3. MULTIPLE HYPOTHESES What are all the possible answers (hypotheses) to the question? Example: The light bulb is burned out Example 2: ?
4. PREDICTIONS What data would support a particular hypothesis (= expected data) and/or what data would refute the hypothesis? Example: The light bulb will rattle when shaken
5. TESTS (Experiments) Conduct tests to collect actual data? Example: Shake the light bulb and record sound
6. TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS Which hypotheses were supported (not refuted) by the actual data? Write up report (introduction, methods, results, discussion) for publication
7. PEER REVIEW & PUBLICATION Submit your report to a scientific journal that is peer-reviewed, meaning that your methods, data, tentative conclusions will be scrutinized by scientists whose reputation is at stake if they allow your report to be published. Publication leads to creation of scientific information
A student conducted 4 experiments to determine how mealworms respond to light and moisture.
All variables except light and moisture were held constant from experiment to experiment.
For each experiment, 12 mealworms were placed in the center of a box and then their positions were recorded 24 hours later .
EXPERIMENT 1 QUESTION : Are mealworms attracted to light? mealworm QUESTION 2 : Are mealworms affected by moisture? Answer? You can’t tell; it could be either or both
EXPERIMENT 2 QUESTION : Are mealworms affected by light? QUESTION 2 : Are mealworms affected by moisture? Answers? They are affected by light; we don’t know about moisture
EXPERIMENT 3 QUESTION : Are mealworms affected by light? QUESTION 2 : Are mealworms affected by moisture? Answers? With just this experiment, it seems they didn’t move
EXPERIMENT 3 QUESTION : Are mealworms affected by light? QUESTION 2 : Are mealworms affected by moisture? Using the information from the other 2 experiments… Answers? Yes and Yes (despite attraction to light, they avoided wet
THE EXPERIMENTS 1 2 3 QUESTION: Which variables affect mealworm movement based on the above experiments (note that movement may be either toward or away from something)? A . Light but not moisture. B . Moisture but not light. C . Both light and moisture. D . Neither light nor moisture. E . Can’t tell. mealworm Without the controlled experiment we would know nothing!