World War II<br />Part 1:<br />The Rise Of Nazi Germany<br />
Benito Mussolini<br />Mussolini fought in World War I.<br />In March 1919, he formed the Fascist Party .<br />On October 28, 1922, the Fascists undertook their famous “March on Rome.”<br />Mussolini’s followers occupied the capital.<br />Fascists achieved their first parliamentary majority by using violent tactics of intimidation to secure votes.<br />Mussolini destroyed political parties and made Italy into a one-party dictatorship. <br />
Adolf Hitler<br />Adolf Hitler was born in Austria.<br />Joined the German army in World War I.<br />Believed in the racial superiority of the Aryan (German) people and was committed to providing Lebensraum (living space) for his “master race.”<br />
Nazi Party<br />After WW1, Hitler entered politics by joining the National Socialists Party (Nazi), and soon took over the party. <br />In 1923, Hitler and the Nazi’s tried to overthrow government, but failed and Hitler sent to jail.<br />Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in jail.<br />
Mein Kampf Quotes<br />“The worst danger is that we are interrupting the natural selection process ourselves (by caring for the sick and the weak).”<br />“The [Nazi party] should not become a constable of public opinion, but must dominate it. It must not become a servant of the masses, but their master!”<br />“...the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”<br />
Chancellor Adolf Hitler<br />Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933 through legal means. <br />Hitler claimed Germany was on verge of Communist revolution and persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg and the Reichstag (Parliament) to consent to a series of emergency laws, which Nazis used to establish themselves in power. <br />Hitler removed all political parties of Germany except the Nazi party. <br />Within two months, Germany was a police state and Hitler was dictator. <br />
The Third Reich<br />Hitler was dictator now, was called the “Führer”<br />Goal was the unite all German speaking lands. <br />Three goals for the Nazi state: Lebensraum, rearmament, and economic recovery. <br />Hitler started to round up Jews and placing them in Ghettos and eventually concentration camps. <br />For the next six year, Germany began building an army worthy of the new Reich.<br />
Propaganda<br />Joseph Goebbels was Reich Minister of Propaganda.<br />German audience continually reminded of struggle of the Nazi Party and greatness of German culture. <br />“Heroic Art” portrayed only Aryan men as heroic and strong. <br />Hitler was glorified like a God. <br />Jews were depicted as animals or evil monsters. <br />
Jewish “Problem”<br />By beginning of 1939, Nazi policy focused on promoting the “emigration” of Jews from Germany.<br />Heinrich Himmler and the SS shared Hitler’s racial ideology. <br />ReinhardHeydrich given responsibility for what Nazis called their Final Solution to the Jewish problem – extermination. <br />
Jewish “Problem”<br />After defeat of Poland, Heydrich ordered special strike forces to round up all Polish Jews and concentrate them in ghettos.<br />Eventually, death squads entered the ghettos. Their job was to round up as many Jews as possible and execute them.<br />Often times, the Jews dug their own graves before they were executed. <br />As many as one million Jews were killed through this fashion, but was soon perceived as inadequate. <br />Nazis opted for the systematic annihilation of Jews in specially built death camps. <br />
Hitler Makes His Move<br />In March 1938, German forces marched in Austria, they were cheered by Austrians. <br />European leaders sought to avoid war through appeasement. <br />British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Premier had conference with Hitler in Munich. <br />Hitler demanded the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia, they agreed.<br />Hitler “promised” for no more expansion.<br />
Czechoslovakia Seized<br />Six months after Munich Conference, Hitler occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia.<br />Seizure finally showed that Hitler’s demands were not limited to German speaking areas but instead determined by the need for Lebensraum (living space) for the “Master Race.”<br />Obvious Poland was Hitler’s next target.<br />On March 31, 1939, Britain and France extended a formal guarantee to support Poland in the event of a German attack.<br />Mussolini took advantage of the European situation by invading Albania on April 1939. <br />
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact<br />The Soviet Union potentially faced war on two fronts against Germany in the west and Japan in the east.<br />On August 23, 1939 the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact signed. <br />Agreement consisted of a 10-year nonaggression pact.<br />Partitioning of Eastern Europe between both nations.<br />USSR will supply vast quantities of raw materials to Germany in exchange for military technology and finished good. <br />
Neutrality<br />“This nation will remain a neutral nation…”<br />Neutrality Act (1935) passed by Congress. It prohibited American munitions sales to any nations at war.<br />The message was clear: the United States would take care of its own problems; Europe should do the same. <br />
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