e. Roots and tubers f. Green leafy Vegetables g. Other vegetable h. Fruits (i) Fresh (ii) Dry i. Nuts & Oil seeds 3. Fresh Foods a. Fresh (mutton, chicken, eggs) b. Canned 4. Milk and milk products a. Milk b. Curd College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 44
  45. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar c. Milk products 5. Fats and oils a. Butter b. Ghee c. Hydrogenated oil d. Refined 6. Sugar and jaggery 7. Spices and condiments (Tamarind, chilies, turmeric) 8. Beverages 9 Bakery products Confectionary etc. And refreshments etc 10. Total (food) a) Clothing b) Footwear c) Fuel and light d) House rents repair and taxes e) Ceremonies, function, travel and pilgrimage f) Miscellaneous goods, services and recreation Total (non food) Total expenditure Percentage expenditure on a) Food b) Clothing c) Fuel and lighting d) House rents and function e) Miscellaneous 11. Total annual expenditure Total income Total expenditure Surplus of deficit College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 45
  46. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar QUESTIONARY Sr.no. Questions Answer given by the fisherman 1 Name of the fisherman. Karim Memon 2 Type of ownership of boat / net etc. Owner of the boat 3 No. of fishing days in a month. 20-22 (Uncertain) 4 No. of fishing month. 7-8 months/ Yr 5 No. of type of crew on boat. 4 Crew, Khlasi 6 Type of insurance cover on each of the crew& amount and Life time 15000- duration. 25000 Rs 7 In his opinion which are the hazards on craft and on sea. Landing very is very difficult and in sea trawlers damage their gears 8 From the fishing village which all places (among from the village) does he go for fishing. 9 Weather it is one day or multyday. One day 10 How much does he spend on College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 46
  47. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 1) Repair of boat/yr: - 10000 – 15000 Rs/yr 2) Repair of nets/yr: - 15000 – 20000 Rs/yr 3) On fuel per trip: - 1500 – 2000 Rs/yr 4) On ice per trip: - No ice is used 5) On ration/trip: - No ration required 11 On an average how much of fish does he land per trip. 700 – 800 kg/trip 12 Which are the verities of fishes (enumerate for each of the Silver, Dhoma, Baga, months). Chapri, etc… 13 What is his method of disposing the catch? Manually sorted out and transferred to land in “tagaras” 14 How much hours does he take to dispose of the catch after 3-4 hrs his catching them on sea? 15 Whether any middlemen are involved or he gives directly to Middle man involved processors. 16 Is there a co-operative society in the village? If so, how There is one co- many? operative society in the village 17 Does the society function properly – Mention the problems No, due to encountered in the fisheries co-operative society not unavailability of functioning properly? enough credit 18 In the fisherman’s opinion what best should be done for its Provide enough efficient functioning. financial support 19 Are there other communities also involved in fishing? Yes, Koli, Muslim Which are those? 20 Is there co-operations with these communities?” If not Yes which are the cause of ill-will and/or trouble. 21 Are landing/berthing facilities adequate? If not, which type Yes of facilities do they need? 22 Do they require any structural changes in any of the above, Yes. They need jetty If so, which are those? having enough drought for easy access to sea and land. Fish market in near by area. 23 How much far is the nearest doctor available-Is there a 1 km. away primary health centre in the village? 24 Does any fisheries department personnel visit him and Yes. At every month. what is the duration? 25 Which type of help is the fisheries department able to - provide to the fisherman. 26 Does the fisherman face any problem with his dealings with Yes. Some time they other departments – If so, which are those? are not answered properly 27 What does the fisherman do when there is no fishing – Repairing of boat, during slack period Does he take to any worthwhile job or nets and engine. whiles away his time. 28 On an avg. how much does he earn per month during off. 3000 – 4000 College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 47
  48. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Season? Rs/month 29 Of the total amount that the fisherman can save, how much As per the does he spend on… requirements. a) Education of his children and himself: - b) On up keep of the health of his Children and himself: - 30 Does he have any vices (bad habits), which can bring down Yes, smoking his working efficiency as a fisherman? 31 From where does he get the spare parts of engine, Veraval nets/ropes/twines/sinkers etc. 32 Does GFCCA provide any of his input? If so, which are No those? 33 What are the total expenses/trip & income/trip? NA 34 Does he incur looses in a month/season if so, for how Yes, 20-24 many trips on an avg. per fishing season. trip/month 35 Does the fisherman save for his future needs or is it a hand Yes to month existence? 36 Does the fisherman want his children to follow him or Yes otherwise – if so, which occupation? ANNEXURE VI FAMILY BUDGETS Name of respondent: -Harilal Ranchhod Village: - Chorvad 1. General a) Educational qualification of the respondent (head): - Illiterate b) Religion of the family: - Hindu kharva c) Whether nucleus/joint family: - Joint d) Occupation/status: - Owner e) Social participation of the respondent: -Members of co-operative Society & “Swadhyay” f) Fuel used: - Kerosene 2. General living condition a) Nature of house: - Pucca b) No. Of room: - One room c) Toilet facility: - NA d) Living area: - 12 *14 ft College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 48
  49. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 3. House hold composition NAME M/F AGE EDUCATIONAL OCCUPATION LEVEL Harilal Ranchod M 38 Yrs Illiterate Fishing Shantiben F 35 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Vishal M 10 Yrs 4th std - 4. Income of household (i) Farm income a) Income from land owned: No b) Income from land taken on lease: No c) Lease amount: No (ii) Non farm income a) Source: - Fishing b) Total income: - 5000 – 7000 Rs/month 5. Family expenditure Consumed/ Frequency Sr. Name of Qty/ Cost/ Total Unit Month of NO. commodity day unit expenditure Year week consumption 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 They can’t provide us any type of expenditure and Income of their Family QUESTIONARY Sr.no. Questions Answer given by the fisherman 1 Name of the fisherman. Harilal Ranchod 2 Type of ownership of boat / net etc. Owner of the boat, Gill net 3 No. of fishing days in a month. 20-25 days (Uncertain) 4 No. of fishing month. 8 months/ Yr 5 No. of type of crew on boat. 3 Crew, Khlasi 6 Type of insurance cover on each of the crew& Yearly 10000 Rs amount and duration. 7 In his opinion which are the hazards on craft and on Landing very is very sea. difficult and in sea trawlers damage their gears 8 From the fishing village which all places (among from the village) does he go for fishing? 9 Weather it is one day or multyday. One day College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 49
  50. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 10 How much does he spend on 1) Repair of boat/yr: - 10000 Rs/yr 2) Repair of nets/yr: - 17000 – 18000 Rs/yr 3) On fuel per trip: - 2000 Rs/yr 4) On ice per trip: - No ice is used 5) On ration/trip: - No ration required 11 On an average how much of fish does he land per 600-700 kg/trip trip. 12 Which are the verities of fishes (enumerate for each Ribbon fish, Pomfret, of the months). Dhoma, Dola, etc… 13 What is his method of disposing the catch? Manually sorted out and transferred to land in “tagaras” 14 How much hours does he take to dispose of the 3-5 hrs catch after his catching them on sea? 15 Whether any middlemen are involved or he gives Middle man involved directly to processors. 16 Is there a co-operative society in the village? If so, There is one co- how many? operative society in the village 17 Does the society function properly – Mention the No, due to lake of problems encountered in the fisheries co-operative adequate credit and society not functioning properly? facility. 18 In the fisherman’s opinion what best should be done Administrative for its efficient functioning. changes required. 19 Are there other communities also involved in fishing? Yes, Koli, Which are those? Muslim,etc… 20 Is there co-operations with these communities?” If Yes not which are the cause of ill-will and/or trouble. 21 Are landing/berthing facilities adequate? If not, which Yes type of facilities do they need? 22 Do they require any structural changes in any of the Yes. They need help above, If so, which are those? from co-operative society and fuel depot within the village. 23 How much far is the nearest doctor available-Is there 1 km. away a primary health centre in the village? 24 Does any fisheries department personnel visit him Yes. At every month. and what is the duration? 25 Which type of help is the fisheries department able to - provide to the fisherman. 26 Does the fisherman face any problem with his No dealings with other departments – If so, which are those? 27 What does the fisherman do when there is no fishing Repairing of boat, – during slack period Does he take to any worthwhile nets and engine. job or whiles away his time. 28 On an avg. how much does he earn per month during 2000 – 3000 College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 50
  51. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar off. Season? Rs/month 29 Of the total amount that the fisherman can save, how As per the much does he spend on? requirements. a) Education of his children and himself: b) On up keep of the health of his Children and himself: - 30 Does he have any vices (bad habits), which can bring Yes, smoking down his working efficiency as a fisherman? 31 From where does he get the spare parts of engine, Veraval nets/ropes/twines/sinkers etc. 32 Does GFCCA provide any of his input? If so, which No are those? 33 What are the total expenses/trip & income/trip? NA 34 Does he incur looses in a month/season if so, for Yes, 22-25 trip/month how many trips on an avg. per fishing season. 35 Does the fisherman save for his future needs or is it a Yes hand to month existence? 36 Does the fisherman want his children to follow him or Yes otherwise – if so, which occupation? ANNEXURE VI FAMILY BUDGETS Name of respondent: -Shanti Babu Village: - Chorvad 1. General a) Educational qualification of the respondent (head): - Illiterate b) Religion of the family: - Hindu kharva c) Whether nucleus/joint family: - Joint d) Occupation/status: - Owner e) Social participation of the respondent: -Members of co-operative Society & “Swadhyay” f) Fuel used: - Kerosene 2. General living condition a) Nature of house: - Pucca b) No. Of room: - Two room c) Toilet facility: - Available d) Living area: - 10*12 ft 3. House hold composition College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 51
  52. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar NAME M/F AGE EDUCATIONAL OCCUPATION LEVEL Shanti Babu M 40 Yrs Illiterate Fishing Rukhibai F 38 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Payal F 9 Yrs 3rd std - 4. Income of household (i) Farm income a) Income from land owned: No b) Income from land taken on lease: No c) Lease amount: No (ii) Non farm income a) Source: - Fishing b) Total income: - 4000 – 5000 Rs/month 5. Family expenditure Consumed/ Frequency Sr. Name of Qty/ Cost/ Total Unit Month of NO. commodity day unit expenditure Year week consumption 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 They can’t provide us any type of expenditure and Income of their Family QUESTIONARY Sr.no. Questions Answer given by the fisherman 1 Name of the fisherman. Shanti Babu 2 Type of ownership of boat / net etc. Owner of the boat, Gill net 3 No. of fishing days in a month. 24-25 days 4 No. of fishing month. 8 months/ Yr 5 No. of type of crew on boat. 3 Crew, Khlasi 6 Type of insurance cover on each of the crew& Yearly 15000 Rs amount and duration. 7 In his opinion which are the hazards on craft and on Landing very is very sea. difficult and in sea trawlers damage their gears 8 From the fishing village which all places (among from the village) does he go for fishing? 9 Weather it is one day or multyday. One day 10 How much does he spend on 1) Repair of boat/yr: - 10000 Rs/yr 2) Repair of nets/yr: - 20000 – 25000 Rs/yr 3) On fuel per trip: - 2000-2200 Rs/yr 4) On ice per trip: - No ice is used College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 52
  53. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 5) On ration/trip: - No ration required 11 On an average how much of fish does he land per It depends trip. 12 Which are the verities of fishes (enumerate for each Ribbon fish, Dhoma, of the months). Dola, etc… 13 What is his method of disposing the catch? Manually sorted out and transferred to land in “tagaras” 14 How much hours does he take to dispose of the catch It depends after his catching them on sea? 15 Whether any middlemen are involved or he gives Middle man involved directly to processors. 16 Is there a co-operative society in the village? If so, There is one co- how many? operative society in the village 17 Does the society function properly – Mention the No, due to lake of problems encountered in the fisheries co-operative adequate credit and society not functioning properly? facility. 18 In the fisherman’s opinion what best should be done Administrative for its efficient functioning. changes required. 19 Are there other communities also involved in fishing? Yes, Koli, Which are those? Muslim,etc… 20 Is there co-operations with these communities?” If not Yes which are the cause of ill-will and/or trouble. 21 Are landing/berthing facilities adequate? If not, which Yes type of facilities do they need? 22 Do they require any structural changes in any of the Yes. They want proper above, If so, which are those? functioning of co- operative society. 23 How much far is the nearest doctor available-Is there 1 km. Away a primary health centre in the village? 24 Does any fisheries department personnel visit him Yes. Frequently and what is the duration? 25 Which type of help is the fisheries department able to - provide to the fisherman. 26 Does the fisherman face any problem with his No dealings with other departments – If so, which are those? 27 What does the fisherman do when there is no fishing Repairing of boat, nets – during slack period Does he take to any worthwhile and engine. job or whiles away his time. 28 On an avg. how much does he earn per month during 3000 Rs/month off. Season? 29 Of the total amount that the fisherman can save, how As per the much does he spend on? requirements. a) Education of his children and himself: b) On up keep of the health of his Children and himself: - College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 53
  54. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 30 Does he have any vices (bad habits), which can bring Yes, Tobacco down his working efficiency as a fisherman? 31 From where does he get the spare parts of engine, Veraval nets/ropes/twines/sinkers etc. 32 Does GFCCA provide any of his input? If so, which No are those? 33 What are the total expenses/trip & income/trip? NA 34 Does he incur looses in a month/season if so, for how Yes, 20-24 trips/month many trips on an avg. per fishing season. 35 Does the fisherman save for his future needs or is it a Yes hand to month existence? 36 Does the fisherman want his children to follow him or Yes otherwise – if so, which occupation? ANNEXURE VI FAMILY BUDGETS Name of respondent: -Lakham Babu Village: - Chorvad 1. General a) Educational qualification of the respondent (head): - Illiterate b) Religion of the family: - Hindu kharva c) Whether nucleus/joint family: - Nuclear d) Occupation/status: - Owner e) Social participation of the respondent: -Members of co-operative Society & “Swadhyay” f) Fuel used: - Kerosene 2. General living condition a) Nature of house: - Pucca b) No. Of room: - One room c) Toilet facility: - Available d) Living area: - 10*12 ft 3. House hold composition NAME M/F AGE EDUCATIONAL OCCUPATION LEVEL Lakham Babu M 43 Yrs Illiterate Fishing College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 54
  55. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Savitaben F 40 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Mahesh M 13 Yrs 6th std - 4. Income of household (i) Farm income a) Income from land owned: No b) Income from land taken on lease: No c) Lease amount: No (ii) Non-farm income a) Source: - Fishing b) Total income: - 5000 – 8000 Rs/month 5. Family expenditure Consumed/ Frequency Sr. Name of Qty/ Cost/ Total Unit Month of NO. commodity day unit expenditure Year week consumption 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 They can’t provide us any type of expenditure and Income of their Family QUESTIONARY Sr.no. Questions Answer given by the fisherman 1 Name of the fisherman. Lakham Babu 2 Type of ownership of boat / net etc. Owner of the boat, Gill net 3 No. of fishing days in a month. It depends 4 No. of fishing month. 8 months/ Yr 5 No. of type of crew on boat. 3 Crew, Khlasi 6 Type of insurance cover on each of the crew& Yearly 10000 Rs amount and duration. 7 In his opinion which are the hazards on craft Landing very is very difficult and on sea. due to high wind and in sea trawlers damage their gears 8 From the fishing village which all places (among from the village) does he go for fishing? 9 Weather it is one day or multyday. One day 10 How much does he spend on 1) Repair of boat/yr: - 15000 Rs/yr 2) Repair of nets/yr: - 25000 Rs/yr 3) On fuel per trip: - 1500 Rs/yr 4) On ice per trip: - No ice is used 5) On ration/trip: - No ration required 11 On an average how much of fish does he land 900-1000 kg/trip per trip. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 55
  56. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 12 Which are the verities of fishes (enumerate for Ribbon fish, Pomfret, each of the months). Dhoma, Dola, etc… 13 What is his method of disposing the catch? Manually sorted out and transferred to land in “tagaras” 14 How much hours does he take to dispose of the It depends catch after his catching them on sea? 15 Whether any middlemen are involved or he Middle man involved gives directly to processors. 16 Is there a co-operative society in the village? If There is one co-operative so, how many? society in the village 17 Does the society function properly – Mention No, due to lake adequate the problems encountered in the fisheries co- personal operative society not functioning properly? 18 In the fisherman’s opinion what best should be Administrative changes done for its efficient functioning. required and financial support required. 19 Are there other communities also involved in Yes, Koli, Muslim,etc… fishing? Which are those? 20 Is there co-operations with these communities?” Yes If not which are the cause of ill-will and/or trouble. 21 Are landing/berthing facilities adequate? If not, Yes which type of facilities do they need? 22 Do they require any structural changes in any of Yes. They need jetty having the above, If so, which are those? basic facilities like easy access to sea and land, space for sorting of material, etc 23 How much far is the nearest doctor available-Is 1 km. away there a primary health centre in the village? 24 Does any fisheries department personnel visit Yes. At every month. him and what is the duration? 25 Which type of help is the fisheries department - able to provide to the fisherman. 26 Does the fisherman face any problem with his Yes. Some times they want dealings with other departments – If so, which get proper support from are those? them. 27 What does the fisherman do when there is no Repairing of boat, nets and fishing – during slack period Does he take to engine. any worthwhile job or whiles away his time? 28 On an avg. how much does he earn per month 2000 – 3000 Rs/month during off. Season? 29 Of the total amount that the fisherman can save, As per the requirements. how much does he spend on? a) Education of his children and himself: b) On up keep of the health of his College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 56
  57. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Children and himself: - 30 Does he have any vices (bad habits), which can Yes, smoking bring down his working efficiency as a fisherman? 31 From where does he get the spare parts of Veraval engine, nets/ropes/twines/sinkers etc. 32 Does GFCCA provide any of his input? If so, No which are those? 33 What are the total expenses/trip & income/trip? NA 34 Does he incur looses in a month/season if so, Yes, 22-25 trip/month for how many trips on an avg. per fishing season. 35 Does the fisherman save for his future needs or Yes is it a hand to month existence? 36 Does the fisherman want his children to follow It depends him or otherwise – if so, which occupation? ANNEXURE VI FAMILY BUDGETS Name of respondent: -Dhansukh Karsan Village: - Chorvad 1. General a) Educational qualification of the respondent (head): - Illiterate b) Religion of the family: - Hindu kharva c) Whether nucleus/joint family: - Jiont d) Occupation/status: - Owner e) Social participation of the respondent: -Members of co-operative Society & “Swadhyay” f) Fuel used: - Kerosene 2. General living condition a) Nature of house: - Pucca b) No. Of room: - One room, one kitchen c) Toilet facility: - Available d) Living area: - 13*14 ft 3. House hold composition NAME M/F AGE EDUCATIONAL OCCUPATION LEVEL Dhansukh Karsan M 45 Yrs Illiterate Fishing Rukhiben F 40 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Bhimji M 14 Yrs 7th std - College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 57
  58. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 4. Income of household (i) Farm income a) Income from land owned: No b) Income from land taken on lease: No c) Lease amount: No (ii) Non-farm income a) Source: - Fishing b) Total income: - 4000 Rs/month 5. Family expenditure Consumed/ Frequency Sr. Name of Qty/ Cost/ Total Unit Month of NO. commodity day unit expenditure Year week consumption 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 They can’t provide us any type of expenditure and Income of their Family QUESTIONARY Sr.no. Questions Answer given by the fisherman 1 Name of the fisherman. Dhansukh Karsan 2 Type of ownership of boat / net etc. Owner of the boat, FRP boat, Gill net 3 No. of fishing days in a month. It depends 4 No. of fishing month. 7-8 months/ Yr 5 No. of type of crew on boat. 4 Crew, Khlasi 6 Type of insurance cover on each of the crew& amount Yearly 20000 Rs and duration. 7 In his opinion which are the hazards on craft and on Landing very is very sea. difficult due to high wind and hard coast. In sea trawlers damage their gears. 8 From the fishing village which all places (among from the village) does he go for fishing? 9 Weather it is one day or multyday. One day 10 How much does he spend on 1) Repair of boat/yr: - 35000 Rs/yr 2) Repair of nets/yr: - 20000-25000 Rs/yr 3) On fuel per trip: - 1500-1700 Rs/yr 4) On ice per trip: - No ice is used 5) On ration/trip: - No ration required 11 On an average how much of fish does he land per trip. 500-600 kg/trip College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 58
  59. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 12 Which are the verities of fishes (enumerate for each of Ribbon fish, Turi, etc… the months). 13 What is his method of disposing the catch? Manually sorted out and transferred to land in “tagaras” 14 How much hours does he take to dispose of the catch It depends after his catching them on sea? 15 Whether any middlemen are involved or he gives Middle man involved directly to processors. 16 Is there a co-operative society in the village? If so, how There is one co-operative many? society in the village 17 Does the society function properly – Mention the No, due to lake adequate problems encountered in the fisheries co-operative fund. society not functioning properly? 18 In the fisherman’s opinion what best should be done for Government has to its efficient functioning. provide financial support and some rules should be formed for its efficient working. 19 Are there other communities also involved in fishing? Yes, Koli, Muslim,etc… Which are those? 20 Is there co-operations with these communities?” If not Yes which are the cause of ill-will and/or trouble. 21 Are landing/berthing facilities adequate? If not, which Yes type of facilities do they need? 22 Do they require any structural changes in any of the Yes. They need jetty above, If so, which are those? having basic facilities like easy access to sea and land, space for sorting of material, etc... 23 How much far is the nearest doctor available-Is there a 1 km. away primary health centre in the village? 24 Does any fisheries department personnel visit him and Yes. Some time for their what is the duration? purpose not for fishermen. 25 Which type of help is the fisheries department able to - provide to the fisherman. 26 Does the fisherman face any problem with his dealings Yes. Some times they do with other departments – If so, which are those? get proper support from them. 27 What does the fisherman do when there is no fishing – Repairing of boat, nets during slack period Does he take to any worthwhile job and engine. Also he go or whiles away his time? for retail works in coconut garden. 28 On an avg. how much does he earn per month during 3000-4000 Rs/month off. Season? 29 Of the total amount that the fisherman can save, how As per the requirements. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 59
  60. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar much does he spend on? a) Education of his children and himself: b) On up keep of the health of his Children and himself: - 30 Does he have any vices (bad habits), which can bring Yes, Smoking and down his working efficiency as a fisherman? Drinking 31 From where does he get the spare parts of engine, Veraval nets/ropes/twines/sinkers etc. 32 Does GFCCA provide any of his input? If so, which are No those? 33 What are the total expenses/trip & income/trip? NA 34 Does he incur looses in a month/season if so, for how Yes, 25-27 trip/month many trips on an avg. per fishing season. 35 Does the fisherman save for his future needs or is it a Yes hand to month existence? 36 Does the fisherman want his children to follow him or It depends otherwise – if so, which occupation? ANNEXURE VI FAMILY BUDGETS Name of respondent: -Ishak Alarakha Village: - Chorvad 1. GENERAL a) Educational qualification of the respondent (head): - Illiterate b) Religion of the family: - Muslim c) Whether nucleus/joint family: - Jiont d) Occupation/status: - Owner e) Social participation of the respondent: -Members of co-operative Society. f) Fuel used: - Kerosene 2. General living condition a) Nature of house: - Pucca b) No. Of room: - One room, one kitchen c) Toilet facility: - Available d) Living area: - 13*14 ft per room 3. House hold composition NAME M/F AGE EDUCATIONAL OCCUPATION LEVEL Ishak Alarakha M 47 Yrs Illiterate Fishing Sayrabanu F 44 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Rahim M 15 Yrs 8th std - Samir M 17 Yrs 9th std 4. Income of household (i) Farm income College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 60
  61. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar a) Income from land owned: No b) Income from land taken on lease: No c) Lease amount: No (ii) Non farm income a) Source: - Fishing b) Total income: - 6000 – 8000 Rs/month 5. Family expenditure Consumed/ Frequency Sr. Name of Qty/ Cost/ Total Unit Month of NO. commodity day unit expenditure Year week consumption 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 They can’t provide us any type of expenditure and Income of their Family QUESTIONARY Sr.no. Questions Answer given by the fisherman 1 Name of the fisherman. Ishak Alarakha 2 Type of ownership of boat / net etc. Owner of the boat, Gill net 3 No. of fishing days in a month. It depends 4 No. of fishing month. 8 months/ Yr 5 No. of type of crew on boat. 3 Crew, Khlasi 6 Type of insurance cover on each of the crew& NIL amount and duration. 7 In his opinion which are the hazards on craft and Landing very is very on sea. difficult due to high wind and in sea trawlers damage their gears. 8 From the fishing village which all places (among from the village) does he go for fishing? 9 Weather it is one day or multyday. One day 10 How much does he spend on 1) Repair of boat/yr: - 15000 Rs/yr 2) Repair of nets/yr: - 25000-30000 Rs/yr 3) On fuel per trip: - 1500-2000 Rs/yr 4) On ice per trip: - No ice is used 5) On ration/trip: - No ration required 11 On an average how much of fish does he land per 1000-1100 kg/trip trip. 12 Which are the verities of fishes (enumerate for Ribbon fish, Pomfret, Dola, each of the months). Misc. etc… 13 What is his method of disposing the catch? Manually sorted out and College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 61
  62. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar transferred to land in “tagaras” 14 How much hours does he take to dispose of the It depends catch after his catching them on sea? 15 Whether any middlemen are involved or he gives Middle man involved directly to processors. 16 Is there a co-operative society in the village? If There is one co-operative so, how many? society in the village 17 Does the society function properly – Mention the No, due to lake adequate problems encountered in the fisheries co- personal operative society not functioning properly? 18 In the fisherman’s opinion what best should be Administrative changes done for its efficient functioning. required and financial support required. 19 Are there other communities also involved in Yes, Koli, Muslim,etc… fishing? Which are those? 20 Is there co-operations with these communities?” If Yes not which are the cause of ill-will and/or trouble. 21 Are landing/berthing facilities adequate? If not, Yes which type of facilities do they need? 22 Do they require any structural changes in any of Yes. They need help from the above, If so, which are those? government in the form of subsidy on fuel, gear and boat, etc. 23 How much far is the nearest doctor available-Is 1 km. away there a primary health centre in the village? 24 Does any fisheries department personnel visit him Yes. Sometime. and what is the duration? 25 Which type of help is the fisheries department - able to provide to the fisherman. 26 Does the fisherman face any problem with his No. dealings with other departments – If so, which are those? 27 What does the fisherman do when there is no Repairing of boat, nets and fishing – during slack period Does he take to any engine. worthwhile job or whiles away his time? 28 On an avg. how much does he earn per month 3000 – 4000 Rs/month during off. Season? 29 Of the total amount that the fisherman can save, As per the requirements. how much does he spend on? a) Education of his children and himself: b) On up keep of the health of his Children and himself: - 30 Does he have any vices (bad habits), which can Yes, Tobacco bring down his working efficiency as a fisherman? 31 From where does he get the spare parts of Veraval engine, nets/ropes/twines/sinkers etc. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 62
  63. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 32 Does GFCCA provide any of his input? If so, No which are those? 33 What are the total expenses/trip & income/trip? NA 34 Does he incur looses in a month/season if so, for Yes, 20-25 trip/month how many trips on an avg. per fishing season. 35 Does the fisherman save for his future needs or is Yes it a hand to month existence? 36 Does the fisherman want his children to follow It depends him or otherwise – if so, which occupation? ANNEXURE VI FAMILY BUDGETS Name of respondent: -Narsih Jiva Village: - Chorvad 1. GENERAL a) Educational qualification of the respondent (head): - Illiterate b) Religion of the family: - Hindu kharva c) Whether nucleus/joint family: - Jiont d) Occupation/status: - Owner e) Social participation of the respondent: -Members of co-operative Society & “Swadhyay” f) Fuel used: - Kerosene 2. General living condition a) Nature of house: - Pucca b) No. Of room: - Three room c) Toilet facility: - Available d) Living area: - 10*12 ft per room 3. House hold composition NAME M/F AGE EDUCATIONAL OCCUPATION LEVEL Narsih Jiva M 45 Yrs Illiterate Fishing Laxmiben F 43 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Ramji Jiva M 44 Yrs Illiterate Fishing Ddhaniben F 42 Yrs Illiterate Housewife Payal F 17 Yrs 10 th std - 4. Income of household (i) Farm income a) Income from land owned: No College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 63
  64. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar b) Income from land taken on lease: No c) Lease amount: No (ii) Non-farm income a) Source: - Fishing b) Total income: - 10000-12000 Rs/month 5. Family expenditure Consumed/ Frequency Sr. Name of Qty/ Cost/ Total Unit Month of NO. commodity day unit expenditure Year week consumption 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 They can’t provide us any type of expenditure and Income of their Family QUESTIONARY Sr.no. Questions Answer given by the fisherman 1 Name of the fisherman. Narsih Jiva 2 Type of ownership of boat / net etc. Owner of the boat, FRP boat, Gill net. 3 No. of fishing days in a month. It depends 4 No. of fishing month. 8 months/ Yr 5 No. of type of crew on boat. 4 Crew, Khlasi 6 Type of insurance cover on each of the crew& Yearly 20000 Rs amount and duration. 7 In his opinion which are the hazards on craft and on On coast weather and in sea. sea trawlers are hazards. 8 From the fishing village which all places (among from the village) does he go for fishing? 9 Weather it is one day or multyday. One day 10 How much does he spend on 1) Repair of boat/yr: - 20000 Rs/yr 2) Repair of nets/yr: - 25000-30000 Rs/yr 3) On fuel per trip: - 1500-2000 Rs/yr 4) On ice per trip: - No ice is used 5) On ration/trip: - No ration required 11 On an average how much of fish does he land per 900-1000 kg/trip trip. 12 Which are the verities of fishes (enumerate for each Ribbon fish, Pomfret, of the months). Dhoma, Dola, etc… 13 What is his method of disposing the catch? Manually sorted out and transferred to land in “tagaras” 14 How much hours does he take to dispose of the It depends College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 64
  65. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar catch after his catching them on sea? 15 Whether any middlemen are involved or he gives Middle man involved directly to processors. 16 Is there a co-operative society in the village? If so, There is one co- how many? operative society in the village 17 Does the society function properly – Mention the No, because of politics. problems encountered in the fisheries co-operative society not functioning properly? 18 In the fisherman’s opinion what best should be done For its efficient working for its efficient functioning. it should be operated by fishermen only. 19 Are there other communities also involved in Yes, Koli, Muslim,etc… fishing? Which are those? 20 Is there co-operations with these communities?” If Yes not which are the cause of ill-will and/or trouble. 21 Are landing/berthing facilities adequate? If not, Yes which type of facilities do they need? 22 Do they require any structural changes in any of the Yes. Jetty having fuel above, If so, which are those? depot. 23 How much far is the nearest doctor available-Is 1 km. away there a primary health centre in the village? 24 Does any fisheries department personnel visit him Yes. Frequantly. and what is the duration? 25 Which type of help is the fisheries department able - to provide to the fisherman. 26 Does the fisherman face any problem with his No dealings with other departments – If so, which are those? 27 What does the fisherman do when there is no Repairing of boat, nets fishing – during slack period Does he take to any and engine. Also he go worthwhile job or whiles away his time? for retail works in coconut garden. 28 On an avg. how much does he earn per month 4000 – 5000 Rs/month during off. Season? 29 Of the total amount that the fisherman can save, As per the how much does he spend on? requirements. a) Education of his children and himself: b) On up keep of the health of his Children and himself: - 30 Does he have any vices (bad habits), which can Yes, smoking bring down his working efficiency as a fisherman? 31 From where does he get the spare parts of engine, Veraval nets/ropes/twines/sinkers etc. 32 Does GFCCA provide any of his input? If so, which No are those? 33 What are the total expenses/trip & income/trip? NA College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 65
  66. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 34 Does he incur looses in a month/season if so, for Yes, 25-27 trip/month how many trips on an avg. per fishing season. 35 Does the fisherman save for his future needs or is it Yes. He is saving for his a hand to month existence? daughter. 36 Does the fisherman want his children to follow him No he wants to educate or otherwise – if so, which occupation? his daughter. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FISHERMEN  What should be done to improve the education level of fishermen and their children? Educational level of the village people is poor. They have to put their children in school and they also have to participate in night school. For that he has to request government to set up schools at free education. What should be done to improve the health level of fisherman and their children? They have to take their children to doctor incase of illness instead of going for “Dora-dhaga” and “Tantrik” Which are the bottlenecks, which prevent them from working efficiently? Environmental, social and family problem. Which are the points where in the fisheries department can give aid/help? They have top provide subsidies on purchasing of gears, boat, fuel and ration etc. They should be provided information related to fishing. In your opinion is there enough financial help given to them already or they lack in technical help, if so, which type of technical help do they require - Explain in detail. No they are not getting enough financial help and also lack in technical help. At present also they are follow day old fishing methods, which are not efficient. To improve this they require modern equipments, which indicate the potential fishing ground, new developed designs of boat. Surveying the surrounding neighborhood which type of activity is best available to them so that they can earn money during off-season? As in the village coconut farming is done on very large scale so, during off-season they go for labor work in this agricultural farm. Is there any lake of infrastructural facility in the absence of which they are not able to earn properly? Berthing and landing facility is not available and the coast is very hard so landing become very tough job and during monsoon season this problem becomes burning problem. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 66
  67. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar SUMMARY:  During the socio-economic survey programme I was engaged in to the social survey to the village chorvad.  By this programme, I was well aware with the social life in village. I was come to know that what is the actual status of rural life of fishermen is? How they sustain, how they live, what is their educational level, their house holds condition, etc.  By this survey also I knew that what are the barriers & constrains regarding their occupation. I also came to know about their village, their house, about their family etc.  Thus by this study programme, I got real grass root level information regarding the social life of a fishermen’s village. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 67
  68. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar FISHERIES CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 68
  69. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar GUJARAT FISHERIES CENTRAL CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION LTD. (GFCCA) INTRODUCTION Gujarat Fisheries Central Co-operative Association Limited (GFCCA) is an apex cooperative body of the fishermen cooperatives in the State of Gujarat. It was established on 9 th February 1956 with financial and administrative support of the Government of Gujarat. About 265 primary cooperatives and 2911 individuals are the members of GFCCA in addition to the Government of Gujarat. The Board consists of 16 members, the Government of Gujarat nominates 9 Directors and the rests are elected members from the fishermen cooperative societies. The Secretary, Agriculture & Cooperation Department (Animal Husbandry, Cow Breeding & Fisheries) is the Chairman of GFCCA. The day-to-day management of GFCCA is vested with the Managing Director, who is appointed by the Government.GFCCA is also ready to take up new developmental fishery projects of the State Government by which the socio-economic condition of the fishermen are aimed to improve further. AIM The main aim behind establishment of GFCCA is to take new developmental projects in fishery sector for socio economic upliftment of fishers and personnel involved in this business. ACTIVITIES The activities of GFFCA are as follows.  Development of fresh water reservoirs and marketing of fresh water fish in retail and wholesale.  Production and distribution of fish seeds spawns, fry and fingerlings of Indian major carp (IMC).  Manufacture and marketing of fishing nets, ropes and twines.  Construction and supply of fishing vessels, both wooden and FRP.  Mechanization of fishing crafts and dealers for Ashok Layland Marine Diesel Engines and Mariner outboard motors for Gujarat state.  Marketing of fresh water and marine fishes through its own retail outlets and mobile sales vans.  Dispending of high-speed diesel to the fishing vessels through operation consumer pumps.  Implementation of developmental projects mooted by the Government in fishery field.  Implementation of group accidental insurance scheme to Gujarat state fishermen.  Marketing of aquarium, aquarium fishes and its accessories. IMPACT OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY ON LOCAL FISHERY SECTOR College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 69
  70. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Fishermen, in general, are one of the poorest and deprived communities of Indian society. Individually they are not in a position to invest resource to improve their conditions and exploit the potential the nature has provided one of the best vehicles for exploitation of these resources and also their own economic upliftment. It has been proved in other states by just improvement in the management of water areas collectively; productivity of water areas can be improved, in some cases by even 300 per cent which can provide considerable economic benefit to the fishermen. Such improvements do not require very high technical inputs or very heavy investment. It can be achieved co operative effort by imbibing awareness about the need for proper management of the water areas, by correct stocking practices, and by providing proper backward linkages for supply of fishery inputs and requisites. Forward linkages for value additional and marketing can further increase the returns. To achieve such results, particularly in case of large water areas, co-operatives should be preferred to individual efforts to ensure that the fisherman community has a direct role and involvement in the process and the benefits flow to the fisherman. Despite all the perceived weakness of co-operatives, several of success stories of primary fisherman co-operatives societies across the country have proved that, with right kind of inputs and leadership, co-operatives can achieve wonders for fisherman. However, it may not be out of context here to indicate that in the fisheries sector, in most of the states, the primary level societies are very weak, most of them are inactive and not in a position to take up projects on their own. Funding in fisheries sector can be classified under the following. 1) Production facilities (fish capture and culture) including input requirements. 2) Marketing infrastructure including transportation, storage and presentation facilities. 3) Processing. 4) Training and extension services. 5) Share capital / margin money for working capital. As far as co-operatives are concerned, the major institution providing finance are the “National co-operative development corporation” (NCDC) and the Ministry of food processing industries (MFPI). NCDC started financing fishery co-operative from 1974-75. NCDC assistance is available for pisciculture project, pure house of operational inputs such as mechanized fishing boat, fishing gear, creation of basic infrastructure facilities. NCDC has so for provided financial/assistance to the tune of Rs. 3662236 Lakh of which over 90% was accounted for by the marine sector. In the land sector, financial/assistance was provided to GFCCA for implementation of an integrated co-operative reservoir fisheries development project. Under variation NCDC scheme, a total assistance of the 3262.24 Lakh has been sectioned to about 150 fishery co-operative societies. As per our survey in various fishery societies working in Veraval. It is concluded that majority of the fishery co-operative are not working and in those who works, provide assistance on one or two things. Cooperative societies that I surveyed are 1. Gujarat Matsya udhyog Kendriya sahakari sanstha Gujarat (GFCCA) Address: - Boat building yard, Bhidiya plot, Veraval, GFCCA GFCCA started on 9th February 1956 under the registration of Saurashtra co-operative association. The chairman of the society is the commissioner of the fisheries of Gujarat state. The governing body of the association has 16 directors out of which 9 are appointed by the state government, 6 from the primary co-operatives societies and 1 from fisherman. Function of GFCCA: - College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 70
  71. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar  Provide diesel and oil on subsidy.  They predict about the fishing ground.  Purchase and selling of fish.  OBM, IBM and its spare parts selling.  Repairing of boats.  Helping in establishment of co-operative society financially.  Provide nylon monofilament net. The present share capital is Rs. 87,59,870 where as the turn over during 2005-2006 is Rs. 21214.65. 2. Prishrum Fisheries co- operative Society Address: - Bandar Road, Paongudi, Veraval The cooperative society is establishment 1996.The secretary of the society is Ashok bhai Khapandi.The initial share capital of the society Is 15 lakh.The society is basically a primary cooperative society and the main objective of the society is to provide maximum facilities and information to the fisherman. The cooperative society has 3000 members and 11 committee members in society. Provide this society provide subsidies on diesel to member fisherman. As per the society rules for joining the membership of society the person has to pay Rs 50 for purchasing shares and Rs 1.00 for the membership form. Activities Providing oil, diesel on cheaper price.Solve the problem of fisherman. Conclusion In veraval most of the fisheries Cooperative society are formed just to fulfill the targets of the project or to obtain assistance from various institutions. It has been observed in several cases that members of the primary cooperative societies are not at all aware of the needs and benefits of forming the cooperative, their own role in its success or the project objectives. This leads to disappointment of the members and finally failure of the project. One more reason is that member fisherman is not highly educated thus they are not aware about the new scheme of cooperative use to them. The malfunctioning of the cooperative also makes government to not take full attention for their progress or to uplift their condition. SUMMARY Under this programme I visited different cooperative societies working in veraval. I got the information about the aim and objective of the cooperative societies and how they are benefits to the College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 71
  72. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar fisherman for the upliftment of their socioeconomic status. I also find the reason behind the poor performance of fishery cooperative societies and there solutions. AQUACULTURE AND ALLIED WORK College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 72
  73. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar INTRODUCTION: - Under my RFWEP I visited different stations for aquaculture internship. This aquaculture internship was for 35 days. The purpose of this training was to enhance our knowledge and skill by doing real fieldwork. I visited following stations. 1. Shrimp farming at Navsari for 15 days. 2. Fisheries Research Station Okha for 8 days. 3. Fisheries Research Station Sikka for 2 days. 4. Inland Fisheries Research Station Junagadh for 7 days. 5. Fish farming at Bharuch for 3 days. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 73
  74. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar SHRIMP FARMING, SAMAPORE (NAVSARI) 1. INTRODUCTION I visited Samapore village to get training on various aspects of Shrimp farming. The training was for 15 days (9/3/2008 to 23/3/2008). This farm’s was started in 1992. The culture system was improved traditional culture of P. monodon. They prepared approach road from village to farm site on their own cost. Total culture area is divided in three sites A, B, & C. 2. LOCATION OF FARM 1. Name of farm:- “HARI OM AQUA FARM” 2. Name of owner: - Mr. Suresh J. Patel 3. Village:- Samapore, Dis.:- Navsari 4. Distance from city: - 10 km 5. Total area: - 17 ha 6. Total culture pond: -18 No. 7. Pond under culture: -14 No. 8. Reservoir: -2 No. 9. Reservoir area: - 2 ha (one is of 0.8 ha and another is of 1.2 ha ) 10. Water source: - Creak (Gutadia khadi) 3. SHRIMP FARMING ACTIVITIES (A) POND PREPARATION Pond preparation is one of the important criteria for shrimp farming practice. The main objective of preparation is to provide the shrimp with a clean pond bottom having good water quality. Pond preparation involves following step. Drying In samapore earthened ponds were there. After harvesting ponds were sun dried. Sun drying of pond helps to reduce bacterial load as it is a powerful natural disinfectant. Ponds were dried till the crakes in land become 2 inch dip. 20-30days drying is enough. Then bottom was raked using tractor 3-4 inch dip so, the sub surface soil get exposure to sun and oxidized by heat of sun. Ploughing also helps to destroy grass and crab holes if any in the pond bottom. After ploughing bottom was allowed to dry for 2-3 days. During drying the lime was applied @ 100-200 kg/hac in the pond. Water Source College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 74
  75. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Water source of the Samapore site is a creek-based farm. Water was taken from “Gutadia khadi” near Matwad village. Water Filling, Filteration & Treatment The water was pumped whenever there was high tide in the creek. Water was filled in the reservoir or directly in the pond. The pumped water was filtered through suitable screen to avoid entry of any larvae of predatory fish. After pumping water in reservoir it was disinfected by using bleaching powder. The pond water was treated to kill all unwanted fishes and pathogens or virus present in the water. They use bleaching powder @ 300 Kg. /ha in 1 mt depth. Then water was kept for 3-4 days in reservoir so all harmful animals like bacteria, fungus, algae etc were killed and water become safe for cultured shrimp. After that water pumped into culture pond. Water Preparation After filling water in pond water natural food was developed. For the development of sufficient natural food in the form of phytoplankton and zooplankton mixture of 10 kg rice bran + 10 kg sugar + 100 gm yeast was prepared in 50 lit water for 1 ha pond and allowed to ferment for 5-6 days. For development of algal bloom they used probiotic Environ AC (Biostat India ltd) 1st dose @ 10 kg/ha before stocking and 2nd dose @ 5kg/ha/week. (B) STOCKING When the color of pond water turns to golden yellow it is ready to stock shrimp seed. At samapore site stocking was done by Tank aeration method. They purchase seed from “VAISHAKHI” Biomarine Pvt. Ltd. located at Chennai. They purchase only PCR, MBV, and Wrinkling tested seed. After receiving seed from hatchery in polythene bags seeds were count randomly from 2-3 bags. Then seeds were acclimatize in pond water. A FRP tank was kept on pond dyke. Small potable aerators were also arranged in the tank to supply oxygen. Now the seed bags were opened and released into the tank and aeration was supplied by aerators. During acclimatization in the tank the pond water was also added. This process was done for half an hour. After that the seed from the tank was siphoned to the pond by using PVC pipe. 1. Total stocking density: - 6 lakh seed 2. Stocking density: - 6no/m2 3. Day of culture on 9th march: - 22 days The stocking density and area of each site was as follows… Site A Pond Area (Ha) Stocking density A1 0.6 60000 no. A2 0.5 55000 no A3 0.5 50000 no A4 0.5 50000 no. A5 0.5 N.S A6 0.5 N.S (N.S. = Not Stocked) Site B College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 75
  76. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar B1 0.65 65000 no B2 0.65 65000 no B3 0.5 45000 no B4 0.5 45000 no B5 0.9 N.S. B6 1.2 N.S. (N.S. = Not Stocked) Site C C1 0.5 60000 no C2 0.5 50000 no C3 0.45 40000 no C4 0.45 30000 no C5 0.35 25000 no C6 0.25 25000 no (C) FEEDING MANAGEMENT Management of feed is one of the most important aspects of successful shrimp production. After stocking of shrimp seed the feeding of growing shrimp was done with artificial feeds along with natural food (Phytoplankton & zooplankton) present in the pond. Commercially available artificial pelleted feeds available in the market under various brand names (CP, Avanti, West coat, etc) were used. FEED: - At this site CP (Charoen Pokphand) brand feed was used. According to DOC, stocking density and weight/size of shrimp feed was given. For that feed table standardized by feed company was followed. Feeding method: - Here feeding was done by two method (1) Dyke feeding and (2) Boat feeding. In dyke feeding feed was broadcasted in pond by walking around on the dyke by workers. A small raft prepared from thermocol or watertight sealed PVC pipe. Feeding frequency: - Feeding was done 4 times a day daily. Morning: -7:30 a.m. Noon: - 12:00 p.m. Evening: - 5:30 p.m. Night: - 10:00 a.m. IRAWN FEEDING TABLE . Feed Crude Fat Moisture Fibre Size Of Feeding Feeding Code Protein (Min) (Max) (Max) Prawn Frequency (Min) 681 38 % 5% 12 % 4% PL- 15 Full 3-4 to 20 Feeding times/day 682 38 % 5% 12 % 4% PL- 20 Full 3-4 to 45 Feeding times/day 683 38 % 5% 12 % 4% 1-3 gm Full 3-4 College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 76
  77. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Feeding times/day 683P 38 % 5% 12 % 4% 2-5 gm 12-10% 4 Of Body times/day Wt. 384 S 38 % 5% 12 % 4% 4-10 10-4.7% 4 gm Of Body times/day Wt. 684 38 % 5% 12 % 4% 10 -20 4.7% To 4 gm 3.5 % Of times/day Body Wt. 685 38 % 5% 12 % 4% 20 gm- 3.5-2.2 % 4 Up Of Body times/day Wt. INGREDIENTS  Fish meal  Soyabean meal  Cholesterol  Prawn meal  Squid meal  Phospholipids  Cod liver oil  Vitamins  Wheat flour  Minerals FEEDING TABLE FOR GROW OUT POND AGE ABW (Gm) FEED (%) FEED CODE 1-15 3-7 7-4 9042 16-30 7-10 4-3.6 9042 &9043 31-44 10-16 3.6-3.2 9043 45-59 16-22 3.2-2.8 9043 60-74 22-29 2.8-2.4 9043 75-89 29-34 2.4-2.0 9043 90-105 34-39 2.0-1.5 9044 106-145 40-50 1.5-1.0 9044 > 145 > 50 1.0 9044 BLIND FEEDING The feeding for the 45 was almost blind feeding & it was dependent on the survival & regular observation of the seed in the pond. The feeding rate was calculated depending upon the survival rate and average body weight of shrimps. The feed was regularly observed in check trays and depending on this feeding management was done. Perfect feeding was calculated by regular sampling and observing survival rate properly. BLIND FEEDING SCHEDULE: In blind feeding for 1 lakh nos. of seed feeding schedule was as follows. 1 – 10 DOC: - 1-1.5 kg/day & 200-gm/day increments. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 77
  78. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 11 – 30 DOC: - 400 gm/day increment. 30 – 45 DOC: - 30gm/day increment CHECK TRAY FEEDING The use of check trays is important in control of feeding. It provides useful information regarding the feed consumption, health, survival of the shrimp and condition of the shrimp and the pond bottom. Check trays are generally 2’x 2’sq.Feet (80x80 cm²) nets. They are placed in the pond away from the slop of clean and clean feeding areas. In check tray feed was kept @ 10 % of the total feed and divided equally among the no. of the trays in the pond. After 2 hrs check trays observed. If feed is finished in all check trays, increase feed by 7% in next day. If more than 50% of feed is finished in the check tray, maintain same feed. If less than 50% of feed is finished, reduce next day feed by 15%. If feed is leftover in all the check trays, reduce 20% feed in next feeding. In case of any critical situations like rainy day, water exchange, chemical application, moulting periods, low temperature & over bloom feed should be reduced.  Check try feeding = 1600 x feed in check tray x feed in gms Area (Mt2)  Feed requirement/day = Stocking x ABW (gms) x % feed x % survival. Density Feed supplement C-150 (CP) was given along with feed. It is a good source of vitamin C. (D) WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT The water quality parameters like pH, alkalinity, hardness, DO2, Ammonia, were checked regularly. The effective measures were taken to keep the parameters in the optimum range.  Salinity: - 18-25 ppt. If increase: it is due to evaporation, fresh water is added to maintain. If decrease: it is due to precipitation. So add high saline water.  pH: - 7.5 to 8.5 If decrease: it is due to algae bloom. Fermentation of yeast, sugar & rice bran was added. If increase: it is due to carbonate & bicarbonate fluctuation. Add Super PS.  Alkalinity: - 100-200 ppm If increase: the reason for that is a mineral in water .the solution is to add fresh water. If decrease: the reason for that is less mineral concentration. the solution is to add bore water.  DO2: - 10ppm If increase: Due to high algal bloom at daytime. If decrease: High algal bloom. Switch on the aerator. If than also decrease apply KMNO 4 @10kg/ha. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 78
  79. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Chaining is done regularly for removing lab-lab. It was done alternately in each pond every 2 weeks (E) WATER EXCHANGE PERIODICITY: - Water exchange was done after 70 days of stocking after that at every 15 days interval 30% water exchange was done. In case of black bottom water was exchanged . Probiotics: Probiotics helps to overcome stress & provide high survival rate & enhance uniform growth of shrimp owner of our farm use various type probiotics.  SUPER BIOTIC (Zymatin and Mutazene): - These are growth promoter and gut probiotics. Dosage: - 5gm/kg feed. This were soaked in water overnight and mixed with feed using binders (Codliver, True bind, Maxobind). It destroys the luminicent bacteria.  SUPER-PS: - It is water probiotic used for removal of H2S produced in the pond and improves the watercolor. For application it was mixed with sand. Dose: - 7 lit/ha./week (After chaining). (F) SAMPLING: - Sampling was done at regular interval to predict health status, growth rate and survival rate of shrimp and to calculate ABW and FCR for better feeding management. Here sampling was done every week after 45 days of stocking. Sampling was done by cast net. They take sample from each pond and sent in CP laboratory for testing.  Food conversion ratio (FCR) = Total feed / Total production.  Survival (In Nos.) = Feed/day ABW x % feed x stocking density  Survival (In %) = Survival in No. Stocking density (G) AERATION: - For ideal shrimp farming practice better aeration facility should be available. Aeration in shrimp farming required to maintain DO2. At Samapore site three different types’ aerators were used. In every pond two aerators were placed. TYPE RPM PRICE (Rs.) (Approximate) Paddle wheel aerator 70-80 18000 Long arm aerator 90 45000 Spiral aerator 120 60000 College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 79
  80. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Aerators were arranged in such a way that the pushing area was bigger than the pulling area. Aerators were run for two hrs during daytime and during nighttime for six runs to provide aeration and to maintain DO2. (H) HARVESTING: - When shrimp reach marketable size within four months at this time it weighed about 30-35 gm. They harvested the crop using bag net. Bag net was tied at the outlet pipe and the pond was drained. Shrimp comes along with the flow of water get collected in bag net. After draining entire pond water remaining shrimps were hand picked. The harvested shrimps were mixed with ice (1:1) and stored in fiber boxes. Harvesting was done early in the morning so, due to low temperature less ice is required and problem of melanosis not occur. When shrimps are in pre-molting stage harvesting was done. (I) MARKETING: - After harvesting shrimp were sold to Seafood processing plant. The buyers come to farm site and collect the material after weighment and transported in insulated vehicle. At Samapore site the buyers were from Bombay. Following is the buyers list.  Castlerock  4 Star (J) COMMON DISEASE PROBLEM: - They faced some disease problem in shrimp farming. The major disease problem in shrimp farming is white spot syndrome disease. The farmer was facing huge economic loss when the farm was infected with white spot virus.  WSSV is incurable disease so to prevent outbreak they make bird fencing mud crab fencing around the farm. Water quality parameter maintain at their optimum.  Black gill disease caused mainly due to poor water quality. Regular water exchange required.  White gutt disease caused due to deficiency of vitamin C. overcome by supplementing CP-C50.  Tail rot caused due to poor water quality. Chaining of pond bottom was done regularly. Super PS was also 2used.  Protozoan infection especially of Zoothamiuum.  Moulting problem. Due to fluctuation in pH the moulting is irregular. To overcome this Aquazone is used @ 1.5 lit/hac/week.  If alkalinity is less than blue shell problem may arise.  Due to more NH3 in the pond bubble formation may take place. (K) OTHER PROBLEMS: - Apart from disease they faced some problem in shrimp farming are as follows.  Water quality problem arise because of lab-lab, bloom crush, due to over feeding and blackening of soil etc.  Green color develops at walking legs of shrimp due to organic load and undesired material in the pond.  During monsoon due to heavy rain dykes was damaged and some time you have to loose your entire crop due to flood.  In one pond H2S gas production was there from the pond so they have to be very careful for that. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 80
  81. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar (L) OTHER FACILITIES AT THE FARM: - At farm site following facilities are available.  Two Generators set available one is of 125 KVA and another is 10 KVA. It consumes 15-18 lit Diesel/ hr. Store room: - 3 No. Pumps: - Pump station has 3 pumps of 20 HP.  No. of labors: - 14 No.  No. Technician: - 1 No.  Supervisor: - 1 No. (M) CONCLUSION: - Under this internship programme on shrimp farm I got chance to analyze real field condition and also viability of shrimp farming. Shrimp farming business has good potential. FISHERIES RESEARCH STATION OKHA College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 81
  82. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar As a part of my internship programme I visited Fisheries Research station Okha. At there I spent 8 days (24/3/2008 to 31/3/2008). This internship was arranged to get experience on hatchery management. It was established in 1969 as Marine Biological Institute station”. Their main activity was Research and Extension. Objective: - To survey potential resources in Arabian Sea. Various departments working at this research station are as following.  Aquaculture (shrimp hatchery)  Marine biology  Fish processing technology  Ecology and environment  Extension  Museum  Library AQUACULTURE DEPARTMENT SHRIMP HATCHERY MANAGEMENT At this research station marine shrimp hatchery was established for shrimp seed production. After seed production if there is no demand then seeds were sea ranched. The facilities include building, tanks, sea water supply system, fresh water supply system, aeration system, internal & external electrification and machinery & equipments. 1. BUILDING: - The hatchery site was elevated, flat and easily drainable. The hatchery was constructed by providing good roofing & drainable tiles. Each section was isolated completely to avoid cross contamination. 2. TANKS: ` Tanks with various capacity & shape were used for different hatchery operation. Tanks for larval rearing & post larval rearing were made up of plastic while live feed culture tanks were of fiberglass of 450-lit capacity. 3. SEA WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM: Seawater was directly drawn through the marine pump arranged in the intertidal zone. Then water was filtered to make it clean & free from all other organisms. Seawater was distributed by PVC lines. 4. FRESHWATER SUPPLY SYSTEM: Fresh water was supplied through PVC lines for daily hatchery operations such as salinity adjustment, cleaning, washing and domestic use. 5. AERATION SYSTEM: Sterilized dust free air was supplied continuously by using air blower through PVC pipe. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 82
  83. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar 6. INTERNAL & EXTERNAL ELECTIFICATION: Hatchery was provided with natural & artificial lights. Light was supplied by white fluorescent tube lights. 7. MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT: All the machineries like pumps, generators, blowers, air conditioners, refrigerators were placed in particular section. Laboratory was equipped with a microscope to evaluate the health of the larvae, seawater testing kits & equipments for microbial studies etc. Under this department various sections were there.  Water receiving section  Brooders rearing section  Larval rearing section  Post larval rearing section  Live feed culture Water receiving section They receive water directly from sea after receiving it was treated so if any pathogen or pollutant is there get destroyed. The water was treated in following manner to obtain portable water. Water received  Quick sand filter  Chlorination tank (14 ton capacity)  Chlorination (10-20 ppm in enclosed tank For 24 hrs)  Residual chlorine (8 ppm) Dechlorination (sodiumthio sulphate, 12 hrs)  Sand filter  Over Head Tank (By pump)  To various Department  Cartridge filter (10, 5, 1, 0.5 micron)  UV sterilizer College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 83
  84. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar (Capacity: - 1500 lit/hr). BROODERS REARING SECTION Brooders were collected from wild source. Generally Peneaus monodon species was used for seed production. They procured brooder from Navibandar creek. For brooder selection male should be of more than 70 gm and female more than 100 gm. They brought 17 brooder (male: 9 no & female: 8 no.) after that these were disinfected 2500 ppm formalin for 5-10 min. Then acclimatized in hatchery water for 15-20 min. After 1 hr squid meat was given. Feed was given @ 12 % of body wt. 3 times/day. Highly nutritious feed was given (squid meat, oyster meat, Nerish). In the hatchery unilateral eyestalk ablation was done for gonad development in female. By Electrocauterisation method eye was removed. Before and after eye stalk ablation female was treated in 20 ppm tetracycline for 10 min. at the time of eye stalk ablation brooder should not be in molting stage, soft and telson should not be damaged. After that brooders were kept in spawning tank in dark place. Male and female ratio should be 2:1 or 1:1. Within 8-10 days ovarian development was completed. At the time of molting copulation take place. Now males were removed from the spawning tank. Egg harvesting: - Eggs were harvested using 100 micron net. % of fertility = No. of fertilize eggs X 100 Total no. of eggs  Fertilize eggs = Transparent  Unfertilized eggs = Dark black Hatching tank: Fertilized eggs were transferred to hatching tank. Hatching tank was treated with 10 ppm EDTA and washed with sea water. After spawning the eggs hatched out to Nauplli-1 in about 8-9 hrs. Nauplli was pyriform in shape, dark brown, opaque and swim in short jerk. Hatching ratio = Total Nauplli X 100 / Total eggs The feeding behavior varies according to stage. Feeding was started from Zoea stage. STAGE FEEDING Nauplli Yolk Zoea Phytoplankton (Unicellular algae) Mysis Phytoplankton & Zooplankton Post larvae (PL) Zooplankton DEVELOPMENT STAGE: - STAGE TOTAL STAGE CHARACTER TIMEPERIOD Nauplli N1-N6 Jerky swimming 15-24 hrs Zoea Z1-Z3 First feeding stage every has 36 hrs Feeding started from Last stage (Z3) College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 84
  85. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Mysis M1-M3 Well developed every has 24 hrs Abdomen & carapace Post Larvae PL1-PL20 after 8-10 days of hatching Before starting seed production cycle the entire hatchery was washed using 5% liquid detergent. So bacterial, fungal or pathogen, if any gets destroyed. Then sterilized water was sprayed to wash out detergent. For aeration blower of different capacity was used at there i.e. 3 HP, 5 HP. Total six maturation tank having capacity of 2200 lit each. LIVE FEED CULTURE Under this section live feed were cultured for use in hatchery. They mainly culture.  Artemia  Chaetoceros Culture of Artemia: - Artemia cyst is an embryonic stage formed during development stage at adverse condition. Nauplli hatched out within 24-36 hrs. The condition required for hatching is  Salinity - 25-35 ppt  Light - 2000 lux  Aeration - Continuous  Temperature - 28-32 C  pH -8.0 - 8.5 The cyst are stocked in a 400 - 500 lit capacity hatching tank @ 1 – 2 Gms/lit. Continuous vigorous aeration was provided. Two fluorescent lights at 20 cm above the tank were required. Hatching efficiency = H X 100 where, H = No. of Nauplli C C = No. of cyst/gm Harvesting For harvesting aeration was stopped and tank was covered to prevent dust particles and light from upper side. Light was placed at one side of tank to attract nauplli. Leave it for 5-10 min so the unhatched cysts get settled at the bottom of tank. Nauplli have phototactic nature so they gather near the source of light in transparent zone and shells floating on the surface were drained out. Artemia Nauplli was harvested using 100 micron screen. Artemia become adult in 20-22 days. For feeding of Artemia leached water of rice bran and Soya powder extract was given after @ 5 gm/tank. Feed was given twice a day. Fecundity of Artemia is 4 nauplli/day for 90 days. Research work was going on cyst production of Artemia. For that Artemia were kept in different salinity pond to find out ideal salinity range for better cyst production. At research station zooplankton, orange in color and round/cylindrical in shape present in brine having salinity more than 300 ppt in the salt of TATA. Pinkish or red color of brine is due to this zooplankton. It was observed that Artemia feed on them and brine color change to transparent. As salinity raised more than 120 ppt Artemia gives cyst and at 140 ppt salinity pure cysts obtained. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 85
  86. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Culture of Chaetoceros For culture of Chaetoceros culture media was prepared in the following manner. .  Sodium nitrate : - 16 gm.  Potassium orthophosphate: - 8 gm  Sodium silicate : - 8 gm  EDTA : - 8 gm These chemicals were dissolved in 1 lit DW. For culture 1 ml media was dissolved in1 lit. filtered and sterilized sea water and then 1 to 2 ml of stock solution was added. Aeration was provided continuously. Feeding of Algae & Artemia Nauplli Algal feeding The residual algae cell density was estimated by using haemocytometer. Then the volume of algal water to be added was calculated by using the formula. AW = (DD-RD) ×TV AD Where AC = Algal water to be added to the tank/lit DD = Desired cell density RD = Residual cell density/ml. AD = Cell density in algal culture tank (cells/ml) TV = larval tank volume (in lit) From stage N-6 to M-3 algal feeding was to be 100,000 cells/ml From stage PL-1 to PL-3 algal feeding was to be 60,000 cells/ml Feeding Artemia nauplli The volume of Artemia concentration to be added to larval tank can be estimated by using the following formula AC = (DD-RD) × TV AD Where AC Artemia concentration to be added to the tank DD Desired density (Naups/ml) RD Residual density (Naups/ml) TV Larval tank volume (lit) College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 86
  87. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar AD Density in artemia concentrates (Naups/ml) From stage M-1 to M-2 0.25 artemia nauplii/ml For stage M-3 0.50 artemia nauplii/ml From stage PL1 to PL-3 1 artemia nauplii/ml Cell density estimation: The cell present in 5 squares out of 25 squares of the counting grid of haemocytometer were counted and the cell density was estimated by using the following formula  Number of cells in 5 squares × 5 = Total number of cells in 25 squares  Number of cells in 25 squares × 10 =Total number of cell per one ml of culture SEA WEED CULTURE SECTION: I observed and identified various spp of seaweed found at Okha coastline. Around 211 spp of seaweed were found on okha coastline. Some of the seaweeds have medicinal value apart from food value such as. Grasillaria dura for biotech grade Agar obtained. Kappaphycus alverzii for Kappa carragenan. Collurappa lentenlifonia, Agar-agar and carrageanens are extracted from Hipnia musiformis, Grasillaria dura. We have also prepared seaweed liquid fertilizer. Kappaphycus alverzii In India brown K. alverzii is cultured through raft culture. It harvesting period is 45 days. Its growth affected when salinity decreases below 32 ppt. It is used as emulsifying agent, which prevents crystallization. It has life span 45 days and in 25 days it grows 10 times of previous size. Kappaphycus is a patented product of Pepsi Co. they purchase it @ Rs. 45/kg of dry wt. It also provides germs for cultivation of Kappaphycus @ Rs. 5 kg. Preparation of seaweed liquid fertilizer They prepared fertilizers from seaweed. Seaweed fertilizer was prepared from saragasam. This species was available in abundant on the coastline. The peak season of this seaweed is November-December month. The seaweed liquid fertilizer was prepared as follows. Seaweed collection  Washing with fresh water (2 times)  Chopping of sea weed  Grinding (1-1.5 hr)  College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 87
  88. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Addition of water (Ratio 1:2)  Boiling (10 min)  Filtration  Cooling (At room temp.)  Preservation (1 gm KMNO4+ 1 ml formaldehyde/ lit of fertilizer)  Packing (Plastic container). PROCESSING DEPARTMENT Preparation of shrimp/fish feed: Ingradients: Fishmeal Soyabeen meal GNOC Sun flower oil cake Cotton seed oil cake Wheat/rice bran Proposip julifora pod powder METHODOLOGY All the ingredients were ground to fine powdered individually according to required quantity or proportional. Fine powder of ingredients was mixed as per requirement. Then dough was prepared 1:0.75 dry weight (W/W). 1 kg ingredients:0.75 lit water. Then steaming was done at 100-110 C for 15-20 min. The mixture was cooled at room temperature and then vitamins (B complex & C) and minerals were added. It was added @ 250 gm/ kg of feed. Kneading was done for proper mixing of ingredients, vitamins and minerals. Pellets were prepared manually. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 88
  89. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar Pellets were dried under hot air dryer at 50-60 C moisture content upto 8-10 %. If light is enough then dried in sunlight. Sun drying is necessary when probiotics are added. Airtight packing was done in PVC or plastic polythene bags and stored in cool & dry place. Protected from direct sunlight, moisture, rodents and insects. For calculation of feed ingredients and maintenance of protein level in feed preparation computerized method was used i.e. “Feed Preparation Software”. ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT Bioassay test: - Bioassay test was carried out to determine Lc-50 of different pollutants. For this test locally available, small & hardy fishes were taken. Initially 2 fishes were kept in 2 liters of clean sea water having different concentrations of pollutants i.e. 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% for 24 hrs. Now concentration was taken in which mortality were 0% & 100%.In that concentration 10 fishes were kept in10 liters water for 96 hrs. Then graph draw between mortality and toxic concentration and where 50 % mortality occurs that point was consider as LC 50 for the species. Estimation of heavy metals in mullet fish and squid (cephalopods) In fish Cadmium was measured and in squid Lead was measured. Sample: Fish liver, Fish muscle, squid tentacles, squid muscle etc. Sample was taken from fresh fish/squid according to size.  These samples were dried in dryer for 3-4 hrs at 90-100OC and then pulverized to prepare the powder.  0.5 gm sample was taken in the flask and 10 ml Diacid (Nitric acid: perchloric acid in 3:1 ratio) was added and digested on hot plate.  If required more Diacid can be added. After digestion color of the sample turns opaque to white (transparent).  Cooled at room temperature. DDW was added to make volume 100 ml.  Filter the solution by Whatman paper no.42/1 and then filled in bottle. Place the bottle in Automatic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Readings were recorded. Universally accepted limits of heavy metals METAL LIMIT (ppm) Copper < 20 Zink <50 Mercury <0.5 Lead <1 College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 89
  90. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar cadmium <2 FISHERIES RESAERCH STATION SIKKA Under RFWEP I visited the Fisheries research station Sikka. For Molluscan hatchery Research station was established in 1992. I got the full experience and knowledge on culture of Molluscan species. Research, extension and technical were the main activities of this station. Their main research work is on breeding and larval rearing of Molluscan spp. (pearl oyster, edible oyster and mussel). College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 90
  91. RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME By- Hitesh Karkar (1) Pearl oyster: - It was basically established to look after the pearl oyster Fishery existing in the Gulf of Kutch in India. Last year they have ranched 35 lakh pearl oyster in the sea. Among various species of pearl oyster at present research work is going only on Pinctada fucata. Characteristic area where pearl oyster found area having no sediment, clear water and presences of Isochrysis galbana and more phytoplankton. Breeding season is July to November. BROODSTOCK MAINTANANCE FOR MOLLUSCAN BROODER.  Water quality parameter  Salinity: - 35 ppt  pH: - 7-8  Temperature: - 20-25 C  Do2: - Continue aeration with water circulation.  200 No. of P. fucata and 200 No. Crassostrea gryphoides are transferred in A.C. lab from raft.  A/C lab temperature maintained at 20-25 C.  Brooders were kept in filtered seawater of 354 ppt.  Oyster density 1 No/ ltr seawater and constant aeration.  Cheatoceros culture, mixed diatom and biflagellate feed was given @ 200 ml/day/animal at 4 hrs interval twice in a day.  Debrice, excreta, pseudofeacus was removed by siphoning from the tubes daily before feeding.  Siphoned water was replaced by fresh seawater of 35 ppt.  Water circulation was maintained. FEED USED FOR OYSTER CULTURE:  Isochrysis galbana  Dicrateria inornata  Chromalin pleiodes  Skeletonima costatum  Chaetoceros spp.  Nitzia spp. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 91
  92. 92 FIELD REPORT-2008 LIFE CYCLE OF PEARL OYSTER FERTILIZED EGGS (45 Min) CLEAVAGE (4 Hrs) MORULA STAGE (20 Hr) STRAIGHT HINGE STAGE (3 Days) UMBO STAGE (13-17 Days) EYED STAGE (18 Days) PEDIVALIGER STAGE OYSTER SPAT JUVINILES College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 92
  93. 93 FIELD REPORT-2008 FEEDING SCHEDULE For larval culture.  10-cells/ml dose per day from second day onward up to umbo stage.  Feeding was double from umbo to pediveliger larvae  Feeding was triple from pediveliger upto settlement. For mass culture  1 lit/day from settlement to first month.  2 lit/day from second month.  3 lit/day from third month.  4 lit/day from fourth month. LARVAL REARING OF P. FUCATA STAGE SIZE TIME FEEDING NET TO LARVAL PERIOD (Cells/larvae/day) BE DENSITY USED (Nos/lit) Isochrysis Mix (Micron) algae Unfertilize 75*45 0 NIL NIL 30-40 25000 eggs Polar body 47.5 10 min NIL NIL 30-40 Cleavage 61 45 min NIL NIL 30-40 Morula NIL 3-4 hrs NIL NIL 30-40 Blastula 56 5 hrs NIL NIL 30-40 Gastrula 61 7 hrs NIL NIL 30-40 Trochophore 66 10 hrs NIL NIL 30-40 Veliger (D 10-20 67.5*52.5 5000 NIL 30-40 5000 stage) hrs Umbo 10-12 135*130 10000 NIL 80 days Eye spot 190*180 15 days 15000 NIL 80 Pediveliger 200*190 18 days 20000 NIL 80 2000 Plantigrade 220*200 20 days 20000 NIL 80 Spat 2500 300 21 days 25000 140 0 College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 93
  94. 94 FIELD REPORT-2008 (2) EDIBLE OYSTER: - Here in this research station they have work much on edible oyster but, they have not got success in breeding so from this year project is closed. LIFE CYCLE OF EDIBLE OYSTER FERTILIZED EGGS (45 Min) CLEAVAGE (4 Hrs) MORULA STAGE (20 Hr) STRAIGHT HINGE STAGE (3 Days) UMBO STAGE (13-17 Days) EYED STAGE (18 Days) PEDIVALIGER STAGE OYSTER SPAT JUVINILES College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 94
  95. 95 FIELD REPORT-2008 (3) Mussel: - In Gujarat they were the first to get success in breeding of Green Mussel. They have breed 1700 breeders at a time. It was break through in artificial fishery of green mussel. The area from where they procure brooder of this species are  Near Dwarka Khodiyar creak.  Mocha Gorsar near porbandar is a perna belt. Breeding was done by thermal jerk method. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 95
  96. 96 FIELD REPORT-2008 INLAND FISHERIES RESEARCH STATION J.A.U., JUNAGADH Under RFWEP I visited Inland Fisheries Research Station, Junagadh. I worked 7 days (2/4/2008 to 8/4/2008) at there to get knowledge and experience on various aspects of farming of Indian Major Carp (IMC). The research station was established on 9th September 2007. The University has allotted total 20 ha land for this research station. The Research station is located at Junagadh Agril University campus. The land has sloppy gradient. The clay-loam soil is also suitable for farm construction of as it has good water holding capacity. MISSION "To develop and continuously improve fish farming technology suitable for local agro-climatic conditions benefiting fish farmers of the state.” THRUST AREAS RESAERCH The activities and objectives of this research station are as follows.  Enhancement of survival rate of fish seeds in nursery ponds.  Mix farming of cultivable indigenous and exotic carps with fresh water prawns.  Production of viable fish hybrids by cross breeding.  Pearl culture from fresh water bivalves.  Enhancement of fish production by induction of sterility by hormonal manipulation.  Integrated fish farming.  Fish health management.  Feed formulation.  Organic fish farming (Biogas slurry). FEATURES  Culture experiment of Peneaus monodon in fresh water ponds.  Transportation of fresh water bivalves by Under water method In gunny bag in moist condition.  Fresh water Pearl culture experiment.  In 11th five year plan Seed production of major carp. Seed production of IMC & Hybridization experiment should be conducted. Aquarium fish breeding. Standardization of rate of stoking density in Nursery, rearing and stocking pond. Aquarium fish breeding. The following fish farming facilities are available at Research station. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 96
  97. 97 FIELD REPORT-2008  Nursery pond: - 12 no. (20*10*1 mt.) (0.24 ha)  Rearing pond: - 13 No. (40*20*1.2 mt.) (2.4 ha)  Stocking pond: - 19 No. (100*30*1.5 mt.) (5.7 ha) (5 ponds were under construction)  Bore wells: - 5 No.  Feeder canals  Drainage canals  Inlets & outlets  Office cum Laboratory NURSERY POND PREPARATION Ponds are sun dried and then liming is done for that quick lime is used @ 250 kg/ha. Water is taken into pond. Here bore water is used. After that fertilization is done to develop natural food in the pond. For that following manures are added to pond water 5 days before stocking. MANURE QUANTITY Cow dung 5ton/Ha Super Phosphate 250kg/Ha Urea 60kg/Ha murate of pottash 60-80kg/Ha The rate of manuring depends on color of water. In pond No 1 & 3 due to light green color the manuring is done at higher rate as compare to pond No 2 where water is color is dark. On 8th August, 07 spawns are released to nursery pond so fertilization was done on 1st August, 07. Stocking They undertake experiment on standardization of stocking density nursery ponds. Stocking was done on 8th of August, 07 with three different stocking densities i.e. 6 million/ha, 8 million/ha, and 10 million/ha. Feeding Of Fish Only three ponds were stocked. For feeding of fish (Rohu, Mrigal) following ingredients were used. INGREDIENTS PRICE GNOC 11.50 Rs Rice bran 9.25 Rs Raj dan 6-7 Rs./kg Cotton 7 Rs./kg Total feed for 10 lakh seed was 100 kg. Feeding Rate: - Feed was given @ 5-8 % of body weight. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 97
  98. 98 FIELD REPORT-2008 Equal the body wt for first three days. Double the body wt from the 4th to 8th day. Triple the body wt from 9th to 15th day. Sampling Planktonic study of each pond was done. Water sample was taken from each pond. There was Cyclops and Daphnia present in bulk amount in the pond water. These were identified by their movement. Cyclops has jerky movement while Daphnia has horizontal movement. The water quality parameter was also measured. Ideal water parameters for IMC farming: 1. DO2 : - 3 to 9 ppm 2. pH : - 7.5 to 8.5 3. Alkalinity: - >50 ppm to <150 ppm. If alkalinity is less than 50 ppm it means that nutrient level is less add fertilizer 4. Hardness: - Calcium hardness – 300 to 400 ppm. Total hardness – 500 to 600 ppm. After that sampling was done to measured length-weight, growth rate and health status. There was no sign of any disease and growth rate was also good. Harvesting Harvesting was done on 16th day of stocking. The survival rate was 37.7%. Fingerlings were harvested from rearing ponds after 40 days. Then stocked in stocking ponds. Conclusion The internship programme becomes very beneficial and knowledgeous to me. At there I learn various aspects on farming of major carp. I become aware of current status of fish farming in the state. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 98
  99. 99 FIELD REPORT-2008 MAHARAJA FISH FARM, SISODRA INTRODUCTION: I visited carp hatchery at sisodra. I spent three days (5 /2/2008 to 7/2/2008) there to get fieldwork experience and knowledge on carp hatchery management. LOCATION:  Name of farm: - “MAHARAJA FISHERIES”  Name of village: - Sisodra, Dist.: - Bharuch.  Owner: - Mr. Mahesh Patel, Mr. Prem Jaiswal  Total Culture pond: - 22 No. ACTIVITIES: The main activities of this farm were to culture fish and to produce fish seeds. BROODER SELECTION When I reached at site workers have finished the netting for collection of common carp brooders for breeding purpose. Workers select brooder by observing their sexual character like in Male: rough pectoral fin, on pressing abdomen milt oozes out. Female: smooth pectoral fin, vent was reddish in color, bulged belly. After that brooder was transferred to spawnery and then individual brooders were weighed. Hormone dose (Ova prim) was given as per required for male @ 0.2 ml/kg body wt. and for female 0.4 ml/kg body wt. For breeding male and female was kept in the ratio of 1:1 in breeding tank. The eggs of common carp are adhesive in nature so for attachment of eggs kakaban was placed in the tank in floating condition. HATCHERY The hatchery system used for seed production was Chinese type circular hatchery. Total 7 pools and one spawnery was there. The incubation and spawning was done in same tank. The spawning pool was circular having height of 1.27 mt and the diameter of inner circle was 1.18 mt. In the bottom periphery of tank “L” shaped ironed pipes were provided in circular manner at 45 degree. Showers were provided at the upper edge of tank in circular manner, which help to maintain DO 2. For to maintain water level inside the tank central outlet was provided. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 99
  100. 100 FIELD REPORT-2008 Construction of entire hatchery was done in such away that water supply was done by gravitational force so no need of over head tank (OHT) and pumping cost also reduced. Bigger aquaculture pond They have one 10 ha fish pond one inlet was provided at one corner of pond but there is no out let. This pond was stocked in monsoon because the water from upper area of pond comes in pond during rainy season. Fishes get natural environment so better growth rate was obtained. Yearlings of Indian Major Carp (IMC) will stock in this pond in next coming monsoon. Stocking density was as follows. SPECIES STOCKING DENSITY Catla catla 10000 Labeo rohita 8000 Cirrhinus mrigala 8000 Fertilization was done by lime, chicken droppings and cow dung. The production at last year was 85 tons. Village pond This pond was located at Kapodra. The area of this pond was 4.5 ha. Mr. Prem Jaiswal has taken on lease @ Rs. 25000/yr from government. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 100
  101. 101 FIELD REPORT-2008 SUMMARY: In shrimp farm management at Navsari I got knowledge on various aspect such as starting from site selection to marketing includes pond preparation, water filling, stocking, feed management, water quality management, shrimp health management, various probiotics used for treatment of shrimp, etc. At Research station, Okha I observed hatchery operation including brood stock maintenance, electrocauterisation, Unilateral eyestalk ablation, Larval rearing. Feed formulation, live feed culture, culture commercially important seaweed. Bioassay test, etc. At Sikka Research station I observed culture of pearl oyster and Mussel. At IFRS, Junagadh I observed various aspects of IMC farming including pond construction, standardization of stocking density, feeding management, water quality management, sampling to check health status. At Maharaja Chinese circular hatchery I observed the entire operation of circular hatchery, brood stock management, induce breeding. Fish pond management, etc. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 101
  102. 102 FIELD REPORT-2008 STUDY TOUR REPORT AND ADVANTAGES OF STUDY TOUR College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 102
  103. 103 FIELD REPORT-2008 CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF FISHERIES EDUCATION, MUMBAI INTRODUCTION: In our study tour, our first destination was CIFE, which is located at Varsova, Mumbai. It was established in 1987. It came under ICAR in 1989 and became deemed University. The director of CIFE is Dr. Dilip Kumar. This institute is for secondary level of education in fisheries field. It provides the P.G., PhD & M.Phil study to student. It’s having 4 training centers in states W.B, A.P, U.P, and M.h respectively as Barrack Pore, Kakinada, Lucknow, and Powerkheda. There are several departments like.  Fisheries resource management.  Inland aquaculture.  Fresh water aquaculture  Post-harvest technology.  Fish genetics and biotechnology  Fish pathology and microbiology.  Fish nutrition and biochemistry.  Fisheries business management. This institute has 37 m long vessel “M.V Sarasvati” deep-sea research cum fishing and training vessels and two other trawlers.  Museum “Matsya Darshan” the museum has so many verities of fishes, models of different type boats and nets, which are used in different parts of the India. ORNAMENTAL FISH CULTURE UNIT: CIFE also conduct research on the breeding of aquarium fishes. They provide feed as Daphnia, Moina, Tubifex and bloodworms. In this unit the in charge Officer Mr. Charudutt explain us about the breeding technology of Gold fish and maintenance of aquarium fishes. Aquarium fishes in CIFE:  Zebra Shark  Oscar  Guppy  Kissing Gaurami  Sword Tail  Reef Fish  Marble Angle  Gold Fish  Three Spot Gaurami  Eel College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 103
  104. 104 FIELD REPORT-2008 PROCESSING DEPARTMENT It is carrying out different research activities for maintaining quality of different products, its shelf life, techniques of preservation of the food products like fish pickles, prawn pickles, papad, wafer, fish chakli, fish wafer, etc. The department is very well furnished and equipped towards carrying out all the processes involved in production of quality product. The instruments used in the processing laboratory are as follows:  Skinning machine  Deboning machine  Meat bone separator  Twin screen extruder  Silent cutter  Slice cutter  Nitrogen flusher cum seaming machine  Glass bottle seaming machine  Polyethylene bag sealing machine  Vertical Retort  Plate Freezer  Dryer (Tory Kiln)  Centrifuge machine  Extruder  Spray dryer  Flanger  Can body reformer and seamer  Retort AQUACULTURE DEPARTMENT: In aquaculture department we have seen fresh water prawn hatchery. The hatchery was established in 1980. Brooders were collected from the river and male & female ratio was maintained 1:4. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 104
  105. 105 FIELD REPORT-2008 TARAPOREWALA AQUIRIUM, MUMBAI In Tarapore aquarium we saw different varieties of air breathing fish, Fin Fish, Shrimp, Turtle, Lobster were kept in the Aquarium. Fishes are both fresh & marine waters. Aquariums were well maintained. The fishes kept here are as follows. MARINE FRESH WATER Arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) Catla, Rohu, Mrigal Sea horse Pirhana Sea anemone (Paracondylactis indicus) Tilapia Lobster Gold fish Apogon spp. Tiger barb Lion fish (Pterois volitans) Fighter fish Cat fishes (Arius gagorides) Silver ballon Octopus Angel fish Puffer fish Sucker fish Grouper Sward tail Indian tarpon (Mecalops cyprinoides) Razor fish Flat fish Magur Shark (Carcharinus limbatus) Discus Lates calcarifer Red parrot fish Mullet Blue Gaurami Snapper F.W sharks Surgeonfish Tinfoil barb Murrel Copper tetra Sting ray Silver molly Butterfly fish (chactecdon spp) Jewel chichilid Sea snake Sea urchin Sea crab Sea turtle Target pearch (Therapon jarbua) College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 105
  106. 106 FIELD REPORT-2008 COLLEGE OF FISHERIES, MAGALORE It was established in 1969 and is the first fisheries college in the country. It is a part of University of agricultural sciences, Banglore. The various departments of the college are as follows. Department of fish Microbiology Department of Fish processing technology Department of Fish nutrition and Pathology Department of Fishery Resources and Management Department of Fisheries Environment and Ecology Department of Aquaculture FISH MICROBIOLOGY DEPARTMENT The department is the only center in India offering M.F.Sc. and Ph.D. degree in Fishery Microbiology. UNESCO has recognized the department as a MIRCEN (Microbial Resource Center) in Marine Biotechnology. In this department we saw various types of modern instrument to carry out microbiological test. Here PCR-test is also carried out for white spot diseases in shrimp. They are developing different Probiotics used to control certain diseases. They have also developed different remedies for treatment of different diseases like Vibro, WSSV, etc. The Department is offering courses in Basic and Applied Microbiology to U.G. students. The Department has also facility for students to specialize in Fishery Microbiology. FISHERY RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT The HOD of this department is Mrs. Mrudula. This department gives the information about the fishery of Karnataka state. On the coast of Karnataka major fishes found are Sardine, Mackerel, Silver bellies, Catfishes, Elasmobranches, P.stylifera, crabs, squilla, cephalopods, clams and fresh water fishes, catfishes, fresh water prawn M.roenbergii, etc. The gear used are Rampani, Purse seines and Trawl fishing. DEPARTMENT OF AQUACULTURE Main activities of this department are: -  Induced breeding of the different carps and other fishes.  Produced different hybridization, transgenic fish & preservation of gamete. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 106
  107. 107 FIELD REPORT-2008  Preparation of artificial feed with minerals, vitamins, anti-oxidants, and amino acids and pro-biotic.  They are doing Poly culture and composite fish culture.  Sex reversal technique.  Integrated fish culture.  Ornamental fish culture. DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY In this department we came to know about Hybridome technique, Biofilm vaccine, Polymerase chain reaction, SDS-PAGE, fish cell culture. Different test comes under Hybridome technique like: - Immunodot test ELISA Western blot Immunoperoxidase test. This type of test for detection of WSSV, E.U.S FISH PROCESSING UNIT We visited technical division of this college. We visited canning division, freezing unit and fishery products section. This department has all the facilities for processing of fish. The lab is equipped with following instruments:  Contact plate freezer  Air blast freezer  Fluidized bed freezer  Cold storage  Freeze Dryer  Meat mincer  Silent cutter  Extruder  Conveyer heat processor  Smoking Kiln  Meat separator  Stuffer  Wringer Instruments in canning division  Retort  Can vacuum seamer  Semi automatic  Vacuum seamer  Core remover  Pulp making machine  Can reformer- flange  Pasteurizer This institute had its own cold storage also which was used for self purpose. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 107
  108. 108 FIELD REPORT-2008 FISHERIES ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT: They are using so many types of gear. Here we saw the different gear like trawl net, gill net, purse seine, traps, Hooks & line etc. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 108
  109. 109 FIELD REPORT-2008 CENTRAL MARINE FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE, COCHIN CMFRI is located in Cochin. The CMFRI is working both on capture and culture fisheries. It was established in 1947 under the Ministry of Food and Agriculture with its Head Quarters at Madras and later shifted to Mandapam Camp in 1949 and to Cochin in 1971. In 1967 the administrative control of the Institutes was transformed to the ICAR. The CMFRI is one of the 8 national Institutes under ICAR fisheries research networks. MANDATES: To monitor the exploited and assess the under-exploited marine fisheries resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone To understand the fluctuations in abundance of marine fisheries resources in relation to change in the environment. To develop suitable Mari culture technologies for finfish, shellfish and other culturable organisms in open seas to supplement capture fishery production. To act as a repository of information on marine fishery resources with a systematic database. To conduct transfer of technology, post graduate and specialized training, education and extension education Programmes. ATIC: We visited Agricultural Technology Information Center (ATIC) which was sanctioned to CMFRI during December 1999 under the National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP). An amount of Rs. 42 lakh has been sanctioned under the project. The ATIC functions with objectives of To provide a single window delivery system for the products and services available from CMFRI to the farmers and the other clients. To facilitate direct access to the farmers to avail the facilities from the Institute at a nominal cost. To provide feedback to the fishermen/farmers visiting /using the facility. Moreover we have also visited CMFRI aquarium division & marine hatchery. Where we got information regarding various marine species culture as well as lobster culture. At last we have also visited the CMFRI museum, which is the one of the most developed museum in India with large no of fish & shellfish varieties. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 109
  110. 110 FIELD REPORT-2008 Museum Here we saw the Museum. Aquariums were well maintained, and several types of specimen were present which is found in our country. Aquarium Here we saw the different varieties of aquarium fishes like wise:- Moon wrase Tarry hog fish Cheeker board wrase Marbled parrot fish Red tail butterfly fish Red lion fish Raccoon butterfly fish Slender bamboo shark. . College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 110
  111. 111 FIELD REPORT-2008 MARINE PRODUCT EXPORT DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, COCHIN MPEDA comes under the ministry of commerce, Government of India. It was established in 1972 under an act of parliament, Government of India. It’s headquarter is located at Cochin. They have regional center at valsad, Veraval, Mumbai, Goa, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Channel, Vishakhapatnam, Guwahati and Kolkata. The MPEDA is responsible for the promotion of export of marine products from India. The major functions of MPEDA are as follows.  Development, conservation and management of offshore and deep-sea fishing.  Promotion of eco-friendly and sustainable aquaculture.  Registration of exporters and processing plants, fishing vessels and regulation of marine exports.  Lying down standards, specifications and implementation of quality control measures for meeting EU / HACCP norms.  Rendering technical/ financial assistance for promotion of value added marine products.  Providing market intelligence and promoting export through participation in international fair/organizing buyer-seller meets.  Imparting training in different aspects of procuring, processing, and marketing and exporting of marine products. M.P.E.D.A helps in 1. Quality control of seafood processing. 2. Production of value added product. 3. Ornamental fish development 4. Publicity and market promotion. 5. Marketing service & statistics. 6. Seed production. Diversification of aquaculture and Commercialization new technology College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 111
  112. 112 FIELD REPORT-2008 INTEGRATED FISHERIES PROJECT (COCHIN) IFP is located at Cochin. IFP is a joint project of the Government of Norway and United Nations with Government of India. IFP came in existence in 1952. This project deals with post harvest technology, preservation of fish. The main activity of IFP is to prepare ready to eat (canned) food items from the seafood. Product that is prepared is then marketed in hinder area land of India. PROCESSING PLANT: They have their own processing hall. The instruments present in their hall are:  Skinning machine  Filleting machine  Mincing machine  Grinder  Fish Slicer  Knobbing machine  Plate freezer  Tunnel freezer CANNING PLANT: In the canning plant different species like Sardine, Mackerel, Tuna, etc are canned. We have seen different type of machines like  Pre processing chamber  Exhausting machine  Seaming machine  Retort  Smoking chamber (For Oyster). There were various types of can used for canning. These are 125 GM club can 340 GM no 6 can 112 GM quarter can 350 GM no 5 can  307 GM 1 tall jam  454 GM no 1 can College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 112
  113. 113 FIELD REPORT-2008 COLLEGE OF FISHERIES, PANANGADH –COCHIN College of fisheries Panangadh was established in 1979. They include academic programme B.F.Sc., M.F.Sc. & Ph.D. The departments of the college are as below: Department of aquaculture Department of processing Department of fishery technology Department of fisheries biology Department of fisheries Hydrography Department of fisheries management Department of marine biology MUSEUM: In museum we saw many specimens of fishes and shellfishes, deep-sea fishes etc. Here we also saw all fresh water prawns found in all over the world. DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY: In this division we saw different types of canoe, net making equipment and different type of gear used in the sea. Here we got knowledge about the operation of trawling, purse seine and ring seine. We saw models of different types of nets, traps & floats and also fishing gear material charts. DEPARTMENT OF PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY: In this division we met the lab in charge. He gave information about the activities done here. He shows us different equipments used in freezing, canning, by product preparation like  Moulding machine  Vertical and horizontal retort  Silent cutter  Mixer  Meat bone separator  Dryer  Hand seamer  Vacuum sealer  Sausage stuffer  Display freezer  Cooker  Vacuum oven  Meat mincer College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 113
  114. 114 FIELD REPORT-2008 CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF FISHERIES NAUTICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-COCHIN Central institute of Fisheries Nautical Engineering Technology (CIFNET) was established as a collaboration project of the Govt. of Norway and Govt. of India, in 1963. The institute is carrying out research on the technology for fishing vessel and navigation, different navigational equipments, and training of fishing pilots. Its headquarter at Cochin and two regional research centers at Chennai and Vishakhapatnam. Institute has 3 vessels for training. Objectives  Increase the technical manpower of ocean, establishment of infrastructure and to create technical teachers for training centers.  Conduct the studies on fishing craft, gear and equipments. Activity of the institute Mate fishing vessel course (MFVC). Engine driver fishing vessel course (EDFVC). Shore mechanic course for 12 months. Radiotelephone operator course for 6 Months. Advance diploma in fishing gear technology for 12 months. Courses offer by the Institute They offer various courses like.  Vessel navigator course  Marine fitter course Apart from this they provide degree course in Bachelor of Fishing & Nautical science (B.F.N.Sc.) and Ancillary courses. They also arrange short-term training programmes. Beside this we also saw the various types of distress signals & life saving devices likewise: - EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Signals) Navigational Chart. Life Buoy. Life Jacket. Navigational Chart. International code of signals. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 114
  115. 115 FIELD REPORT-2008 SEAMAN PRACTICE ROOM: Here we met Mr.Girish who saw us different types of instrument used in navigation like G.P.S. 2. Paper recorder eco-sounder 3. Color video eco-sounder 4. Radar 5. SART (Search & rescue radar transponder) 6. V.H.F. 7. Fire fighting equipment 8. Magnetic compass Then we saw models of different fishing gear & its operation such as: Bottom trawling Out rigger trawling 3. Side trawling 4. Multirig trawling 5. Pair trawling 6. Gill netting Purse seining 8. Mid water trawling 9. Tuna long line 10. Squid jigging machine College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 115
  116. 116 FIELD REPORT-2008 CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY COCHIN CIFT is leading institute in fisheries technology sector. The headquarter of CIFT is at Cochin. CIFT works under ICAR. It has seven sub regional center and units at Veraval, Kakinada, Burla, Mumbai, Calicut, Nangal and Panji. The CIFT has following scientific divisions: Fish biochemistry & nutrition division. Quality assurance and management. Fish microbiology, fermentation & biotechnology division. Extension, information & statistics division. Fishing technology division. Engineering and instrumentation division. Fish processing division. ATIC: In CIFT first we visited Agriculture Technology Information Center (ATIC). Here we met Mr. Gopalkrishna pillai. He saw us different model of craft and gear like trawler, purse seine, gill net, lobster trap and different models of drier like PVC solar drier etc. He also saw us different models like effluent treatment plant model, smoke kiln, TED etc. We saw a model of steel vessel “SAGARKRUPA” developed by CIFT and last he saw us film of their activities about institute. We saw different byproducts and products prepared by CIFT as follows. 1. Prawn shell 9. Agar 2. Chitin 10. Cuttle fish silage 3. Chitosan 11. Fish wafer 4. Crab shell 12. Squalene 5. Chitosan film 13. Fish feed 6. Shark fin rays. 14. Shark bone 7. Fish soup powder. 15. Fish pickle 8. Isinglass 16. Fish sausage BIOCHEMISTRY AND NUTRITION DEPARTMENT: It is well-equipped laboratory. Here detection of antibiotic, viscosity and PCR test has been carried out. Here we have seen different types of instrument used for detection like College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 116
  117. 117 FIELD REPORT-2008  Cooling centrifuge machine  Tintometer  Viscometer  Polarimeter: measurement of diff. Concentration.  Atomic absorption spectrometer.  Arsenorator freeze dryer (AFD)  PCR  Horizontal and vertical electrophoresis. They have developed some products having medicinal value like  Glucose amine hydrochloride for knee treatment.  Chitosan film for wound healing,  Surgical suture for keyhole operation.  Squalene from shark lever for treatment of cancer. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 117
  118. 118 FIELD REPORT-2008 CHINESE DIP NET, COCHIN In fort Cochi I saw Chinese dip net operation. This is a traditional gear used by local fishermen to catch the fishes at backwater. OPERATION: The net is operated in the area where tidal fluctuation is less. 5 to 6 fishermen operate it. In this gear, one side of bamboo is tied with heavy stones and other side is tied with the four thin bamboo strip to which the net is tied. During high tide one man moving on the bamboo pole, dips the net into the water. Net consist of grass strips. Fish aggregated there. After about half and hour they pull the net and collect the fish. Then again high tidal amplitude is noticed the next operation is carried out. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 118
  119. 119 FIELD REPORT-2008 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY (GOA) We visited to NIO, Dauna Paula, Goa on 25th of April. It was established on 1st of January 1966. NIO has regional centers located at Mumbai, Cochin and Vishakhapatnam. MISSION OF NIO “To continuously improve our understanding of the seas around us and to translate this knowledge to benefit all” DEPARTMENTS OF NIO Physical oceanography. Chemical oceanography. Biological oceanography. Geographical oceanography. Ocean engineering. Marine instrumentation and computer. Marine corrosion and material research. MAIN ACTIVITIES  Ocean engineering.  Coastal zone development.  Pollution control.  Waste disposal.  Resources survey.  Environmental impact assessment.  Port and harbour development  Seabed survey.  Submarine pipelines.  Marine biotechnology and marine archaeology. OBJECTIVES  To provides linkages with industries and ensure customer satisfaction.  To continuously improve techniques for assessment of ocean resources.  To provides the best possible advisories to our stake holder on the sustainable use of the ocean.  To develop world class expertise and facilities in the emerging field of ocean research. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 119
  120. 120 FIELD REPORT-2008 ADVANTAGES OF STUDY TOUR: Study tour is mainly held to visit various fisheries related institute in various state of India. We can fulfill our allover information, knowledge regarding various institutes, their objects & activities. One most imp aspect to held study tour is to get well aware with other colleges & institutions. We can also fulfill our practical aspects in to these institutions, which could not be fulfilling in our college due to lake of infrastructure facility. Another useful advantage of this tour is we can well aware with fisheries status of various states. We can well aware regarding the craft & gear used in following states, most available species in following state. We can also visit some world level institutions. Their area of work, various instruments, well equipped laboratories etc. Through study tour we get exposure of various institutes related to fisheries sector .The new technology that are implemented in various activities in fisheries in various part of the country can be visualize and get information of that from their experts. It makes the link between students studying in different fisheries colleges or related institutes. It also helps to visualize the various fisheries activities performing in different part of country. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 120
  121. 121 FIELD REPORT-2008 SUMMARY OF FIELD WORK REPORT: Fieldwork Report is the concise report of all the experience I got during RURAL FISHERIES WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME conducting during eighth semester. This report is based totally on the practical experience I got in the field of Fish Processing, Fishing experience and activities, Study of fish catch composition, socioeconomic survey in fishing villages, Fisheries co-operative societies, Aquaculture and allied work, and the study tour of different institutions prevailing in our country related to fishery sector. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 121
  122. 122 FIELD REPORT-2008 FEED BACK AND SUGGESTION TO IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RFWEP Through RFWEP conducting during our 8th semester of B.F.Sc. course we develop skill and confidence to tackle the various situations in us. Know the gap between theory and practical. By working in-between fisherman societies we familiarize the socioeconomic condition of fisherman, the status of fishery in society, dealing method with fisherman, getting better exposure in the fisheries world and tackle the people at the grass root level. Suggestion ☼ RFWE programme should be minimum of one year, so that student get better exposure in the practical field of Aquaculture, Processing and fisheries allied sector. ☼During RFWE programme concerned teacher should be the students to get better guidance. ☼ The RFWEP programme should be arrange when landing is more so the student gets more experience and should be arranged in alternate ways in different plants so student get better exposure to various practices followed in different plants. ☼Period of study Tour should be 1 month. ☼Study tour should cover all the institutes related to fishery sectors. College of Fisheries, Veraval Page 122

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