Seat cover• Woven seat cover is one of the important contributors of technical textile in an automobile.• With gradual improvement in vehicle models and increased emphasis on luxury and comfort, the seat cover market has witnessed uptrend in the market.• Seat covers are made from cotton, vinyl, velvet and leather.
Seat coverProduct Characteristics:• The fabric used for the manufacturing of seat covers is woven on looms.• The desired product characteristics are durability, ultra- violet fade and wear resistance, water-proofing, flexibility and stretchability.• The type of seat cover used varies based on the automobile model and desired styling of the upholstery.• The yarn required for the seat covers is in the range of 500 deniers to 1300 deniers.• The fabric is further laminated to provide desired protection characteristics.
HELMET• The principal function of a helmet is to absorb the shock of a crash and thus put a stop to major injury to the brain, rather than preventing head and face crack.• The usual motorcycle helmet has an internal layer of polystyrene or polypropylene foam and an external layer made of plastic, glass, and other man-made fibres.• The outer shell is made from Acrylonitrile-Butadiene- Styrene (ABS) or Polypropylene or glass fibre plastic which is hard in nature.• The inner side of the shell is expected to provide cushion to the rider and is made from regulated density concussion padding.
Sunvisors• The sun visors are located in the interiors of a four-wheeler just above the windshield.• The sun visors are used to block the Sunlight from entering through the windshield.• The blinds can also be turned to the front side window to reduce lateral sun exposure.• There are two sun visors in a car, – one for driver and – The other for the co-passenger.
SunvisorsProduct Characteristics:• The blinds are primarily made of three parts, – The synthetic backbone made of polypropylene or kenaf fibres. – Scrim = coarse woven reinforcement fabric and – Upholstery = typically artificial leather.
Seat Belt• Seat belts function as a safety harnesses which secure the passengers in a vehicle against harmful movements during collision or similar incidents.• Seat belts are woven narrow fabric made from nylon filament yarns or high tensile polyester filament yarn.• The load specification is an important criterion for usage in vehicles.
Seat BeltProduct Characteristics:• Are made from nylon filament yarn or polyester filament yarn which is woven to produce the webbing pattern.• The linear density of man-made yarns must be stuck between 100dtex and 3000dtex, preferably 550-1800dtex.• A typical seat belt is made of 320 ends of 1,100 dtex polyester each.• The majority weft yarns prepared from polyester are 550dtex.• The critical characteristics of the webbing are: – Abrasion resistance, – Resistance to light and heat, – Capable of being removed and put back in place easily and good retraction behavior. – The load bearing capacity of seat belts is 1500 kilograms.
Interior carpets• The carpets are laid in the cabin and parcel shelf at the back.• The carpets are primarily non-woven textile material.• The usage of carpets varies based on the interior designs which vary across car models.• Usage of carpets in buses and other M&HCVs is minimal.
Interior carpetsProduct Characteristics:• The interior carpets are made primarily from polypropylene fibres.• The carpet is laid on the vehicle floor above which rubber mats are placed.• The desired characteristics of automobile interior carpets typically are as given below: – High durability – High abrasion resistance – Tensile strength – warp around 50 KGF and weft around 45 KGF – Low inflammability – Good compression recovery• The fabric is around 500 GSM with a thickness of about 3mm.
Car Body covers• Car body covers are used to cover the car if no covered space for parking (parking garage) is available.• The car body covers are made of a variety of fabrics including canvas covers, HDPE, PVC, reinforced cotton material and Nylon.
Air Bags• It is a safety device aimed at preventing or minimizing injury to passengers when such an accident occurs.• An airbag is an elastic bag or cushion like makeup which inflates and deflates quickly at some stage in certain types of car accidents.• Airbags have been efficient to put a stop to severe head and chest injuries in adults when automobile accidents have occurred.• Airbags can be located in both the front and Side of vehicles. – Frontal Airbags: The airbag component for the driver side is situated in the centre of the steering wheel, whereas the passenger side component (if equipped) can be found in the dashboard above the glove box. – Side Airbags : There are three different types of side air bag systems currently available: • Roof-mounted side airbags designed to protect the head and neck. • Door-mounted side airbags designed to protect the chest. • Seat-mounted airbags designed to protect the chest and head.
Air BagsProduct Characteristics:• Nylon 6, 6 is used as a key raw material.• The yarn / fabric are primarily nylon 66, lighter denier, and silicone coated.• Approximately, 1.8 square meter of fabric is used per airbag module.
INSULATING FELTS• Insulation felts, often known as NVH products (Noise, Vibration, and Harshness parts) are used for acoustic and thermal insulation in the automobiles• These are Bonnet liner, Outer dash, Wheelhouse, and Outer floor under shield. These parts not only provide noise protection inside the car but also a reduction in the noise emission outside.• Insulation felts are 100% polyester non-woven technical textile products.
INSULATING FELTSProduct characteristics• The NVH products or insulation felts are 100% polyester non-woven technical textile products.• These products are classified based on the manufacturing process as needle-punched, phenolic resin bonded and thermoplastic.• The felts are generally soft and used with or without harder backing.
Nylon Tyre Cord Fabric• Nylon tyre cord fabric provides strength to a tyre.• Nylon tyre cord fabric gradually replaced the usage of rayon and polyester cords in the tyre industry.• The nylon tyre cord is prepared from high tenacity continuous filament yarn by twisting and plying.• There are two main types of nylons used as tyre cord, i.e. – Nylon-6 and – Nylon-6, 6.• The types of nylon-6 tyre cord used in India are 840/2, 1260/2, 1260/3, 1680/2 and 1890 / 2 where number indicates denier of ply / no. of plies in the cord. The denier per filament is 6.
Nylon Tyre Cord FabricProduct characteristic :• Nylon 6 grey and dipped tyre cord fabrics having – High strength, – Fatigue resistance, – Impact resistance, – High adhesion• The tyre cords are generally available with the fabric characteristics of 930dtex, 1400dtex, 1870dtex, 2100dtex.
Headliners• Headliners are used in passenger cars and multi/sports utility vehicles as non-woven light weight roofing material.• The cars were earlier fitted with knitted/woven fabric with hard cardboard type of backing.• The trend has changed and increasingly non-woven headliners are being used in vehicles.
HeadlinersProduct Characteristics• A headliner is a compound stuff that is ingredient of a face fabric with nonwoven or foam back up that is stick on to the in the interior roof of automobiles.• The majority headliners made of a tricot knit fabric that is knapped to offer a flexible feel and uniform look.• The cloth is held fast with melted polyurethane foam.• This fabric-foam structure is adhered to the inside fiberglass covering of the automobile.• Headliners non-woven cloth has GSM varies from 185-220 GSM.• The desired characteristics of headliners are good sound damping properties and good aesthetics.• Usually the headliners are non-woven technical textiles prepared by polyester staple fibre (PSF) polypropylene or polyurethane core sprayed among two reinforce sheet.
Conclusions• Textile Is non seperating Part of automobile industry.• Textile is value adding factor for automobile.• Textile plays the role of brand up gradation.• Textile has created revolution in automobile
References• Hand book of technical textiles by A.R. Horrocks and S.C. Anand. Woodhead Publication.Ltd.England.• Automotive Textiles, Textile progress, Vol.29, No.1/2 by S.K. Mukhopadhyay & J.F. Partridge, The textile Inst. Publication.• Technicaltextile.net