Digital History - 8 May 2012
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  • 1. From Cradle to Antipodean Grave: Reconstructing 19th Century Criminal Lives Prof Hamish Maxwell-Stewart University College DublinWith thanks to the Australian Research Council, the Australian National Data Service, the Institute for a Broadband Enabled Society and the Universities of Melbourne, Flinders, ANU, Oxford (UK) and Guelph (Canada) 1
  • 2. The Voyage to Australia!340 voyages from theBritish Isles to Australia the 830 convict voyages from British Isles to Van Diemen’sLand! 1787-1868. India! Carrying 160,000 prisoners 340 to VDL 1803-1853 67,000 prisoners Mauritius! A further 5,500 locally Norfolk Island! convicted or arrived on intercolonial transports Cape ! New Zealand! 2
  • 3. 1 1st assessment of the impact of transportation from conviction through to end of sentence2 Look at long-run social and epidemiological impact. 3 and intergenerational 3
  • 4. Height Hair Colour Hair Colour Height Eye Colour Eye Colour Expanded and Unexpanded Chest Measurement Civil, marriage, birth and death Weight recordsConvicts 59,000 men 13,500 women transported 1803-1853 WWI recruits 14,899 Born in TasmaniaIntergenerational height data+ Year of birth and death + Socio-economic data + Some medical records 4
  • 5. Questions 1. What can we learn about the health transition from transportation? What can we learn about the long-run effects of various life course 2. events on health (including intergenerational effects)? 3. What can we learn about the efficacy of various penal policies? 4. Can we transmit useful information to the descendants of convicts? 5. Can we supply useful information to the heritage tourism industry? 5
  • 6. Fig. 2 Death rates at sea and during the first year in the colony for male and female convicts arriving on voyages to VDL 1830-1853 8.00 Voyage Van Diemen’s Land 6.40 5.6 4.80 4.4 Deaths per 1000 per month 3.20 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.0 2.3 2.1 1.60 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0 0.4 * r r ter r 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th h h h te arte te 10t 11t 12t ort uar uar uar In P Qu Q Q Q Months after landing 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Males No of voyages = 208: Mean length of voyage = 116 days: No of convicts embarked = 48097 Females No of voyages = 81: Mean length of voyage = 118 days: No of convicts embarked = 12514* For 59 male voyages and 36 female voyages the surgeon provides the date when convicts were first embarked and the date of sailing. The mean length of theembarkation process was slightly longer for male ships, 17 days, as opposed to 14 for female vessels. Deaths for the period in port and the four quartiles of the voyagehave been weighted to 30 days. 6
  • 7. Diarrhoea and dysentery Diarrhoea and dysentery Diseases of the digestive system Diseases of the digestive system Other fever Diseases of the respiratory system Fever Respiratory tuberculosis Diseases of the respiratory system Diseases of the circulatory system Sexually transmitted diseases Respiratory tuberculosis Nausea Diseases of the circulatory system Debility and marasmus Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue Sexually transmitted diseases Mental and behavioral disorders Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Nausea Diseases of the eye and ear Debility and marasmus Diseases of the genitourinary system Diseases of the nervous system Diseases of the skin Diseases of the blood and blood forming organs Endocrine, deficiency and metabolic disorders Mental and behavioral disorders NeoplasmPregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Other infectious diseases Unclassifiable Diseases of the eye and ear Accident Convulsions and teething Diseases of the genitourinary system Old age and decay Diseases of the nervous system Deaths per 1000 convicts Other tuberculosis Diagnoses per 1000 convicts Paralysis Diseases of the blood Suicide Scurvy Unknown Diseases of the musculoskeletal system 0 1.75 3.50 5.25 7.00 0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 7
  • 8. Diarrhoea and Dysentery Diagnoses per 1000 Convicts 12.0 9.0 FemalesDiagnosis rate per 1000 convicts 6.0 Males 3.0 0 ort 0-9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 + Voyage Percentile I np 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 - 70 - 80 - 90 8
  • 9. Route of the Isabella Watson taken from the log of Captain J.A.McDonald, Mitchell Library Sydney MSS 1808 /2x Item 3 Seasickness and Accidents (cases per 1000 convicts) 1.6 0.90 Roaring 40s 1.2 0.68 0.8 0.45 0.4 0.23Accidents Nausea 0 0 rt 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0- -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 Po 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 In Accidents Seasickness Percentage of Voyage Elapsed 9
  • 10. Indents Height Age on arrival Occupation Native Place 10
  • 11. Marital Status No Children Religion Literacy Statement on family and circumstances Offence transported for + priors 11
  • 12. Father and Mother [Father]James native place 2 brothers William DouceRichard and William on board; 7sisters Mary, Sarah, Lydia,Sophia, Eliza, Emma, Phoebe; Church St, Safron WaldenSarah London and Lydia James Douce Sarah Douce Lydia Douce Lydia Douce 14 Mary Douce Aged 45 Sophia Douce Sophia Douce 17 Agricultural labourer Flora Douce James Douce Eliza Douce Eliza Douce 8 James Douce ? Douce Emma Douce 4 SARAH Douce Phoebe Douce Phoebe Douce 2 Aged 40 Richard Douce Richard Douce 11 12
  • 13. Occupation Native PlaceAge on arrival Height Physical disabilities Description Registers 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Confession — marital status, transportable offence, prior offencesEach bench appearance religion and literacyDate (names of parents and siblings)Where employedChargeSentence (lashes, days irons, cells etc)Magistrate who heard case Conduct Registers 15
  • 16. 1816-1839! Full Pardon 1840-1853 Cond. Pardon Ticket of Leave Assigned or Public Works Road Parties Chain Gangs Males Penal Stations Gallows 1816-1843 ! 1844-1853 Full Pardon Cond. Pardon Ticket of Leave Assigned to Private Settlers Factory 1st Class Factory 2nd Class Factory Crime Class Females Gallows 16
  • 17. Distribution of Male Convicts 1st January 1839 Distribution of Female Convicts 1st January 1839 Hospital & Invalid Missing & Establishment absconded 2% Confined in Gaols Invalid Establishment 1% 2% Port Arthur 9% Ticket of Leave Female Factories 24% 18% Chain GangsTicket of Leave Road Gangs 25% 11% Public Works 9% Constables 2% Artificers on loan to settlers 2% Assigned Assigned 34% 56% ! Full Pardon Cond. Pardon Ticket of Leave Assigned or Public Works Road Parties Chain Gangs Males Penal Stations Gallows 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. Transp[orte]d for theft. Goal report ‘Bad character and connections’. Hulk report ‘orderly single’. Stated this offenceHousebreaking been 9 or 10 times before the Magistrates but cannot tell what for.May 16 1832, Murray, Gross insolence, 25 lashes & returned to his master, J. Simpson.Augt 6 1832, Murray, Disobed[ien]ce of orders, 2 months impris[onmen]t & hard labor & ret[urne]d to his service, J.Simpson.Octr 6 1832, Murray, Insolence, Rep[rimande]d, J. Leake.Octr 221832, Murray, Insolence, Ret[urne]d to P[ublic] W[orks], J England.Feby 18 1833, R[oa]d Party, Absco[ndin]g, 50 lashes, W[illiam] L. [yttleton]March 7 1833, Road Party, Abscond[in]g, 70 lashes, WL & WKMay 4 1833, R[oa]d P[ar]ty, Having in his possession a quantity of potatoes for which he cannot account, Placed onNo. 3 ration one month, W Lyttleton.Septr 17 1833, R[oa]d P[arty], Abscond[in]g, 3 mo[nth]s imprison[men]t & hard labor, Notman’s gang recomm[ende]d,WL.Septr 27 1833, Notmans ch[ain] g[ang], Inciting his fellow prisoners to insubord[inatio]n & refusing to work, 50 lashes,WL.Jan 2 1834, R[oa]d P[ar]ty, Absconding, 6 months imprisonment & hard labor, Notman’s gang recomm[ende]d, RCG.Octr 29 1834, Brand, Inducing Mr. Warne’s serv[an]t to leave his masters premises, 7 days Bread and Water andSol[itar]y Conf[inemen]t, WL.Jany 28 1835, Brand, Neglect of duty and making use of profane language, 3 months hard labor Westbury Road Partyrecomm[ende]d, RCG — Long meadows R[oa]d P[ar]ty Launceston vide L[ieutenan]t Gov[ernor’]s Decis[io]n 5 Feby1835Decr 1835, Newland, Disorderly conduct & violently assaulting Geo[rge] Williams, 6 mo[nth]s hard labour in ch[ain]s,RCG — At Laun[cesto]n vide L[ieutenan]t Gov[ernor’]s Decis[io]n 24 Decr 1835Septr 30 1837, Newland, Larceny, Disch[arge]d, WFThe Lieutenant Governor has been pleased to grant this man a free pardon and 50 sovereigns for his praiseworthyconduct in apprehending Benjamin Ball, a bushranger of desperate character. Vide Gov[ernment]t. Notice 157. 19
  • 20. David Gow’s Progress through the Convict System Captures Bushranger — Free Wicked Chain Gang Road Party Assigned Good AND PUBLIC AL PARDON CONDITION ABSOLUTE TICKET OF ASSIGNED GALLOWS STATION PARDON WORKS PARTY LEAVE PENAL CHAIN GANG ROAD 20
  • 21. EDWARD KENNEDYper ELIZABETH Employment History Fellow WorkersDecember 1832 — Assigned to Mr Thomas Parker MR THOMAS PARKER 367 John Andrews 1106 William Courtney26 July 1833 — Parker — Gross in subordination also 1338 William Counselassaulting his master and violently beating and 1392 George Cornishassaulting his fellow servant. Original sentence 274 William Elliotextended two years and recommended to be sent to a 404 John Frenchpenal settlement. MLS and JW. — Con 31/26 723 Daniel Groves 504 James LeverettDecember 1833, Public Works ROAD PARTY 595 Charles Lane 728 Charles Pizzie17 February 1834 — Road Party — Absent from the 1377 Andrew West GRASS TREE HILLhuts at an improper hour — 6 Mos Hard Labour Grass 1379 John WilsonTree Hill Recommended. WJP. — Con 31/26 211 Jane Boulter19 March 1835 — Mack — Insolence and violent J. D. MACKconduct in Mr Muir’s Public House — 36 Lashes and Macquarie Districtreturned to his service. CPM. — Con 31/2623 Sept 1835 — Transferred from J. D. Mack, Macquarie ALEXANDER DOWNIEDistrict to Alexander Downie, <[Norton Mandiville]> Norton Mandeville— Hobart Town Gazette, 24 Sept 1835. HamiltonDecember 1835, Assigned to Mr A Drought REV A. DROUGHT 347 Thomas Fisher Church of England18 April 1839 — The remaining part of his extended Rector Greensentence remitted by order of His Excellency, vide Pondsmemo of P. Supt. — Con 31/26 21
  • 22. Bench Property AProperty B Property C 22
  • 23. 3. Penal policy shifts a) Premodern - modern. Foucaultian shift punishments that focus on the body to punishments that focus on the mind. Number of lashes and days cells per man (5 year moving average) 10.00 3.0 Election of Whig Government Introduction of probation system 7.50 2.3Days solitary confinement per man per year Number of lashes per man per year 5.00 1.5 2.50 0.8 0 0 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 Lashes Cells 23
  • 24. Number of lashes received by convict over the course of their sentence White collar Wood Weavers twice as likely to be flogged as agricultural labourers Agricultural Food and drink Metal Construction land transport UnskilledMaritime transport Domestic service Clothing Textile 0 15 30 45 60 24
  • 25. Charges brought against male convicts per man on strength (5 year moving average) and mechanics wages Introduction of probation 0.900 12.00 Wages of mechanics (shillings per day) 0.675 9.75Charges per man on strength 0.450 7.50 0.225 5.25 0 3.00 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 25
  • 26. 9Days spent in road parties or chain gang per year per man on strength (3 year moving average). (a) (b) 60 14 £40Days labour per man on strength per year 45 12.5 £30 30 £ 9 £20 15 7.5 £10 0 4 £0 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 848 850 852 854 856 858 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 Road party (days per man) Chain gang (days per man) (a) Male convict deaths per 1000 per year (b) Cost of rationing a convicts for one year 26
  • 27. PANOPTICON VsTRANSPORTATION 27
  • 28. Death rates male convicts and prisoners, Van Diemen’s Land, Millbank and Eastern State Penitentiary. 70.0 52.5 35.0Deaths per 1000 per year 17.5 0 1 YEAR 2 YEARS 3 YEARS 4/5 YEARS Assignment System, VDL, 1830-39 Probation System, VDL, 1840-53 Millbank Penitentiary, London Eastern Penitentiary, Philadelphia 28
  • 29. Sampling Strategy Certificate of Freedom Conditional Pardon Full Pardon 10.5 years (counting life as 30 yrs) 8.7 years 26.8 years old Pauper 1 in 25 sample Rearrested Permission to marry Con 40 Male convicts arriving Probation Era 1840-1853 Marriage Escape Departure Death 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. A Machine that Ground Some Rogues Dishonest? 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 4. Can we transmit useful information to the descendants of convicts? Disproportionate number of descendants from a few fertile couplesGeneration 2 50% childless Age at marriage + high rate of STDs amongst women (?)Generation 1 Convict FreeLink to marriage 25% 90% Long sentence Short sentence Unskilled Skilled 35