Learning Unit #04 Lecture                  Vasco Nunez                  de Balboa,                       first European   ...
Part One:What’s Been Happening inthe ‘Old World’ Since the Break-Up of the Roman         Empire?                       2
The ‘Old World’             The ‘Old             World’ =              Europe,             Africa, &              Asia (E....
The traditional date for the‘fall’ of the Roman Empire is  476 C.E., but it applies only      to the Western part. The   E...
The Muslim world experienced its “Golden Age” at the time of the “Dark Ages” in Europe.   Expansion of Islam, a new world ...
BuildingAchievementsof IslamicCivilization  Dome of the Rock (Mosque), Jerusalem (687-691)
Alhambra, Granada, Spain (1248-1354)
European Christians & Muslims came intoconflict during the former’s failed attempts     to oust the latter from the ‘Holy ...
What Europeans Learned from        the Crusades• How to organize and support large-scale  military expeditions and explora...
What Europeans Learned…. (Cont’d)• Beyond the Muslim world even greater  riches were to be had through direct  trade with ...
Marco Polo (1253-1324)   Ibn Battuta (1304-1369)
Travels of Marco Polo & Ibn Battuta
The Italian City-States  Situated in the          easternMediterranean--      & therefore   closest to the   trade arrivin...
Silk Road and Spice Routes
The Bubonic Plague,a.k.a. “The Black Death.”No one understood that itwas spread by fleas;millions perished; laborshortages...
The spread of the Black Death followed trade routes across    the Eurasian Continent.
Mercantilism
ColonialismMercantilism resulted from booming economic growth & expanding royal power &    ultimately led to the adoption ...
As Atlantic trade becomes more important,Mediterranean trade will become less important.Nation-states witheasy access to t...
At the time of its encounter with the       New World, Europe was…• politically fragmented.• NOT the world’s  dominant mil...
The Rise of Gunpowder Empires      Between about 1350 &    1550 early nation-statesappear in Europe. Because    of the nee...
SPAIN & Portugal:The IberianPeninsula
Spain and Portugal were ahead of the       rest of Europe because:• They had consolidated their respective  monarchies.• ‘...
The Portuguese were the true pioneers of     expansion prior to the Spanish, but why?•           Favorable                ...
Portuguese Advantages (Cont’d.)•          Already a     presence in the       Atlantic in the         early 1400s         ...
European exploration in the Atlantic and Indian            Oceans, 1486-1498       In 1498, Vasco                         ...
Africa                               Mansa                               Musa                              Mansa MusaAfric...
West Africa andEurope in 1492
Caravan routes
Africa (Cont’d.)• The most important thing to remember about  Africa’s relationship to Europe in the 1400s and  1500s was ...
Part Two:Christopher Columbus & the   Columbian Exchange                       31
The Age of European                       Exploration was really a                       desperate gamble by              ...
Was the ‘New World’ reached before              Columbus?• YES: Leif Ericsson,  Viking; ca. 1000  C.E.; Vinland• DOUBTFUL:...
When   Columbus      met the      Arawak  (or Tainos)   Indians onthe shores of          San Salvador, he          wasenco...
Significance of Columbus’   Encounter with the New World• Brought together ‘Old World’ of Europe,  Africa, and Asia & the ...
The Columbian Exchange• FROM NEW WORLD        • FROM OLD WORLD  TO OLD                  TO NEW• Animals: Turkey       • An...
Pineapple, potatoes, and cassava—all plants native to theAmericas and unknown to Europeans before the 1500s.
“Montezuma’s Revenge” – the Spirochete,  bacterial organism that causes syphilis
Positive and Negative Aspects of the        Columbian ExchangeAs far as food choices, the exchange of plants,animals, and ...
Smallpox  strikes      the Aztecs.    The Native Americans paid a high price for being    “discovered.” European diseases ...
Also contributing to the high body count among Native Americans werethe murderous, barbarous crimes of the Spanish, who en...
Part Three:Guns, Germs, & Steel                       42
The Aztecs were anIndian group living incentral Mexico; theyused military force todominate nearbytribes; theircivilization...
Tenochtitlan, Aztec capital, as it probably looked at the time theSpanish arrived in 1519.
Conquistadors•   Hernan Cortez,    1519•   Francisco Pizarro,    1532•   How did a few    hundred Spaniards    take down t...
“The Storming of the Teocalli by Cortes and His Troops”
GUNS               16th-century               Arquebusier    Arquebus
Smallpox           GERMS
S    T        E            E                L
The Aztecs fought using:   •        Padded armor   •      Obsidian-bladed       spears & war clubs   •      Wooden shields
Tlaxcalans—Indian Gateway to     Allies of the SpanishAztec Capital                                        War Hound   Ind...
Cortez &Spanishsoldiers                                        Aztecs      Tlaxcalan Allies of the Spanish
Some saw Indians as the The impact of discovering the          ‘spawn of Satan’       Americas on Europe was           but...
Juan Gines de Sepulveda   Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish Rule in the New World•   New Spain•   Encomienda system•   Royal Fifth•   Gold & Silver•   By 1530s African slaves...
SpanishAmerica,ca. 1600
Spain’s New World Competitors• Engaged in piracy against Spanish  shipping as a matter of state policy.• Portugal; Treaty ...
Spanish “doubloons,” i.e. gold coins   England, and                                       others, were                    ...
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HIS 2213 LU4 How & When Did Europeans Become Dominant in the World?

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  • Trading networks were centered on the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. \n
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  • "The Storming of the Teocalli." (1848). Emmanuel Leutze. (Cortez with stout armored band fights his way back into Tenochtitlan, June, 1520. Based on Prescott's description) \nThe situation as reconstructed by modern historians is not as melodramatic as the summary and description appearing in the passages from Prescott below. Cortez, having exited Tenochtitlan with most of his force to deal with Spanish forces from Cuba hostile to his enterprise, overcame and absorbed them. The combined force then re-entered the Mexica city on June 24 without opposition, to rejoin the beleagured Alvarado and his men, only then to find themselves pent up and in effect besieged within the now hostile city which had turned against Cortez and the captive Moctezuma. The Spanish began house clearing operations around the perimeter of the buildings to which they were confined in preparation for an eventual fighting retreat. The "Storming of the Teocalli" reflects a Spanish assault on the nearby pyramid temple of Yopico, a hard fought battle up the vertiginous steps. Reaching the top of the pyramid (teocalli) the Spanish cast down the "idols," images of the Mexica gods, burned those they could not overturn, and thrust and tumbled the Mexica priests after them. It is probabled that among the cast down objects in this sortie was the famous Aztec Sun Stone, probably the best known symbol of Mexican culture. Contrary to Prescott's envisioning, therefore, this battle, though stenuous, was not a prodigious fighting re-entry into Tenochtitlan and, more importantly, was not fought atop the great teocalli of the Plaza Mayor, the pyramid dedicated to the twin gods, Tlaloc the god of Rain and Huitzilopochtli, the patron War God of the Mexica. Prescott loads his narrative with a symbolism that is close to allegory - the Christian Spaniards fighting to topple the pagan Gods of the Barbarian Mexica and replace them with Christian images at the very heart and pinnacle of the Aztec domain. reference, Hugh Thomas, Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, pp. 402-403. (reference, William H. Prescott, HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO, 2 vols., Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1892, II, 63-67) EMANUEL LEUTZE, THE STORMING OF THE TEOCALLI, 1848--BASED ON WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S DESCRIPTION IN HIS 1843 *HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO.* (reference, William H. Prescott, HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO, 2 vols., Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1892, II, 63-67) THE FIGHT ATOP THE TEOCALLI (Temple): BACKGROUND: CORTEZ HAD LEFT A SMALL GARRISON OF SPANISH TROOPS IN TENOCHTITLAN TO GUARD MOCTEZUMA AND HIS TREASURE WHILE HE DEALT WITH A HOSTILE SPANISH FORCE THAT HAD LANDED FROM CUBA. THIS GARRISON, UNDER THE COMMAND OF ALVARADO, HAD FALLEN UPON RELIGIOUS CELEBRANTS DANCING IN HONOR OF THE RAIN GOD, TLALOC, AND HAD MASSACRED THEM [SEE IMAGE 0017]. AT THIS POINT THE AZTECS ROSE UP AGAINST THE SPANISH. CORTEZ IN THE MEANTIME HAD TAKEN THE CUBAN FORCES BY SURPRISE AND WON THEM OVER TO HIS CAUSE. HE THEN HAD TO FIGHT HIS WAY BACK INTO A HOSTILE CITY TO SUCCOR ALVARADO AND REGAIN ACCESS TO MOCTEZUMA AND THE MEXICAN TREASURE. THE DATE IS NOW JUNE 24, 1520. THE CLIMACTIC STAGE OF THIS BATTLE WAS A THREE HOUR STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE SPANISH AND THE AZTECS ATOP THE GREAT TEOCALLI DEDICATED TO HUITZILOPOCHTLI [wee-tsee-loh-POHTCH-tlee], THE WAR GOD, THE HUMMING BIRD OF THE LEFT, THE PATRON GOD OF THE MEXICA. THE SPANISH STORMED THE PYRAMID AND, ON "THIS AERIAL BATTLEFIELD, ENGAGED IN MORTAL COMBAT IN PRESENCE OF THE WHOLE CITY," TO QUOTE PRESCOTT. ON THE FIELD ATOP THE PYRAMID, AGAIN TO QUOTE PRESCOTT, "NO IMPEDIMENT OCCURRED. . EXCEPT THE HUGE SACRIFICAL BLOCK, AND THE TEMPLES OF STONE WHICH ROSE TO THE HEIGHT OF 40 FEET . . . ONE OF THESE HAD BEEN CONSECRATED TO THE CROSS. THE OTHER WAS STILL OCCUPIED BY THE MEXICAN WAR-GOD. THE CHRISTIAN AND THE AZTEC CONTENDED FOR THEIR RELIGIONS UNDER THE VERY SHADOW OF THEIR RESPECTIVE SHRINES; WHILE THE INDIAN PRIESTS, RUNNING TO AND FRO, WITH THEIR HAIR WILDLY STREAMING OVER THEIR SABLE MANTLES, SEEMED HOVERING IN MID AIR, LIKE SO MANY DEMONS OF DARKNESS URGING ON THE WORK OF SLAUGHTER!" \nThe following is a close paraphrase from William Truettner, "Prelude to Expansion: Repainting the Past," in THE WEST AS AMERICA: REINTERPRETING IMAGES OF THE FRONTIER, Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 59-62 \nEMANUEL LEUTZE'S PAINTING OF THIS BATTLE WAS INSPIRED BY THIS DESCRIPTION AND LIKE PRESCOTT'S WORDS TILTS TOWARD THE SPANISH. \nTHE TEMPLE OF THE WAR-GOD AT THE TOP IS A SQUAT UGLY MENACING STRUCTURE, A PRIMITIVE BARRICADE AGAINST LIGHT AND REASON. THE TOWER, WITH ITS CRUELLY DISTORTED HUMAN FACES IS BATHED IN A DIABOLICAL RED LIGHT. ALTHOUGH RESISTANCE IS FIERCE THE FLOW OF ENERGY AND VICTORY IS WITH THE SPANISH--THE AZTECS ARE POISED IN RECOIL. THE ADVANCING SPANIARDS, CLAD IN BLACK ARMOR, RESEMBLE HUMAN DREADNOUGHTS--THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THE MOMENTUM OF TECHNOLOGY AND CIVILIZATION IS IN THEIR FAVOR. [IN A SIMILAR FASHION, THE US ARMY, EQUIPPED WITH THE LATEST IN RIFLES AND WEAPONRY, HAD PREVAILED OVER THE MEXICAN ARMIES IN THE LATE WAR.] THE AZTECS BATTLE HALF NUDE, WEARING JEWELS, BRIGHT CLOTHES, FANCIFUL HELMETS SUGGESTIVE OF THEIR DECADENCE. TO THE RIGHT, ABOVE THE DRUMMERS, ONE OF THEIR PRIESTS HOLDS ALOFT A PARTLY DISEMBOWELLED INFANT OFFERED IN SACRIFICE. [INFANT SACRIFICE WAS NOT PART OF THE AZTEC RITUAL WHICH EMPHASIZED THE OFFERING OF WARRIOR OPPONENTS TAKEN IN BATTLE] AT THE FAR LEFT A SPANISH PRIEST OFFERS LAST RITES TO A DYING MEXICAN --AT LEAST ONE SAVAGE SOUL WILL BE SPARED FROM HELL. JUST BEHIND THE PRIEST A SPANISH SOLDIER PLUCKS A NECKLACE FROM AN AZTEC CORPSE--WE ALL KNOW HOW GREEDY THOSE CONQUISTODORES WERE APPLAUDED IN ITS DAYS BY THE CRITICS AND PUBLIC, LIKE ALL PAINTINGS, LEUTZE'S WORK DOES DOUBLE, EVEN TRIPLE DUTY. IT COMMENTS NOT ONLY ON PRESCOTT'S HISTORY, BUT ON THE JUST ENDED MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR--GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT HAD FOLLOWED LITERALLY IN CORTEZ'S FOOTSTEPS AND THE VICTORIOUS US WAS SEEN AS BRINGING TO THE BENIGHTED MEXICANS THE FRUITS OF A SUPERIOR CIVILIZATION AND RELIGION. AND ONE CAN ALMOST READ INTO THE PAINTING A COMMENTARY ON THE INDIAN-WHITE ENCOUNTERS OF THE 19TH CENTURY--WHERE SOME OF THE WORST WARS WERE YET TO COME. THE STORMING OF THE TEOCALLI THEREFORE REPRESENTS THE FUTURE AS WELL AS THE PAST. \nIN PRESCOTT'S WORDS, THE SUBJECT REPRESENTED: "THE FINAL STRUGGLE OF THE TWO RACES--THE DECISIVE DEATH GRAPPLE OF THE SAVAGE AND THE CIVILIZED MAN. . . WITH ALL ITS IMMENSE RESULTS." \nTruettner notes (see above reference) that Leutze had modelled the architectural stage for the battle from a volume of lithographs, published in 1844 by Frederick Catherwood, which contained detailed renderings of ruined MAYAN temples, which Catherwood and archaeologist John Lloyd Stephens had explored in the Yucatan several years earlier. "Leutze copied the giant serpent head in the right foreground, the heads inserted over the doorway and at the base of the tower, and the decorative designs bordering the terraces of the great pyramid. The entire architectural stage appears to be freely adapted from a number of Mayan temples, not one of which closely matches the altarlike appearance of Leutze's structure." (WEST AS AMERICA, p. 59) Never mind that the Mayan and Aztec cultures were far apart in time and space: Leutze senses both as pagan and barbaric. \nOlder readers and/or science fiction aficionados might also notice the similarity of Leutze's composition, in its flat bas- relief lack of depth, its lurid subject matter, and the clash of alien technology against unprotected beings, to the covers of the old ASTOUNDING SCIENCE FICTION in the cold war inspired decades of the 1940s and 50s. In fact that magazine once published a paraphrase of Prescott's CONQUEST OF PERU as a science fiction story under the title of "Despoilers of the Golden Empire." A further sub-text of Prescott's history also is at play in Leutze's imaging of a turning point in the Conquest--for this painting portrays the moment where, as Prescott conceives it, Christianity overcame Aztec paganism atop the city on a battlefield that was the religious heart of the Mexica.. Part of the US victory of the Mexican War had entailed a perceived victory of an industrious, disciplined, and on the whole, Protestant nation against a backward, indolent, southern, and Catholic nation. In the polarized images of Protestant versus Catholic that occupied the imagination of mid 19th century America, "southerness", laziness, and strange, even quasi-pagan rituals were associated with Catholicism: industry, vigor, discipline, and clean productive harshness accrued to images of Protestantism. Thus, somewhat strangely, the values of Prescott's narrative of the conquest tend to assign to the conquering Spaniards and Cortez the to-be commended qualities of Protestant virtue, zeal, and technological innovation--even though in historical fact the Spaniards were, of course, of the Catholic faith. But who becomes the "Catholics" in protestant, Bostonian Prescott's narrative? The Aztec's--in their decadence and strangeness of ritual and through the horrors of their cannibalistic rites as infamously expatiated upon by Prescott, perhaps sensed as paralleling the savageries of the Inquisition, (whose auto-da-fe's in Spain had featured mass burnings of victims in cages). To support this statement it is profitable to consider the language of one of Prescott's concluding paragraphs: phrases depicting the religion of the Mexica are similar to those encountered in writings opponents to Catholicism alarmed by the challenge of Rome. Indeed the Aztecs and "the Romans" are directly linked. \n"The influence of the Aztecs introduced their gloomy superstitions into lands before unacquainted with it, or where at least it was not established in any great strength. The example of the capital was contagious. As the latter increased in opulence, the religious celebrations were conducted with still more terrible magnificence; in the same manner as the gladiatorial shows of the Romans increased in pomp with the increasing splendour of the capital. Men became familiar with scenes of horror and the most loathsome abominations. Women and children--the whole nation--became familiar with and assisted at them. The heart was hardened, the manners were made ferocious, the feeble light of civilization, transmitted from a milder race [Prescott refers here to the allegedly benign influence of the Toltecs who had earlier inhabited the valley of Mexico], was growing fainter and fainter, as thousands and thousands of miserable victims, throughout the empire, were yearly fattened in its cages, sacrificed on its altars, and served at its banquets! The whole land was converted into vast human shambles! The empire of the Aztecs did not fall before its time." \n(references, William H. Prescott, HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO, 2 vols., Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1892, II, 351. and Franchot, Jenny, ROADS TO ROME: THE ANTEBELLUM PROTESTANT ENCOUNTER WITH CATHOLICISM, Berkeley : University of California Press, c1994. \n
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  • Tlaxcalan Artist, c. 1560. The entrance to Chalco, on the way to the Aztec capital. The single Spaniard is accompanied by three Tlaxcalan soldiers, plus an Indian carrier. With few exceptions the murals depict the Spanish on horseback armed with lances, as in this scene. The Spanish use of guns or cannons was rarely illustrated. The dog is one of the oversized mastiffs accompanying the Spaniards. \n
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  • HIS 2213 LU4 How & When Did Europeans Become Dominant in the World?

    1. 1. Learning Unit #04 Lecture Vasco Nunez de Balboa, first European to reach the Pacific“How & When Did Europeans Become Dominant in the World?”
    2. 2. Part One:What’s Been Happening inthe ‘Old World’ Since the Break-Up of the Roman Empire? 2
    3. 3. The ‘Old World’ The ‘Old World’ = Europe, Africa, & Asia (E. Hemisphere)--all known to each other, but, in 1492, culturally & biologically separated fromthe ‘New World’(W. Hemisphere) for the past 10,000 years.
    4. 4. The traditional date for the‘fall’ of the Roman Empire is 476 C.E., but it applies only to the Western part. The Eastern part survived until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks (Muslims) in 1453.
    5. 5. The Muslim world experienced its “Golden Age” at the time of the “Dark Ages” in Europe. Expansion of Islam, a new world religion based on revelations to the Prophet Muhammad c. 622-900 C.E.
    6. 6. BuildingAchievementsof IslamicCivilization Dome of the Rock (Mosque), Jerusalem (687-691)
    7. 7. Alhambra, Granada, Spain (1248-1354)
    8. 8. European Christians & Muslims came intoconflict during the former’s failed attempts to oust the latter from the ‘Holy Land.’ The Crusades 1096-1291
    9. 9. What Europeans Learned from the Crusades• How to organize and support large-scale military expeditions and explorations of unknown territory.• Islamic peoples possessed very desirable material resources (silks, spices) that could be gained through trade.
    10. 10. What Europeans Learned…. (Cont’d)• Beyond the Muslim world even greater riches were to be had through direct trade with East Asia (India, China)
    11. 11. Marco Polo (1253-1324) Ibn Battuta (1304-1369)
    12. 12. Travels of Marco Polo & Ibn Battuta
    13. 13. The Italian City-States Situated in the easternMediterranean-- & therefore closest to the trade arriving from the Far East--by 1300, Venice, Florence, Genoa, & Milan were on their way tobecoming worldtrading centers.
    14. 14. Silk Road and Spice Routes
    15. 15. The Bubonic Plague,a.k.a. “The Black Death.”No one understood that itwas spread by fleas;millions perished; laborshortages elevated serfsto peasants in W. Europe.
    16. 16. The spread of the Black Death followed trade routes across the Eurasian Continent.
    17. 17. Mercantilism
    18. 18. ColonialismMercantilism resulted from booming economic growth & expanding royal power & ultimately led to the adoption of colonialism, especially by countries located on Europe’s Atlantic side. A nation-state’s power could be greatly expanded by:1.) Accumulation of wealth – Rulers decided that in order to gain economic power & military strength, the state had to build up wealth in the form of gold & silver bullion. Rulers encouraged exports & discouraged or outlawed imports (using tariffs & import quotas), because they wanted to have a favorable balance of trade. (Balance of trade = the difference in value between imports & exports.)2.) Trade with colonies – Colonies were expected to supply the colonizing country with wealth—either gold or silver from its mines or valuable raw materials. Rulers insisted that the colonies buy goods only from the colonizing country.
    19. 19. As Atlantic trade becomes more important,Mediterranean trade will become less important.Nation-states witheasy access to theAtlantic Ocean wereperfectly located tobe the first toencounter & exploitthe Americas.
    20. 20. At the time of its encounter with the New World, Europe was…• politically fragmented.• NOT the world’s dominant military power (the Ottomans arguably were).• NOT the world’s most advanced civilization (China & the Muslim world were more impressive).• NOT the center of world trade (China & India were).
    21. 21. The Rise of Gunpowder Empires Between about 1350 & 1550 early nation-statesappear in Europe. Because of the need for standing armies, larger political unitsencompassing more & morepeople were the wave of the future. Weak but stable monarchies gradually gained “absolute” control over more & more territory & resources. Spain & Portugal led the way.
    22. 22. SPAIN & Portugal:The IberianPeninsula
    23. 23. Spain and Portugal were ahead of the rest of Europe because:• They had consolidated their respective monarchies.• ‘Mission from God’; both ruthlessly spread Catholic Christianity (the only kind there was in W. Europe until Reformation begins, 1517).• Their Islamic heritage from the Middle Ages & geographic position put them far ahead of the rest of Europe as navigators of the world’s oceans.
    24. 24. The Portuguese were the true pioneers of expansion prior to the Spanish, but why?• Favorable Prince Henry the geography. Navigator• Midpoint of trade between NW Europe and Mediterranean. Sagres• Consolidated their monarchy 200 yrs. before Spanish; House of Avis; Prince Henry; sponsored maritime academy at Sagres.
    25. 25. Portuguese Advantages (Cont’d.)• Already a presence in the Atlantic in the early 1400s (Canaries, Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira).• Established trade w/ the West Coast of Africa in the mid-1400s.• Already had the world’s first global trading post Portuguese caravel with triangular empire by 1500. lateen sails, which enabled the vessel to tack against the wind.
    26. 26. European exploration in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, 1486-1498 In 1498, Vasco da Gama found the shortest route from Europe to the Far East by sailing around Africa and across the Indian Ocean. Vasco da Gama
    27. 27. Africa Mansa Musa Mansa MusaAfrica in the1400s & 1500s was even more diverse thanEurope & the Americas as far as ethnicities, religions, &languages that could be found on the continent; not one‘Africa’ but many. Africa was made up of hundreds ofsocieties & cultures from small tribes to powerful empiresthat did not think of themselves as one single continent orpeople. Islam was the main religion among elites.
    28. 28. West Africa andEurope in 1492
    29. 29. Caravan routes
    30. 30. Africa (Cont’d.)• The most important thing to remember about Africa’s relationship to Europe in the 1400s and 1500s was that they were on equal footing politically, militarily, and technologically.• Unlike the later era of European imperialism in Africa during the 1800s, in earlier times Europeans could not impose their will on African peoples (whites got malaria; lacked technological advantages).• Slaves not yet a major source of commercial activity between Africans & Europeans.• Pattern of trade between Europe & Africa in 1400s & 1500s would begin to shift flow of trade out of Mediterranean & into the Atlantic, creating a new world economy.
    31. 31. Part Two:Christopher Columbus & the Columbian Exchange 31
    32. 32. The Age of European Exploration was really a desperate gamble by European countries to raise their positions relative to the rest of the world. Led by Portugal, Spain, and, later, England, they were eventually successful at planting colonies to exploit the resources of the New World to enrich the Old. Since the voyages of Columbus both halves ofChristopher Columbus the globe have been connected.
    33. 33. Was the ‘New World’ reached before Columbus?• YES: Leif Ericsson, Viking; ca. 1000 C.E.; Vinland• DOUBTFUL: Zheng He, Chinese admiral; some claim his ships sailed to the Americas in 1421, but most scholars doubt this ever happened.
    34. 34. When Columbus met the Arawak (or Tainos) Indians onthe shores of San Salvador, he wasencountering his own distant cousins.
    35. 35. Significance of Columbus’ Encounter with the New World• Brought together ‘Old World’ of Europe, Africa, and Asia & the ‘New World’ of the Americas.• Both had lived in biological & cultural isolation for thousands of years.• Columbus’ voyage began the sustained exchange between these two worlds in an irreversible process that still continues today. This was the beginning of ‘globalization.’
    36. 36. The Columbian Exchange• FROM NEW WORLD • FROM OLD WORLD TO OLD TO NEW• Animals: Turkey • Animals: Horses, Cattle, Pigs, Sheep,• Plants: Corn, Goats, Rats Potatoes, Tomatoes, Squash, Beans, • Plants: Wheat, Oats, Chili Peppers, Rye, Barley, Rice, Peanuts, Chocolate, Sugar Cane, Tobacco “weeds”• Diseases: Syphilis • Diseases: Smallpox, Measles, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Alcoholism
    37. 37. Pineapple, potatoes, and cassava—all plants native to theAmericas and unknown to Europeans before the 1500s.
    38. 38. “Montezuma’s Revenge” – the Spirochete, bacterial organism that causes syphilis
    39. 39. Positive and Negative Aspects of the Columbian ExchangeAs far as food choices, the exchange of plants,animals, and cultures that Columbus initiated has enormously enriched all parts of the planet.
    40. 40. Smallpox strikes the Aztecs. The Native Americans paid a high price for being “discovered.” European diseases were new to the Americas and decimated Native American peoples. Within two generations, the population of the Americas plummeted by possibly as much as 85-90 percent in the greatest demographic catastrophe in world history.
    41. 41. Also contributing to the high body count among Native Americans werethe murderous, barbarous crimes of the Spanish, who enslaved Indians to work their encomiendas and also first brought African slaves to the Americas in the 1530s.
    42. 42. Part Three:Guns, Germs, & Steel 42
    43. 43. The Aztecs were anIndian group living incentral Mexico; theyused military force todominate nearbytribes; theircivilization was at itspeak at the time ofthe SpanishConquest (1519 -1521).
    44. 44. Tenochtitlan, Aztec capital, as it probably looked at the time theSpanish arrived in 1519.
    45. 45. Conquistadors• Hernan Cortez, 1519• Francisco Pizarro, 1532• How did a few hundred Spaniards take down the Aztec and Inca Empires? --Guns; Germs; Steel; Indian Allies; Horses; Attack Dogs• Hernando DeSoto, 1538- 1542• Francisco de Coronado, 1541-42
    46. 46. “The Storming of the Teocalli by Cortes and His Troops”
    47. 47. GUNS 16th-century Arquebusier Arquebus
    48. 48. Smallpox GERMS
    49. 49. S T E E L
    50. 50. The Aztecs fought using: • Padded armor • Obsidian-bladed spears & war clubs • Wooden shields
    51. 51. Tlaxcalans—Indian Gateway to Allies of the SpanishAztec Capital War Hound Indian Spanish supply soldier carrier (forSpanish)
    52. 52. Cortez &Spanishsoldiers Aztecs Tlaxcalan Allies of the Spanish
    53. 53. Some saw Indians as the The impact of discovering the ‘spawn of Satan’ Americas on Europe was but others profound, like finding life on admired them as ‘noble Mars. Why was info about the savages’New World not in the Bible? Are free from the Native Americans even human? temptations Some said it was okay to treat of civilization.Indians like beasts because they had no writing systems (not true for all!) & thus no civilization. Europeans evaluated Indiancultures by European standards. De Las Casas defended the Indians, but he said they still must be converted. His book, Spanish Cruelties, was a bestseller in England. Bartolome de Las Casas
    54. 54. Juan Gines de Sepulveda Bartolome de Las Casas
    55. 55. Spanish Rule in the New World• New Spain• Encomienda system• Royal Fifth• Gold & Silver• By 1530s African slaves are working mines; African slavery was instituted by Spanish as a reform measure (to ease the burden of forced labor on the Indians)!
    56. 56. SpanishAmerica,ca. 1600
    57. 57. Spain’s New World Competitors• Engaged in piracy against Spanish shipping as a matter of state policy.• Portugal; Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)• The Netherlands (Holland); Dutch revolted against Spanish rule (1568-1648)• France; far north (Canada); Jacques Cartier, 1534; Samuel de Champlain• England; John Cabot, 1497
    58. 58. Spanish “doubloons,” i.e. gold coins England, and others, were jealous of Spain’s New World Empire. Catholic Spain used its wealth to make war on Protestant England. England wanted to harass Spain in the New World and seize their gold. Spanish silver The English also believed they could rule over the Indians with more justice and less cruelty than the Spanish had shown (but they “Pieces would not live up to of Eight” this ideal).

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