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Cowboys And Cattlemen

Cowboys And Cattlemen






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    Cowboys And Cattlemen Cowboys And Cattlemen Presentation Transcript

    • Cowboys and Cattlemen Revision
    • Overview
      • The early cattle trade began in Texas
      • When railroads came, the cattle trade made a fortune
      • Cowboys drove millions of cows north on ‘Long Drives’
      • Later ranching began on the Plains
      • The boom ended in the 1880’s
    • The early cattle trade
      • By 1845 Texas became part of USA. There were large herds of unclaimed herds
      • The cows were tough Longhorns
      • Initially difficult to transport cattle north and because there was little money to be made there was little incentive to round the cows up
      • A few long drives took place
    • How did it develop?
      • By the end of the civil war in 1865, there were 5 million longhorns, most unbranded and so could be taken by anyone
      • In the North-East an industrial revolution was happening, with an expanding population demanding meat!
    • Long Drives
      • The railroad was also expanding into the west
      • So cattle that could be bought for as little as $3 in Texas could fetch $30 in the North
      • Longhorns were rounded up and driven north on the Long Drives to the railhead towns
    • Cow towns
      • Cows were driven up the Chisolm, Sedalia (Shawnee) and Goodnight-Loving trails
      • Joseph McCoy established the first cowtown of Abilene. Other were to follow. For example Dodge City
      • Ranchers like Charles Goodnight and Jesse Chisolm blazed trails to cowtowns and made fortunes
    • Ranching on the Plains
      • During 1870’s people began to raise cattle on the open range to avoid the Long Drives
      • One of the first was Charles Goodnight
      • This happened because the railroads extended their networks and developed cold storage and refrigerator cars
      • Massive profits could be made
    • The end of Open Range
      • Eastern markets demanded higher quality meat. John Iliff began cross breeding Longhorns with Herefords but the new breed needed more care than on open range
      • Herds became too big for the grazing areas
      • Two terrible winters in 1886 and 1887 sped up the decline
    • Factors?
      • Individuals
      • The government - opening up lands, Manifest Destiny etc
      • Railroad
      • The civil war
    • Who became Cowboys?
      • Mexicans, ex-slaves, ex-soldiers from the civil war, outlaws
      • Young and single
      • Originally from Texas
      • Traditions from Mexico
    • The job
      • Tough and badly paid
      • Life on long drives was hard. Equipment needed was expensive and had to be provided by the men themselves
      • Hazardous - including stampedes, river crossings, blizzards, drought, Indian raids and conflicts with homesteaders and rustlers
    • Long Drives
      • Could take 4 months from Texas to Abilene
      • Dangerous and boring - often resulted in quarrels
      • Dust resulted in clothing like bandana and hat
      • Had to work as a team
      • At the end of the drive cowboys ‘whooped it up’ in the bars and whorehouses
    • Other jobs
      • In winter, watching cattle from line camps on edge of ranches
      • Guarding cattle from Indians and rustlers
      • Repairing fences
      • Spring round up, ‘cutting out’ and branding