Ap modernism imperialism


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Ap modernism imperialism

  1. 1. If the Enlightenment was characterized by hope and optimism, why would it be accurate to characterize the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries as pessimistic, or fatalistic?
  2. 2. Toward the Modern Consciousness: Developments in the Sciences <ul><li>The “Certainty” of Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universe made up of atoms that acted mechanically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marie Curie and Pierre Curie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms & subatomic particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomness of physics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Max Planck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy radiated discontinuously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small bursts called “quanta” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Albert Einstein <ul><li>Einstein’s Theory of Relativity: </li></ul><ul><li>It overthrew Newton’s notions of absolute space and time by stating that distance and time depend on the observer, and that time and space are perceived differently, depending on the observer. </li></ul><ul><li>- It yields the equivalence of matter and energy, as expressed in the famous equation E = mc 2, where c is the speed of light. </li></ul>1879 - 1955
  4. 4. Friedrich Nietzsche <ul><li>Western ideas like reason, democracy, and progress have stifled our creativity and actions. </li></ul><ul><li>We should return to the ancient heroic values of pride, assertiveness, and strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Nietzsche quote: “ God is Dead.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Superman: superior individuals are above society; able to create own values; lead others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nihilism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a philosophical position which argues that the world is without objective meaning, purpose, truth, or value. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nihilists generally believe there is no reasonable proof of the existence of a higher ruler or creator, a &quot;true morality&quot; is unknown, and secular ethics are impossible; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>therefore, life has no truth </li></ul></ul></ul>1844 - 1900 Friedrich Nietzsche
  5. 5. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Much of human behavior is irrational, or beyond reason. It is best understood as changing objects of sexual desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Wishes are repressed and emerge from the subconscious in “accidental” bursts – Freudian slips. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroses are caused by repressed memories and unconscious conflicts. </li></ul>1856 - 1939 Id – raw, natural urges Ego – sense of reality & propriety (represses Id) Superego – moral values, community inhibitions
  6. 6. The Impact of Darwinism: Social Darwinism and Racism <ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Societies are organisms that evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbert Spencer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalism and Racism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas of competition, superiority & social Darwinism combine to create “issue” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century , 1890 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>German volk & Aryans … this sounds like trouble! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Attack on Christianity <ul><li>Challenges to Established Churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwinism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization – question historical accuracy of Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New political movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticlericalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response of the Churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection: Pope Pius IX, Syllabus of Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation through the ideas of Modernism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise of Pope Leo XIII </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Naturalism & Symbolism in Literature <ul><li>Naturalism – realism without the “happy” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Émile Zola (1840 – 1902) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rougon-Macquart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821 – 1881) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime and Punishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Brothers Karamazov </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leo Tolstoy (1828 – 1910) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War and Peace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy (try 1,296 pages!) set against the back-drop of Napoleon’s 1812 invasion of Russia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective knowledge of the world was impossible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art should function for its own sake </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Photography was gaining popularity, and as cameras became more portable, photographs became more candid. Photography inspired impressionists to capture the moment, not only in the fleeting lights of a landscape, but in the day-to-day lives of people. Impressionism Characteristics of impressionist painting include visible brushstrokes, light colors, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles.
  10. 10. At the Races (1877 – 1880) – Edgar Degas
  11. 11. Soleil couchant à Ivry (Sunset at Ivry). 1873. Armand Guillaumin
  12. 12. Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Le Bal au Moulin de la Galette). (1876.) Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
  13. 13. Claude Monet Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) (1872/1873)
  14. 14. Claude Monet - Waterlilies, Green Reflection, Left Part 1916-1923
  15. 15. New Directions in Art and Individual Expression Post - Impressionism Post-Impressionists kept the emphasis on light and color but paid much more attention to structure and form. Post-Impressionists used color and lines to express inner feelings, or a personal statement of reality rather than pure imitation of reality.
  16. 16. Paul Cezanne, Boy in a Red Vest, 1888 - 1890
  17. 17. Vincent van Gogh Self-Portrait , 1886
  18. 18. Van Gogh – 1889, The Starry Night
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cubism is a painting of a normal scene but painted so that it is seen from multiple views. </li></ul><ul><li>The positions of some of the parts are rotated or moved so that it is odd looking and scrambled. </li></ul><ul><li>In cubist art objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form. </li></ul>Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 New Directions in Art and Individual Expression Cubism
  20. 20. <ul><li>Western culture believed that there was a past, an event in the present, and a future, like a time line. </li></ul><ul><li>Cubists believed that time was best represented as a cube. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an event was in the center of a cube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two sides were the event's past and future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two more sides were one specific person's past and future as related to that event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remaining sides were what connected all of these pasts and futures together. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These connections were what cubist painters and artists strove to capture in their paintings. </li></ul>event past future past future connection connection
  21. 21. Woman in an Armchair (1913) by Pablo Picasso Still-life with Fruit-dish on a Table (1914-15) by Pablo Picasso
  22. 22. Politics: New Directions and New Uncertainties <ul><li>The Movement for Women’s Rights: Demands of Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The question of divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Professions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Florence Nightingale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clara Barton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing demands of suffragettes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bertha von Suttner & Austrian Peace Society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The “New Woman” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renounced traditional female roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Montessori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began the system of Montessori schools </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Women’s Social & Political Union [W.S.P.U.]
  24. 25. Emmeline Pankhurst <ul><li>Her husband & children were all involved in the suffrage movement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use publicity to bring light to the cause! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They became militants & were arrested and imprisoned. </li></ul><ul><li>1917: She and her daughter, Christabel, formed the Women’s Party in 1917: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal pay for equal work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal marriage & divorce laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equality of rights & opportunities in public service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A national system of maternity benefits. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Jews in the European Nation-State <ul><li>Anti-Semitism returns to Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria & Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism & Nationalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combine socialism & anti-Semitism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Persecution in Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pogroms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emigration </li></ul><ul><li>The Zionist Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jewish State -1896 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zionism </li></ul></ul>Palestine
  26. 27. The Dreyfus Affair <ul><li>In 1894 a list of French military documents were found in the waste basket of the German Embassy in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>French counter-intelligence suspected Captain Alfred Dreyfus, from a wealthy Alsatian Jewish family  he was one of the few Jews on the General Staff. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Captain Alfred Dreyfus in military uniform. Dreyfus disgraced in a public ceremony. The Dreyfus Affair : 1894
  28. 29. The Dreyfus Affair <ul><li>Dreyfus was tried, convicted of treason, and sent to Devil’s Island off French Guiana. </li></ul><ul><li>The real culprit was a Major Esterhazy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government tried him and found him not guilty in two days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy Catholic family - ???? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>A famous author, Emile Zola , published an open letter called J’Accuse! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He accused the army of a mistrial and cover-up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government prosecuted him for libel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found him guilty  sentenced to a year in prison. </li></ul></ul>The Dreyfus Affair
  30. 31. The Dreyfus Affair <ul><li>Public opinion was divided - reflected the divisions in France </li></ul><ul><li>The Dreyfusards were anti-clericals, intellectuals, free masons, & socialists. </li></ul><ul><li>For Anti-Dreyfusards , the honor of the army was more important than Dreyfus’ guilt or innocence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were army supporters, monarchists, & Catholics. </li></ul></ul>Dreyfusards Anti- Dreyfusards
  31. 32. The Dreyfus Affair <ul><li>Dreyfus finally got a new trial in 1899. </li></ul><ul><li>He was brought back from Devil’s Island white-haired and broken . </li></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found guilty again, BUT with extenuating circumstances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was given a presidential pardon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exonerated completely in 1906. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served honorably in World War I. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Died in 1935. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. The Zionist Movement Theodore Herzl [1860-1904] <ul><li>Was motivated by the Dreyfus trial to write the book, Der Judenstaat , or The Jewish State in 1896. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Father of Modern Zionism.” </li></ul>
  33. 34. England’s Economic Decline? (1870s-1914) <ul><li>Germany & the U. S. became England’s economic rivals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany & U. S. overtake Britain in basic iron & steel production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England’s share of world trade fell from 23% in 1876 to 15% in 1913. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British science & technological education lagged behind Germany. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influx of cheap agricultural products from overseas caused a rapid decline in British farming. </li></ul><ul><li>England is slow to modernize her aging infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>England clings to free trade while everyone else is erecting tariff walls . </li></ul>
  34. 35. The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain <ul><ul><li>Working Class Demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused “classic” Liberals to move away from ideals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals need to ensure voting blocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advocate “collective ownership” and other controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desired more “socialism” from government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum wage & benefits </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Fabian Socialists <ul><li>A British socialist intellectual movement founded in the mid-1880s. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose  advance socialism by working through the political system, not through revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Laid the foundations for the British Labour Party. </li></ul>
  36. 37. The British Labour Party <ul><li>Founded in 1900 by the Scotsman, Keir Hardie . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growth of labor unions gave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voice to socialism in Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1906, it won 26 seats in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to form a political coalition with the Liberal Party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 1920s, Labour would replace the Liberals as one of the two major British political parties. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. The Beginnings of the “Welfare State”? <ul><li>Labour’s Political Agenda : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual socialization of key industries & utilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workman’s Compensation Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State employment bureaus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum wage set. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid to dependent children & the elderly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old age pension to all over 70. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Insurance Act. </li></ul></ul>How to pay for all of this??
  38. 39. The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain <ul><ul><li>David Lloyd George </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abandons laissez-faire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backs social reform measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Insurance Act, 1911 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beginnings of the welfare state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation on wealthy to pay! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. The Transformation of Liberalism: Italy <ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giovanni Giolitti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupt coalitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Welfare reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stoked Nationalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformismo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the method of creating a flexible, centrist coalition of government which isolated the extremes of the left and the right in Italian politics after unification. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Growing Tensions in Germany <ul><li>William II (1888-1918) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable and aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military and industrial power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rift between urban and rural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tradition and modernization </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Social Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth scared middle and upper class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radical Parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong nationalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan-German League </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Austria-Hungary: The Problem of the Nationalities <ul><li>Parliamentary agitation for autonomy of nationalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to Prime Ministers ignoring Parliaments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule by emergency decrees </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of virulent German nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backlash to minority nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magyar agitation for complete separation of Hungary from Austria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor’s response… </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia <ul><li>By 1900 the fourth largest producer of steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-Siberian Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of working class & socialist parties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Revolution of 1905 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss in Russo-Japanese War - 1905 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bloody Sunday,” January 9, 1905 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General strike, October 1905 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicholas II granted October Manifesto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Liberties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Duma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curtailment of power of the Duma, 1907  </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Bloody Sunday January 22, 1905 The Czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg Father Georgi Gapon
  44. 45. The Opening of the Duma : Possible Reforms? 1906 <ul><li>The first two tries were too radical. </li></ul><ul><li>The third duma was elected by the richest people in Russia in 1907. </li></ul>
  45. 46. The Russian Constitution of 1906 <ul><li>Known as the Fundamental Laws </li></ul><ul><li>The autocracy of the Russian Tsar was declared. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tsar was supreme over the law, the church, and the Duma . </li></ul><ul><li>It confirmed the basic human rights granted by the October Manifesto, BUT made them subordinate to the supremacy of the law. </li></ul>
  46. 47. International Rivalry and the Coming of War <ul><li>The Bismarckian System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of Ottoman Power in the Balkans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Emperors League </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress of Berlin – Controlled by Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took Russian land in Hungary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave Austria control over parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance, 1882 – Germany, Austria, Italy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinsurance Treaty between Russia and Germany, 1887 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissal of Bismarck, 1890 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 48. International Rivalry and the Coming of War <ul><li>New Directions and New Crises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor William II and a “place in the sun” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military alliance of France and Russia, 1894 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance, 1907 – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Crisis in the Balkans, 1908-1913 <ul><li>Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>Serbian protest - Russian support of Serbia – Germany steps in….. </li></ul><ul><li>First Balkan War, 1912 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balkan League defeats the Ottomans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Balkan War, 1913 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greece, Serbia, Romania, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Ottoman Empire attacked and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defeated Bulgaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia’s ambitions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>London Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Austria & Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian anger! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. France: Travails of the Third Republic <ul><li>Politically very unstable. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalry between monarchists (conservatives) and republicans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Because there were so many factions, all governments were coalitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Still, it survived longer than any other regime since 1789! </li></ul><ul><li>A number of scandals, including the Dreyfus Affair. </li></ul>