Big Business (Industrilization)

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In this powerpoint you will find informationa bout those in this country that made America what it is today.

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Big Business (Industrilization)

  1. 1. OUTCOME: THE FAT CATS The Industrial Age
  2. 2. THE FAT CATS 1. Setting the Stage: a. Also known as “Captains of Industry,” “Industrial Giants,” & “Robber Barons” b. Wealth fell into the hands of a few c. By 1890 ---> 4,000 millionaires d. Approx 90% of $ (wealth & assets) controlled by 10% of the population e. 1900 = 20 million Americans lived in poverty (very small middle class)
  3. 3. CORNELIUS VANDERBILT
  4. 4. THE FAT CATS 2. Who were they? a. Cornelius Vanderbilt i. Started out in shipping, buying his first ferry boat at age 16 ii. Eventually had large fleet of ferries and ocean steamships iii. Saw railroads as the future; bought many RRs before/after Civil War iv. Became wealthiest man in America v. Built Grand Central Depot in NYC vi. Made a deal with John Rockefeller to transport his oil vii. Would have been worth $143 billion in 2007 dollars
  5. 5. GRAND CENTRAL DEPOT
  6. 6. BILTMORE ESTATE IN NORTH CAROLINA BUILT BY VANDERBILT’S GRANDSON
  7. 7. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER
  8. 8. STANDARD OIL BECAME AMOCO OIL
  9. 9. THE FAT CATS 2. Who were they? b. J.D. Rockefeller i. Founded Standard Oil Company in 1870 ii. By 1880 ---> 90% monopoly; nation’s first billionaire iii. Drove out competitors by selling oil at a lower price than it cost to produce iv. Raised prices once he controlled the market v. Gave away $500 million dollars
  10. 10. ROCKEFELLER CENTER IN NYC
  11. 11. 30 ROCK
  12. 12. ANDREW CARNEGIE
  13. 13. THE FAT CATS c. Andrew Carnegie i. Rags to riches: born to poor Scottish family who immigrated to U.S. ii. Worked his way to become private secretary to the local superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad iii. Entered the Steel business in 1987 iv. Controlled 25% of U.S. steel production v. Sold his steel business to J.P. Morgan in 1901
  14. 14. JAMES J. HILL
  15. 15. THE FAT CATS d. James J. Hill i. Canadian born but settled in St. Paul ii. “Empire Builder” used no government land grants iii. Built Great Northern Railroad from Duluth to Puget Sound, WA iv. Home in St. Paul belongs to MN Historical Society
  16. 16. JAMES J. HILL HOUSE IN ST. PAUL
  17. 17. ST. PAUL CATHEDRAL
  18. 18. JOHN P. MORGAN
  19. 19. THE FAT CATS e. J.P. Morgan i. Was known as the “Giant of Finance” ii. Began his career as an accountant iii. Was a banker and a great organizer of companies like GE & AT&T iv. Bought Carnegie Steel in 1901; renamed it U.S. Steel
  20. 20. THE FAT CATS 3. How did they become rich? a. Opportunity ---> a pure capitalist system allows for unlimited economic opportunity, but no guarantees b. Laissez-Faire government meant unchecked free enterprise i. Hands off attitude toward business/industry/economy ii. No income tax (not made law until 1913, 16th amendment)
  21. 21. THE FAT CATS 3. How did they become rich? (Continued…) c. Labor abuses were permitted i. No safety codes, No minimum wage ii. Unions were rare, even illegal d. Monopolies formed (goal: to rid competition and control prices) i. Integration tactics 1. Vertical integration: buying up resources, transportation, etc 2. Horizontal integration: merging like companies together  ii. Bribery & Corruption 1. Rockefeller forced RR’s to pay him rebates on shipping 2. Political (bribing U.S. Senate = millionaire’s club)
  22. 22. THE FAT CATS 3. How did they become rich? (Continued…) e. Improved Technology meant increased efficiency in: i. Farming (McCormick’s Reaper & John Deere’s steel plow) 1. By 1880, 1 farmhand could harvest 135 acres a day on average 2. Young men migrated to cities adding to the industrial labor supply ii. Business & Industry 1. Edison ---> light bulb, stock ticker, etc 2. Bell ---> telephone, Sholes ---> typewriter  f. Corporations (Publically held companies) were formed. i. Quick method of raising capital ($) for growth and expansion ii. Reduced risk (spread out among stockholders) iii. Ensures the longevity (life) of the company
  23. 23. MCCORMICK’S REAPER
  24. 24. THOMAS EDISON
  25. 25. SHOLES’ TYPEWRITER
  26. 26. THE FAT CATS 3. How did they become rich? (Continued…) g. Social Darwinism ---> “rich were meant to be rich” i. Life is a struggle and the poor are just weak &/or lazy ii. Justified a “hunt & kill” method to acquire wealth and power h. Government Actions i. Land Grants were used to encourage railroad construction and settlements ii. Protective Tariffs placed a tax on imported goods at compete with US goods
  27. 27. PHILANTHROPY AND THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH
  28. 28. THE FAT CATS 4. Some became believers in Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth” a. Rich have an obligation to improve society with their fortunes b. Philanthropy: an active effort to improve society through contributions of one’s own wealth c. Examples: i. Carnegie: built many libraries & Carnegie Hall in NYC ii. Rockefeller: Donated $550 million dollars to many universities iii. Morgan: Donated $20M to University of the South, $10M to Harvard

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