+
The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and
changed from the end of Reconstruction through the ear...
+
VUS.8a Essential Questions
 What factors influenced American growth and expansion in the
late nineteenth and early twen...
+
VUS.8a Essential Understandings
 In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, economic
opportunity, industrial...
+
Westward Movement
 Following the Civil
War, the westward
movement of settlers
intensified in the vast
region between th...
+ Westward Movement
 Many Americans had to
rebuild their lives after the
Civil War. They responded
to the incentive of fr...
+
Westward Movement
 New technologies (for
example, railroads and the
mechanical reaper), opened
new lands in the West fo...
+
Westward Movement
 The forcible removal
of the American
Indians from their
lands continued
throughout the
remainder of ...
+
Immigration
 Prior to 1871, most
immigrants to America came
from northern and western
Europe (Germany, Great
Britain, I...
+
Immigration
 Like earlier immigrants, these immigrants came to America
seeking freedom and better lives for their famil...
+
Immigration
 Immigrants made valuable
contributions to the dramatic
industrial growth of America
during this period. Ch...
+
Immigration
 During this
period, immigrants from
Europe entered America
through Ellis Island in
New York harbor. Their
...
+
Immigration
 Immigrants began the process
of assimilation into what was
termed the American “melting
pot.”
 While ofte...
+
Immigration
 Despite the valuable
contributions immigrants made
to building America during this
period, immigrants ofte...
+
Immigration
 Mounting resentment led
Congress to limit
immigration through the
Chinese Exclusion Act of
1882 and the Im...
+
Urbanization
 As the nation’s
industrial growth
continued, cities
such as
Chicago, Detroit, Cl
eveland, Pittsburgh,
and...
+
Urbanization
 The rapid growth of cities
caused housing shortages and
the need for new public
services, such as sewage ...
+
Admission of New States
 As the population
moved
westward, many new
states in the Great
Plains and Rocky
Mountains regi...
+
VUS.8b
The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the
nation grew and changed from the end of
Reconstruction through ...
+
VUS.8b Essential Questions
 What fueled the modern industrial economy?
+
VUS.8b Essential Understandings
 During the period from the Civil War to World War I, the United
States underwent an ec...
+Inventions & Innovations
Technological change spurred growth of
industry primarily in northern cities.
 Corporation (lim...
+
Industrial Leaders
Robber Barons
 1: Andrew
Carnegie (steel)
 2: J. P. Morgan
(finance)
 3: John D.
Rockefeller (oil)...
+Reasons for Economic Transformation
 Laissez-faire
capitalism
 Government is
hands off un the
economy
 Special
conside...
+
VUS.8c
The student will demonstrate knowledge of how
the nation grew and changed from the end of
Reconstruction through ...
+
VUS.8c Essential Questions
 How did race relations in the South change after
Reconstruction, and what was the African A...
+
VUS.8c Essential Understandings
 Discrimination against segregation of African Americans
intensified and took new forms...
+
Discrimination Against & Segregation
 Laws limited freedoms
for African Americans.
 After
reconstruction, many
Souther...
+Discrimination Against &
Segregation
 African Americans looked to the
courts to safeguard their rights.
 In Plessy v. F...
+
Responses of African Americans
 Ida B. Wells led an
anti-lynching crusade and
called on the federal
government to take ...
+
Responses of African Americans
 Booker T. Washington
believed the way to
equality was through
vocational education
and ...
+
Responses of African Americans
 W.E.B. DuBois believed that
education was meaningless
without equality.
 He supported ...
+
VUS.8d
The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the
nation grew and changed from the end of
Reconstruction through ...
+
VUS.8d Essential Questions
 How did the excesses of the Gilded Age contribute to the
development of the Progressive Mov...
+
VUS.8d Essential Understandings
 The period from Reconstruction through the early twentieth
century was a time of contr...
+
The Progressive Movement
 The Progressive Movement used
government to institute reforms for
problems created by
industr...
+
Causes of the Progressive Movement
 Excesses of the Gilded Age
 Income disparity, lavish
lifestyles
 Rich got richer
...
+
Causes of the Progressive Movement
 Working conditions for
labor
 Dangerous working
conditions
 Child labor
 Long ho...
+
Goals of the Progressive Movement
 Government controlled by the people
 Guaranteed economic opportunities through gove...
+
Progressive Accomplishments:
In Local Governments
 New forms of government (commissioner-style and
city-manager-style) ...
+
Progressive Accomplishments:
In State Governments
 Referendum
 The people vote on if a
Bill becomes a law
 Initiative...
+
Progressive Accomplishments:
In Elections
 Primary elections
 The people choose the
candidate that want to
run in the ...
+
Progressive Accomplishments:
Child Labor
 Muckraking literature
describing abuses of child
labor
 Child labor laws
 M...
+
Labor Unions: Organizations
 Knights of Labor
 1: American
Federation of Labor
 Samuel Gompers
 2: American
Railway ...
+
Labor Unions: Strikes
 1: Haymarket Square
Riot
 2: Homestead Strike
 3: Pullman Strike
 All of these strikes
result...
+
Labor Unions: Gains
 Limited work hours
 Employees worked less hours a day/ a week
 Regulated work conditions
 Imple...
+
Anti-Trust Laws
 Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Prevents
any business structure that
“restrains trade” (monopolies)
 Clayton ...
+
Women’s suffrage
 Was a forerunner of modern
protest movement
 Benefited from strong
leadership
 Susan B. Anthony
 E...
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Vus8

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Vus8

  1. 1. + The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by a) explaining the relationship among territorial expansion, westward movement of the population, new immigration, growth of cities, the role of the railroads, and the admission of new states to the United States. VUS.8a 1
  2. 2. + VUS.8a Essential Questions  What factors influenced American growth and expansion in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century? 2
  3. 3. + VUS.8a Essential Understandings  In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, economic opportunity, industrialization, technological change, and immigration fueled American growth and expansion. 3
  4. 4. + Westward Movement  Following the Civil War, the westward movement of settlers intensified in the vast region between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean.  The years immediately before and after the Civil War were the era of the American cowboy, marked by long cattle drives for hundreds of miles over unfenced open land in the West, the only way to get cattle to market 4 VUS.8a
  5. 5. + Westward Movement  Many Americans had to rebuild their lives after the Civil War. They responded to the incentive of free public land and moved west to take advantage of the Homestead Act of 1862, which gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land.  Southerners, including African Americans in particular, moved west to seek new opportunities after the Civil War. 5 VUS.8a Land Grab Posters
  6. 6. + Westward Movement  New technologies (for example, railroads and the mechanical reaper), opened new lands in the West for settlement and made farming profitable by increasing the efficiency of production and linking resources and markets. By the turn of the century, the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains regions of the American West were no longer a mostly unsettled frontier, but were fast becoming regions of farms, ranches, and towns. 6 VUS.8a
  7. 7. + Westward Movement  The forcible removal of the American Indians from their lands continued throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century as settlers continued to move west following the Civil War. 7 VUS.8a
  8. 8. + Immigration  Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from northern and western Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden).  During the half-century from 1871 until 1921, most immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russi a, present-day Hungary, and former Yugoslavia), as well as Asia (China and Japan). 8 VUS.8a
  9. 9. + Immigration  Like earlier immigrants, these immigrants came to America seeking freedom and better lives for their families. 9 VUS.8a
  10. 10. + Immigration  Immigrants made valuable contributions to the dramatic industrial growth of America during this period. Chinese workers helped to build the Transcontinental Railroad.  Immigrants worked in textile and steel mills in the Northeast and the clothing industry in New York City.  Slavs, Italians, and Poles worked in the coal mines of the East.  They often worked for very low pay and endured dangerous working conditions to help build the nation’s industrial strength. 10 VUS.8a
  11. 11. + Immigration  During this period, immigrants from Europe entered America through Ellis Island in New York harbor. Their first view of America was often the Statue of Liberty, as their ships arrived following the voyage across the Atlantic. 11 VUS.8a
  12. 12. + Immigration  Immigrants began the process of assimilation into what was termed the American “melting pot.”  While often settling in ethnic neighborhoods in the growing cities, they and their children worked hard to learn English, adopt American customs, and become American citizens.  The public schools served an essential role in the process of assimilating immigrants into American society. 12 VUS.8a
  13. 13. + Immigration  Despite the valuable contributions immigrants made to building America during this period, immigrants often faced hardship and hostility.  There was fear and resentment that immigrants would take jobs for lower pay than American workers would accept, and there was prejudice based on religious and cultural differences. 13 VUS.8a
  14. 14. + Immigration  Mounting resentment led Congress to limit immigration through the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921.  These laws effectively cut off most immigration to America for the next several decades; however, the immigrants of this period and their descendants continued to contribute immeasurably to American society. 14 VUS.8a
  15. 15. + Urbanization  As the nation’s industrial growth continued, cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cl eveland, Pittsburgh, and New York grew rapidly as manufacturing and transportation centers.  Factories in the large cities provided jobs, but workers’ families often lived in harsh conditions, crowded into tenements and slums. 15 VUS.8a
  16. 16. + Urbanization  The rapid growth of cities caused housing shortages and the need for new public services, such as sewage and water systems and public transportation.  New York City was the first city to begin construction of a subway system around the turn of the twentieth century, and many cities built trolley or streetcar lines. 16 VUS.8a
  17. 17. + Admission of New States  As the population moved westward, many new states in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains regions were added to the United States.  By the early twentieth century, all the states that make up the continental United States today, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, had been admitted. 17 VUS.8a
  18. 18. + VUS.8b The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by b) describing the transformation of the American economy from a primarily agrarian to a modern industrial economy and identifying major inventions that improved life in the United States.
  19. 19. + VUS.8b Essential Questions  What fueled the modern industrial economy?
  20. 20. + VUS.8b Essential Understandings  During the period from the Civil War to World War I, the United States underwent an economic transformation that involved the development of an industrial economy, the expansion of big business, the growth of large-scale agriculture, and the rise of national labor unions and industrial conflict.
  21. 21. +Inventions & Innovations Technological change spurred growth of industry primarily in northern cities.  Corporation (limited liability)  Company owned by shareholders  1: Bessemer steel process  Allowed steel to be made cheaper and faster  Building block of Industrial America  Skyscrapers, bridges, railroads, etc  2: Light bulb (Thomas Edison) and electricity as a source of power and light  3: Telephone (Alexander Graham Bell)  4: Airplane (Wright brothers)  5: Assembly-line manufacturing (Henry Ford)  Faster production, lowers cost, simplifies jobs VUS.8b
  22. 22. + Industrial Leaders Robber Barons  1: Andrew Carnegie (steel)  2: J. P. Morgan (finance)  3: John D. Rockefeller (oil)  4: Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads) VUS.8b
  23. 23. +Reasons for Economic Transformation  Laissez-faire capitalism  Government is hands off un the economy  Special considerations  land grants to railroad builders  The increasing labor supply  From immigration  migration from farms  America’s possession of a wealth of natural resources and navigable rivers VUS.8b
  24. 24. + VUS.8c The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by c) analyzing prejudice and discrimination during this time period, with emphasis on “Jim Crow” and the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois.
  25. 25. + VUS.8c Essential Questions  How did race relations in the South change after Reconstruction, and what was the African American response?
  26. 26. + VUS.8c Essential Understandings  Discrimination against segregation of African Americans intensified and took new forms in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.  African Americans disagreed about how to respond to these developments.
  27. 27. + Discrimination Against & Segregation  Laws limited freedoms for African Americans.  After reconstruction, many Southern state governments passed “Jim Crow” laws forcing separation of the races in public places.  Intimidation and crimes were directed against African Americans  Lynchings VUS.8c
  28. 28. +Discrimination Against & Segregation  African Americans looked to the courts to safeguard their rights.  In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled:  that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14th Amendment, upholding the “Jim Crow” laws of the era.  During the early twentieth century, African Americans began the “Great Migration”  Moving to Northern cities in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South. VUS.8c
  29. 29. + Responses of African Americans  Ida B. Wells led an anti-lynching crusade and called on the federal government to take action. VUS.8c
  30. 30. + Responses of African Americans  Booker T. Washington believed the way to equality was through vocational education and economic success;  Learn job skills  He accepted social separation. VUS.8c Booker T. Washington Tuskegee Institute
  31. 31. + Responses of African Americans  W.E.B. DuBois believed that education was meaningless without equality.  He supported political equality for African Americans by helping to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). VUS.8c
  32. 32. + VUS.8d The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by d) identifying the causes and impact of the Progressive Movement, including the excesses of the Gilded Age, child labor and antitrust laws, the rise of labor unions, and the success of the women’s suffrage movement.
  33. 33. + VUS.8d Essential Questions  How did the excesses of the Gilded Age contribute to the development of the Progressive Movement?  What were the goals of Progressives, and what were their accomplishments?
  34. 34. + VUS.8d Essential Understandings  The period from Reconstruction through the early twentieth century was a time of contradictions for many Americans.  Agricultural expansion was accomplished through wars against the Plains Indians, leading to new federal Indian policies.  Industrial development brought great fortunes to a few and raised the standard of living for millions of Americans, but also brought about the rise of national labor unions and clashes between industry and labor.  Social problems in rural and urban settings gave rise to third-party movements and the beginning of the Progressive Movement.
  35. 35. + The Progressive Movement  The Progressive Movement used government to institute reforms for problems created by industrialization.  Examples of reform include Theodore Roosevelt’s “Square Deal” and Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom.” VUS.8d
  36. 36. + Causes of the Progressive Movement  Excesses of the Gilded Age  Income disparity, lavish lifestyles  Rich got richer  Practices of robber barons  Illegal (today) business practices like monopolies VUS.8d
  37. 37. + Causes of the Progressive Movement  Working conditions for labor  Dangerous working conditions  Child labor  Long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits  Company towns  Employment of women VUS.8d
  38. 38. + Goals of the Progressive Movement  Government controlled by the people  Guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulation  Elimination of social injustices VUS.8d
  39. 39. + Progressive Accomplishments: In Local Governments  New forms of government (commissioner-style and city-manager-style) to meet needs of increasing urbanization VUS.8d
  40. 40. + Progressive Accomplishments: In State Governments  Referendum  The people vote on if a Bill becomes a law  Initiative  The people propose legislation  Recall  The people an hold a special election to remove and elected official VUS.8d
  41. 41. + Progressive Accomplishments: In Elections  Primary elections  The people choose the candidate that want to run in the election  Direct election of U.S. Senators  17th Amendment  Secret ballot  Took power away from the political machines VUS.8d
  42. 42. + Progressive Accomplishments: Child Labor  Muckraking literature describing abuses of child labor  Child labor laws  Many states passed and enforced laws restricting child labor VUS.8d
  43. 43. + Labor Unions: Organizations  Knights of Labor  1: American Federation of Labor  Samuel Gompers  2: American Railway Union  Eugene V. Debs  3: International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union VUS.8d
  44. 44. + Labor Unions: Strikes  1: Haymarket Square Riot  2: Homestead Strike  3: Pullman Strike  All of these strikes resulted in violence and deaths  Armed troops were called in forced workers to stop striking VUS.8d
  45. 45. + Labor Unions: Gains  Limited work hours  Employees worked less hours a day/ a week  Regulated work conditions  Implemented safety standards and regulations VUS.8d
  46. 46. + Anti-Trust Laws  Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Prevents any business structure that “restrains trade” (monopolies)  Clayton Anti-Trust Act: Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unions from Sherman Act VUS.8d
  47. 47. + Women’s suffrage  Was a forerunner of modern protest movement  Benefited from strong leadership  Susan B. Anthony  Encouraged women to enter the labor force during World War I  Resulted in the 19th Amendment to the Constitution  Women can vote VUS.8d

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