Joseph Lister and Germs <ul><li>In the 1860s surgery was going through a black period . The issue of anaesthetics and pain had been dealt with but the issue of infection was still a problem and killing a lot of patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Germs were killing patients! </li></ul>
Lister and the Germ Theory <ul><li>Joseph Lister read the work of Pasteur ad the germ theory and believed it could be applied to surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>He realised that germs were infecting his patients and killing them following surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>To kill of germs whilst he was operating he used CARBOLIC ACID which was being used in sewerage works . </li></ul>
I realised that the smell of the operating theatre and the sewerage works were very similar and that if Carbolic acid was used in the sewerage works it could be useful in fighting germs in the operating theatre
I started with soaking bandages in the acid but then made a spray that would drench the patient and surgeons in a fine spray of the acid. The results speak for themselves
Results Lister’s record on amputations 15% 40 1867 to 1870 (antiseptics used) 46% 35 1864 to 1866 (No antiseptics) % Died No. of Patients Date
From Antiseptic to Aseptic <ul><li>In 1878 Robert Koch discovered that bacteria in the blood caused septicaemia which led to greater support for the use of antiseptic. </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Neuber originated the idea of cleanliness of surgeons. His work was developed by Ernst Bergmann. Strict hygiene soon became part of the operating theatre routine. Bandages, instruments and clothes were all steam-sterilised to remove dirt and germs . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Germs could now be killed without using chemicals. More ambitious operations could now be attempted the risk of infection had lessened. </li></ul><ul><li>It was also realised that infection was also spread via surgeons hands and nails. </li></ul>From antiseptic to aseptic!
William Halstead <ul><li>The answer to the problem came from America in the form of rubber gloves. William Halsted , a leading surgeon, started using them when his girlfriend and nurse complained of dry hands from the carbolic acid. He then introduced caps masks and gowns for surgery. </li></ul>