kljasdiouf98734
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

kljasdiouf98734

on

  • 1,072 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,072
Views on SlideShare
1,072
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    kljasdiouf98734 kljasdiouf98734 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Life
      • Life is an organized genetic unit capable of metabolism, reproduction and evolution
    • Biology
      • Biology: Is a branch of Life Science, and is the study of living organisms and how they react to their environment.
    • Biology (cont.)
      • Biology deals with every aspect of life in a living organism. Biology examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living things.
    • Biology (cont.)
      • . It classifies and describes organisms, their functions, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the natural environment.
    • Biology: Exploring Life
      • The scope of biology
      • Evolution, unity, and diversity
      • The process of science
      • Biology and everyday life
    • Living organisms have an organized structure Atoms form molecules that are organized into macromolecules that form cell components, called organelles. Organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. Multicellular organisms have structural levels above the cell: tissues, organs and organ systems.
    • Biological Organization Molecule Organelle Cells Tissues Organ Organism
    • Structure and Function
      • The structure and function of organisms is correlated at all levels of biological organization.
    • The continuity of life on earth is based on the inheritable information of the genetic molecule, DNA. DNA molecules contain the instructions needed for the organization and structure of organisms.
    • The internal functions of cells and organisms are coordinated through regulatory mechanisms. Such regulation includes on the cellular level, moving materials through membranes, transporting nutrients and wastes to and from cells and cell to-cell communication.
    • Thousands of chemical reactions that convert matter and energy occur within an organism so the organism can function. Metabolism is under the control of DNA, the genes.
    • Organisms respond to environmental stimuli. We readily see this with ourselves and other animals, but we may have less experience noting how other organisms respond to stimuli, whether it is a flower tracking the sun, a cellular slime mold aggregating in response to a chemical signal, or a Venus Fly-trap capturing prey.
    • Regulatory systems help living organisms adjust to changing conditions by actively maintaining their structure and internal environment, a process called homeostasis, to ensure a dynamic balance. Organisms have a variety of regulatory and feedback systems, both positive and negative, in place to provide for order and functioning. Negative Feedback Pathway Positive Feedback Pathway
    • The complexity of life challenges biologists who try to unravel the whole to view the component parts for research and learning. To do so, we most often must Taking apart the whole, and in doing so, disrupt its function. The human genome project – the attempt to discern the DNA sequences of the human chromosomes, has been a daunting project – and just the beginning of trying to determine what those sequences mean in terms of gene function and products. DNA Sequencing Laboratory
    • Levels of Organization
      • Biosphere
      • Ecosystem
      • Community
      • Population
      • Organism
      • Organ System
      • Organs
      • Tissues
      • Cell
      • Organelle
      • Molecule
    • biosphere - of the Universe, only where life exists biome - large unit of land or water with similar characteristics, e. g. desert ecosystem - functional unit of nature including organisms and environment community - several populations of interacting organisms, e. g. Big Creek population - a local group of one kind of organisms, e. g. cardinals organism - an individual of a kind (species) of which there are 2 types: multicellular & unicellular (in case of the latter, organ and tissue level does not exist) organ system - group of organs with a coordinated role, e. g. excretory organ - group of tissues with a coordinated role, e. g. kidney tissue - group of similar cells, e. g. cardiac muscle cell - basic unit of life organelle - sub-cellular units with a specific function, e. g. mitochondrion molecule - one or more different kinds of atoms bonded together atom - smallest particle of an element sub-atomic particle - proton, neutron, electron
    • Organizational Hierarchy of Life biosphere - of the Universe, only where life exists biome - large unit of land or water with similar characteristics, e. g. desert ecosystem - functional unit of nature including organisms and environment community - several populations of interacting organisms, e. g. Big Creek population - a local group of one kind of organisms, e. g. cardinals
    • organism - an individual of a kind (species) of which there are 2 types: multicellular & unicellular (in case of the latter, organ and tissue level does not exist) organ system - group of organs with a coordinated role, e. g. excretory organ - group of tissues with a coordinated role, e. g. kidney tissue - group of similar cells, e. g. cardiac muscle cell - basic unit of life organelle - sub-cellular units with a specific function, e. g. mitochondrion molecule - one or more different kinds of atoms bonded together atom - smallest particle of an element sub-atomic particle - proton, neutron, electron
    • Examples
      • Ecosystem
        • All living and non-living components in an area (water, air, etc.)
      • Commmunity
        • Entire array of organisms in an area
      • Population
        • Interacting group of individuals of one species
    • Living Organisms and Their Environment Form Webs
      • Producers
        • Plants, photosynthetic organisms
        • Produce sugar from sunlight
      • Consumers
        • Eat plants, other organisms
        • Use energy from consumed foods
    • Cells are the structural and functional units of life
      • Lowest level of organization that can perform all the activities required of life
      • Emergent properties: novel properties that emerge with each step up in the levels of organization
    • Cell Types
      • Prokaryotic
        • Simple
        • Small
        • No organelles
        • Enclosed by a membrane that regulates traffic
        • Use DNA as code for genetic info
        • Example: Bacteria
      • Eukaryotic
        • Complex
        • Large
        • Contain membrane bound organelles
        • Enclosed by a membrane that regulates traffic
        • Use DNA as code for genetic info
        • Examples: plants, fungi, animals
    • The Unity of Life
      • Foundation for unity of life: DNA
      • Each molecule = 2 long chains coiled into a double helix
      • There are only 4 chemical building blocks: A, T, G, C
      • Sequence of the 4 bases is critical to the message:
        • rat, tar, art all have the same letters, different meaning
    • More Unity
      • Order
        • Complex organization
      • Regulation
        • As environment changes, mechanisms regulate organism’s internal environment
      • Growth and Development
        • Genes carry code for growth and development
      • Energy Utilization
        • Take in energy and convert it to run basic processes
      • Response to Environment
        • All organisms respond to their environment
      • Reproduction
        • Reproduce their own kind
      • Evolution
        • Species change over time
    • Organizing the Organisms
      • Taxonomy: names and classifies species
      • Species: a particular type of organism (stay tuned for a more precise definition)
      • Several levels of taxonomic organization: domain  kingdom  phylum  class  order  family  genus  species
    • The Levels of Organization
      • Domain: highest level of taxonomic organization (think continent)
      • Kingdom (think country)
      • Phylum (think state)
      • Class (think county)
      • Order (think city)
      • Family (think street)
      • Genus (think house)
      • Species (think room)
        • We can now get even more specific (area within the room, chair within that area, etc.)
    • Levels of Organization
    • The Three Domains
      • Bacteria
        • Prokaryotic, most are unicellular and microscopic, contains kingdom Bacteria
      • Archaea
        • Prokaryotic, most are unicellular and microscopic, contains kingdom Archaea
        • Some unique environmental tolerances
    • The Three Domains, cont.
      • Eukarya
        • Eukaryotic, many multicellular, contains 4 kingdoms
    • Evolution Explains the Unity and Diversity of Life
      • November 1859, Charles Robert Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
      • Presented evidence that support the view that modern species are descended from ancestral species (descent with modification)
      • Proposed natural selection as the mechanism of change
    • How Does it Work?
      • Unequal reproductive success results in a greater abundance of some traits (those that make reproduction more likely), and lesser abundance of some traits (those that do not favor reproduction)
      • Natural selection isn’t a creative mechanism- it can only edit what is there!
    • How Do Scientists Do Science?
      • Discovery Science
        • Involves verifiable observations and measurements
        • Relies on inductive reasoning (derives principles from many specific observations)
      • Hypothesis-Based Science
        • Involves hypotheses (tentative answer to a question) and rigorous testing
        • Relies on deductive reasoning (from a general premise, we can extrapolate to the specific results we expect)
    • Scientific Method
    • Scientific Method example
    • Google Maps
      • The Mall
    • Concept Check
      • Not all science discoveries strictly follow the “scientific method”. Which of the following would best be described as discovery science?
        • Sequencing the human genome.
        • Describing a new bird species from the Philippines.
        • A project to find preserved specimens of the probably extinct Rocky Mountain locust frozen in glaciers .
        • All of the above.
      0
    • Answer
      • Not all science discoveries strictly follow the “scientific method”. Which of the following would best be described as discovery science?
        • All of the above.
      0
    • What’s the Process?
      • Make an observation
      • As a question based on the observation
      • Develop an hypothesis (tentative answer to your question)
      • Test your hypothesis
      • Did you accept or reject your hypothesis?
    • Interpreting Data
      • These two snakes look remarkably similar to each other. The coral snake (right) is very poisonous to vertebrates. Hypotheses:
      • H 1 : The coral snake’s bright color pattern serves to warn off potential predators.
      • H 2 : The the king snake suffers less predation because it mimics or looks like the coral snake.
      • H 3 : The protection that king snakes receive by mimicking coral snake will depend on the presence of coral snakes.
      0
    • Interpreting Data
      • A team of scientists designed an investigation that used artificial snakes to test the previous hypotheses. Which of the previous hypotheses are supported by the results displayed at the right?
        • H 1 : The coral snake’s bright color pattern serves to warn off potential predators.
        • H 2 : The king snake suffers less predation because it mimics or looks like the coral snake.
        • H 3 : The protection that king snakes receive by mimicking coral snake will depend on the presence of coral snakes.
        • Both 1 and 2
      0
    • Answer
      • A team of scientists designed an investigation that used artificial snakes to test the previous hypotheses. Which of the previous hypotheses are supported by the results displayed at the right?
        • Both 1 and 2
      0
    • Interpreting Data
      • Biologists placed artificial snake mimics in two different localities to test the hypothesis that looking like a poisonous snake only works where the poisonous snake is found:
      • Outside of the coral snake range—only king snakes present.
      • Inside the coral snake range—both coral and king snakes are present.
      0
    • Interpreting Data
      • The data graphed at the right __________ the hypothesis that the effectiveness of mimic coloration depends upon the presence of the poisonous model is:
        • supports
        • does not support
        • is irrelevant to
      0
    • Answer
      • The data graphed at the right __________ the hypothesis that the effectiveness of mimic coloration depends upon the presence of the poisonous model is:
        • supports
      0
    • Interpreting Data
      • Based on this data which of the following is a logical hypothesis or prediction?
        • King snakes outside of the range of coral snakes will more closely resemble coral snakes than populations of king snake living within the range of coral .
        • King snakes outside of the range of coral snakes will not resemble coral snakes as closely as populations of king snakes that live within the range coral snakes.
        • Neither prediction is valid.
      0
    • Answer
      • Based on this data which of the following is a logical hypothesis or prediction?
        • King snakes outside of the range of coral snakes will not resemble coral snakes as closely as populations of king snakes that live within the range coral snakes.
      0