Islamic Medicine


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Islamic Medicine

  1. 1. Islamic Medicine Mr McDonald
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives: <ul><li>Role of Islamic Medicine in medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>The reason why Islamic medicine progressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic ideas behind the cause of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of key individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic developments on hospitals, surgery, anatomy and chemistry. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Islamic Religion and its effect on medicine. <ul><li>The Islamic religion was founded in about 570 AD by Muhammed. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 11 th century, the religion had swept across North Africa, Southern Europe, and the Middle East and into Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The religion explained the role of parents, children, the sick and the old. </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic religion also valued the role of knowledge, whilst the Europeans lost most of the knowledge from the Romans, the Arabic people sustained it. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Causes of disease <ul><li>At first many Islamic doctors still believed in supernatural ideas, however as the work of Galen and Hippocrates this was because they followed a system of close observation. </li></ul><ul><li>The work of Galen and Hippocrates was translated from Greek and Latin to Arabic. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhazes, a Baghdad doctor took this to heart and made the distinction between smallpox and measles. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhazes also wrote a book – the Al-Hawi (the comprehensive book). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key Individuals <ul><li>Avicenna was probably the greatest of the Islamic doctors. </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote the Canon of Medicine which based his work heavily on the work of Galen. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of Avicenna was because it was taken by European scholars and used heavily in the medical schools until around 1700. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Islamic Medicine <ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baghdad had its first hospital by 850AD. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 10 th century, doctors in Baghdad had to pass exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic religion practised the idea of caring for the sick so hospitals were seen as part of this care. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other hospitals were set up across the Arab empire in Damascus and Cairo. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Islamic Medicine <ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A great Arab surgeon was Albucasis. He said it was only advisable to operate when the cause was known and the operation was planned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also said Allah was watching and surgeons should never operate for personal gain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He described how to perform amputations, dentistry, removing stones from the bladder, set fractures and deal with dislocations </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Islamic Medicine <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissections were forbidden by Islamic religion. Like the Christian religion, the treatment of the dead was considered reverential. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This meant that Arab doctors could not check on the value of Galen’s ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Ibn an-Nafis made his own observations and concluded that blood did not pass through the septum unlike what Galen had said. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Islamic Medicine <ul><li>Chemistry and Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab contributions included the development of distillation and sublimation. This was important in the development of drugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic doctors and scientists also worked the development of new drugs such as Senna, Laudanum as well as others. </li></ul></ul>