GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONSOriginally from nomadic Sahara desert tribes.Earliest dwellings were temporary.Called Saracenic by greeks and romans.Later on came under a common faith- the muslimreligion adopted muslim style or islamic style ormohammedan style.Spread over countries such asArabia, Egypt, Persia, Syria, Palestine, Spain, Pakisthan and India where muslim religion spread.
GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONSArchitecture according to availability of buildingmaterials in different countries.Dome constructed in bricks and covered withplaster in PersiaDome constructed in stones in Egypt (limestone)and India(red sandstone)Plaster used for wall decoration in Egypt, Spain andelsewhere.Marble available in Rajasthan, extensively used byShah Jahan.Adobe and bricks in Persia
Hot climate in most countries Sheltering arcades. Small windows fitted with intricate geometric designs,lattices etc. Mosques with wide spreading eaves to ensure coolness. Flat roofs for dwelling houses. Houses were closely spaced with narrow streets to protect from dust storms. Thick walled to protect from cold at night and heat during day. Overhanging balconies for houses. Condensed city plan.
RELIGIOUS CONDITIONMuslim religion founded by Mohammed(born 570 AD).Holy book- „Koran‟ contains „Surah‟-utterance of Mohammadintended to reveal the words of God delivered to him by the angelgabriel.The Koran has 2 Dogmos- ”There is no god but Allah and Mohammadis his Prophet”After death of mohammed at medina in 632AD the spiritualdirection was exercised by his close companions “The Caliphs”From 661 AD, caliphs were hereditary dynastic rulers settled atDamascus and later at Baghdad and Cordova.Many religious buildings were constructed and the religion spreadfar and wideKaaba -the holiest placeTwo sects-shias and sunnis based on line of successionImportant line of descent in prophet‟s successors- aga khan
SOCIAL CONDITION Arab invaders adopted social habits of near eastern countries Women‟s quarters(harem) secluded from portions accessible to male visitors. Wooden lattices at window openings to “see but no be seen”. Quarters on upper floor. Five Pillars of Islam Hadith- Words and deeds of Prophet Muhammed Salat- attending prayer 5 times a day Roza- taking fast during day in the month of Ramzan(Sawn) Zakat- donating 1/40th of one‟s wealth as charity Haj- going to mecca- every muslim‟s dream.
622 AD year of Hejira- mohammad depated to Medina from Mecca Redirection of mohammad‟s prayer from Jerusalem to Kaaba- Islam becomes a national arab movement. Til 750 AD the first Caliphs started invasion in neighbouring countries After 750 AD seat of caliphate shifted to Damascus and then to Baghdad 762 AD Persia was conquered Syria and Palestine conquered in 632-639 AD 640 AD Egypt conquered by muslim sulthans 1566 AD Egypt ,Syria & Palestine fell to Turks Turkey- muslim Seljuk and later ottoman dynasty ended 1300 AD Architectural styles developed in these countries- Ummayad,Abbasid,Fatimid,Seljuk & Ottoman(name of the caliphates).
HISTORY IN INDIA Pats of Northern India conquered by Mohammad Ghori of Ghazni(1101-1127 AD). Qutub-ud-din Aibak - Slave dynasty(1191-1246 AD)-foundation of muslim style in India Followed by : Khilji(1290-1320 AD) Tughluq(1320-1431 AD) Sayyid(1414-1444 AD) Lodi(1451-1557 AD) Mughal dynasty(1526-1707 AD) In Deccan Bahamani Kingdom which broke into: Berar(under Imad Shahi) Bidar(under Barid Shahi) Golkonda(under Qutb Shahi) Bijapur (under Adil Shahi) Ahmadnagar (under Nizam Shahi)
Minarets or towers Originally used as torch-lit watch towers Azaan given by Muezzin or Maula to call for prayer. A four-iwan plan, with three subordinate halls and one principal one that faces toward Mecca Mihrab or prayer niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca. Cupolas-small dome-like structure, on top of a building. Domes - Dome symbolises the arch of heaven. Built in brick and stone and external surface plastered The dome placed on the surface by transition from square plan below to circular plan above by superimposing angles with pointed pendentives,squinch arches and stalactites.
Squinch- series of arches placed at an angle to convert the square base to octagonal. The dome does not rest on octagonal phase. In the next phase of transition a 16 sided base is obtained with help of pendentives Then converted to 32 sided base and thusproviding a circular base for the dome above Beautiful ornament at corners In later stage,super-imposed no of cell- niches called mukharnas or stalactites.
Pointed Arch- architectural symbol of hands joined in prayer pointing towards Mecca - all things meet in Allah. arch spandrels consists of a voluted bracket holding a medallion. Types of arches-Ogee Arch, Two-Centred ,Four Centred & multi- centred Pointed Arches. Arabesque( Tauriq)- The use of geometric shapes and repetitive art (arabesque). Representation of human or national form prohibited The geometric designs are inlaid in coloured glazed tiling,painting,mosaic and inlay arts Use of tughras-animal figures formed by arabic letters. Muqarnas- a unique Arabic/Islamic space-enclosing system, for decoration of domes, minarets and portals. Sahn- an enclosed courtyard. Almost every mosque and traditionally all houses and buildings in areas of the Arab World contain a courtyard
Iwans – a vaulted hall or space, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. Islamic calligraphy use of decorative Islamic calligraphy was haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. in secular architecture, human and animal representation was indeed present. Central fountains used for ablutions Decoration and Colour- The use of bright color, if the style is Persian or Indian (Mughal) paler sandstone and grey stones are preferred among Arab building Focus both on the interior space of a building and the exterior. Muslim Order- slender, 7 to 9 diameter high square rebated columns.
minaret Islamic calligraphy arabesquePointed arch dome dome
Islamic architectural invention concentrates in 3 major constructions: mosques or masjids, tombs ,palaces and forts:Jami Masjid: Friday prayer mosque Large open court surrounded by arcades or colonnades(iwan) Fountain or tank in the centre Iwan on Mecca side extended to form sanctuary or pillared hall Sanctuary contain elegant archshaped niche- mihrab A portion of the sanctuary enclosed by screen- Zenana for women Minarets providedMadrassah Collegiate mosque Contain lecture hall, library, residences for students and teachers
Rauza Large mausoleum Includes mosque as a separate building Contain within a spacious square enclosure forming a garden called rauza The tomb consists of a single compartment & covered with a domeDhargah Important tombs of nobles and called dhargah in IndiaKhans Inns or Serais where travelers took rest Two storeyed building Ground floor- stabling camels First floor-residence for travelers
Private Islamic Houses: inward-looking courtyard houses. represent the desire for privacy and familial obligations of Muslim life. A bent corridor (for privacy) leads from the gated entry from the public lane into a courtyard courtyard paved with tiles, often planted with shade trees and with a pool at the centre. Surrounding the courtyard are the principal rooms of the house. Different sides of the courtyard may provide separate accommodation for sections of the extended family.
Islamic City a highly organic entity. The basic cellular unit is the courtyard house The houses are grouped into quarters, often of a tribal or ethnic character. Each quarter has its own mosques and facilities. At the centre of the city stands the focus of the community, the congregational mosque, the masjid al-juma. The arteries of this intricate organism are the vaulted streets of the souk, or bazaar, which thread outwards from the masjid al- juma towards the great gates of the enclosing fortified walls. The key monuments and facilities of the city are found along the souk – the religious colleges, baths, hospitals, and fountains. Examples of these are found in Fès, Morocco; Aleppo, Syria; and Esfahan,
Built in 16th century AD In modern day Saudi Arabia Slightly oblong Arcade encloses an open area with kaaba in its centre Kaaba-cube shaped chamber 13m x 11m- 16m high Covered with black silk In the north-east corner is the black stone- an object of reverence Tomb of Abraham and the zamzam well are sacred sites within the compound The mihrab of every mosque is aligned towards kaaba
Inmodern day Palestine Earliest surviving architectural masterpiece Construction started in 688-689 AD and completed 691-692 AD by Caliph Abd-al- Malik Stands in the haram as a great rectangular enclosure Once occupied as a jewish temple The diameter of the dome of the shrine is 20m 20 cm and its height 20m 48 cm
City known as “Gate of Islam”,”City of a thousand Minarets”. Laid by fatimid conquerors of Tunisia Had trade links with Asia and Europe 2 main gates- Bab-al-Futuh and Bab-al-Masr Splendid palaces,inns,bazaars, mosques,fountains public baths etc Crowded bazaars Water supplied by sakkas(water carriers) from Nile Sabils- public drinking water fountains built by princes and rich merchants,sulthans and princes Important buildings- Mausoleum of Mameluk Sulthan le Mansur Qalaun- 13th century The mosque of Al-Azhar- Fatimid Dynasty. Madrassah attached to it-one of the world‟s oldest universities
GREAT GREAT MOSQUE ATMOSQUE,CORDOBA, KUFA, SPAIN PERSIA
built on a high terrace over a complex of vaulted shops Narrow, twisting interior flights of
A monumental tower .situated in the QutbConstruction commencedBy Qutb -ud -din Aibak.Worlds tallest brick min .
Known as “ Pivot of Justice and Faith.” Built in red sand-stone. Top two stories are of white marble, made by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. It is 72.5m high with 379 steps. The base measures 14.3 m& top floor measures 2.75 meters indiameter. Consists of four stories in changing textures:- 1st :- Has stellate of wedge shaped flanges with round flutes. 2nd:- Has circular projections . 3rd:- Is star shaped. 4th:- Circular; composed of circular kiosks with domical roof. An additional storey is built later. Each storey consists of projecting balconies, supported by stalactitebracket. Balustrade in the form of merlons:- Kanjuras. An „iron-pillar‟(8m , 480AD) is standing in the centre of west wing. It has an amalaka& crowning figure of Garuda.
Qutb -ud -din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi,commenced construction of the Qutb Minar in 1193,but could only complete its base. His successor,Iltutmish, added three more stories and, in 1386,Firuz Shah Tughluq constructed the fifth and thelast storey. The minaret is made of fluted red sandstone covered with intricate carvings and versesfrom the Qur‟an.
Layout of Taj Mahal.
Built in red sand stone.It has the same archway design as the tomb.On its walls floral designs present called pietra dura.On top are small,onion-shaped domes lined in two rows.The Taj Mahal is at the end of the garden.A mosque on west.Mehman Khan on east.
The approach channel has an elevated pool-Haus-i-Kausar. Flanked by marble path. Four portioned garden plan:-Charbagh. It has an inclination for the constant flow ofwater from Jamuna.
57m2 area with canted angle.Eight sided structure.Total height is 33m.Plat form known as „Chabutara‟-6.7m high&95m2area.Onion dome -25m height&18m diameter.Dome is placed on a drum of 64m height.Golden proportion is used.Minarets contain cupolas&pinnacles.Around the dome two storeyed aisles present.Height of the four small domes is 39m.
At each corner of the platform, 42m high minaret in threestoreys are present. The tombs of Shah Jahan and his wife are ornamented &enclosed in central hall. The marble varies in tint&tone according to the chage in light. It displays :-Soft milky at dawnShining white at mid-dayPale and rosy during sunset. The reflections of Taj in pool create a marvelous view.
At Hyderabad. Was built bySultan MohammadQuli Qutb Shah in1591. To commemoratethe elimination ofa plague. Built in Tajayastyle. Charminar meansfour minarets.
Square plan Each side measures 20 m. Each of the corners has a tall, pointed minaret. Each minars is of height 57m. There are four arch ways of 11m span. Now, each arches have a clock,-installed in 1889. Each minaret has three stories, marked by a delicately carvedring around the minaret. First contains arcaded triforium. Second has small arches. Top one has perforated balstrads.
Inside is decorated with intricate designs.Inside the minarets 149 winding steps present to the top floor.Each side of the structure opens into a plazathrough giant arches.A vault that appears like a dome, supports twogalleries. The terrace bordered with a stone balcony.The main gallery has 45 covered prayer spaces witha large open space for Friday prayers.
Famous Islamic gardens include the grounds ofTaj Mahal in India and the Generalife gardens inSpain. The general theme of a traditional Islamicgarden is water and shade. Four water canals typically carry water into acentral pool or fountain, the four streamssymbolizing the four main elements of life. Thefour streams may also be interpreted as the fourrivers in paradise, filled with milk, honey, wineand water. Such a four-fold garden is also called achahar-bagh
Mughal gardens are agroup of gardens built by theMughals in the Islamic styleof architecture. This stylewas influenced by Persiangardens and Timurid gardens.Significant use of rectilinearlayouts are made within thewalled enclosures. Some ofthe typical features includepools, fountains and canalsinside the gardens.Kabul Bagh (Panipat) : -Babar.Shalimar Bagh& NishatBagh(Kashmir):-Shah Jahan.
At Bijapur Built by Mohammad Adil Shah in 1627 AD The second-largest tomb in the world. The most gigantic hemispherical dome(Gumbaz) . Designer- Malik Sandal Took 30 years to complete Consists of 1 chamber of size 42m x 42m & height 55 m. Walls are of 3m thickness They are buttressed by octagonal towers of 7.5 diameter Dome is supported on a gallery formed by intersecting arches The arches are arranged within the side of a square plan The point of intersection produced an octagonal cornicewhich support the base of the dome The projecting gallery 3.35 m wide hanging in the interior ofthe dome at 3.35m height – Wispering Gallery.
Built in 1435. A tower of victoryBuilt by AlaudinBahamani. Circular in plan. Rises to a height of30m in four storeys. Each containing abalcony. Each storeyis circular insection, but one isfluted.
At Delhi.Built by emperor Shah jahan.Rectangular in plan.Standing on high plinth :-Chabutara.Three gate ways present.Eastern-for royal family.North7 south-for public.Has a central courtyard of 99m side with a tank in the middle.The courtyard is enclosed by pillared cloisters.Over the sanctuary three bulbous domes present.
Situated at Agra. Has three domes Built in marble. It consists of acourtyard, colonnades& anarch entrance to the nave. At the central domeappears hanging among thestars like a pearl. Known as pearl mosque.