Prevention of communicable diseases

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Prevention of communicable diseases

  1. 1. PREVENTION OFCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES
  2. 2. COMMUNICABLE DISEASESAn illness due to a specific infectious agent orits toxic products capable of being directly orindirectly transmitted from man to man, animalto animal or from the environment (air, dust, soil,water, food) to man or animal.
  3. 3. EPIDEMIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD
  4. 4. DYNAMICS OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION
  5. 5. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
  6. 6. MODES OF TRANSMISSION A. DIRECT TRANSMISSION B. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
  7. 7. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION
  8. 8. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Direct Contact
  9. 9. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Direct Contact • Skin to Skin. • Mucosa to Mucosa. • Mucosa to Skin. Of the same person or different Person. E.g.-STD, AIDS, leprosy, skin and eye infections.
  10. 10. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Direct Contact• Droplet Infection
  11. 11. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Direct Contact• Droplet Infection Direct Projection of a spray of droplets of saliva and naso-pharyngeal secretions during coughing, sneezing or speaking to the surrounding atmosphere. Eg: Respiratory infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, TB, Meningococcal meningitis.
  12. 12. Droplet Sprayed into the Air from a Sneeze
  13. 13. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Direct Contact• Droplet Infection• Contact with Soil Eg: Hookworm larva, Tetanus.
  14. 14. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Direct Contact• Droplet Infection• Contact with Soil• Inoculation into skin or mucosa Eg: Rabies, infected needles.
  15. 15. MODES OF TRANSMISSIONDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Direct Contact• Droplet Infection• Contact with Soil• Inoculation into skin or mucosa• Tran placental (vertical) Eg: TORCH agents, syphilis, HBV, AIDS
  16. 16. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION Traditionally 5F’s  Flies  Finger  Fomite  Food  Fluids
  17. 17. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Vehicle-borne.  Water (MC)  Food  Ice  Blood, Serum, Plasma  Tissues and organs
  18. 18. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Vehicle-borne.• Vector-borne.
  19. 19. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Vehicle-borne.• Vector-borne.• Air-borne.
  20. 20. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Vehicle-borne.• Vector-borne.• Air-borne.• Fomite-borne. Inanimate article or substances other than water or food contaminated by infectious agents
  21. 21. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION• Vehicle-borne.• Vector-borne.• Air-borne.• Fomite-borne.• Unclean hand and finger.
  22. 22. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIARespiratory infections:• Chicken pox. • Diphtheria.• Measles. • Meningitis.• Mumps. • Whooping Cough.• Rubella. • ARI.• Influenza . • TB.
  23. 23. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIAIntestinal Infections:• Poliomyelitis. • Food poisoning.• Viral hepatitis. • Amoebiasis.• Acute diarrheal • Taeniasis. disease. • Ascarasis.• Typhoid fever. • Hookworm infestation.• Cholera.
  24. 24. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIAArthropod-borne Diseases• Malaria• Dengue.• Filariasis.Zoonosis:Viral Bacterial • Rabies. • Leptospirosis. • JE. • Brucellosis. • Avian flu. • Human salmonellosis.
  25. 25. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIASurface Infections: • Trachoma • Tetanus • Leprosy • AIDS • STDHospital Acquired Infections.
  26. 26. Disease Prevention And ControlDecrease your risk of infectious diseases by understanding how they spread and how you can protect yourself.
  27. 27. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often:
  28. 28. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often: This is especially important before and after preparing food, before eating and after using the toilet.
  29. 29. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often.• Get vaccinated.
  30. 30. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often.• Get vaccinated. Immunization can drastically reduce the chances of contracting many diseases.
  31. 31. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often.• Get vaccinated.• Use antibiotics sensibly.
  32. 32. • Only take antibiotics when necessary.• If theyre prescribed, take them exactly as directed — dont stop taking them early because your symptoms have gone away.
  33. 33. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often.• Get vaccinated.• Use antibiotics sensibly.• Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.
  34. 34. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often.• Get vaccinated.• Use antibiotics sensibly.• Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.• Be smart about food preparation.
  35. 35. Disease Prevention And Control• Wash your hands often.• Get vaccinated.• Use antibiotics sensibly.• Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.• Be smart about food preparation.• Pay special attention to cleaning the hot zones in your home.
  36. 36. Disease Prevention And Control• Dont share personal items.
  37. 37. Disease Prevention And Control• Dont share personal items.Use your own • Toothbrush • Comb • Razor blade. • Avoid sharing drinking glasses or dining utensils.
  38. 38. Disease Prevention And Control• Dont share personal items.• Travel wisely.
  39. 39. Disease Prevention And Control• Dont share personal items.• Travel wisely.• Keep your pets healthy.
  40. 40. ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING COMMUNICABLE DISEASESa) Controlling the reservoir a. Early Diagnosis Precise treatment Epidemiological Investigation- study time place & person distribution of the disease and For institution of prevention and control measures. b.Notification c. Isolation d. Quarantine
  41. 41. ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING COMMUNICABLE DISEASESb) Interruption of transmission “Breaking the chain of Transmission”c) Susceptible Host a. Active immunization. b. Passive Immunization c. Combined Active and passive immunization.d) Non-specific measures  Better housing, water-supply, sanitation. nutrition and education.  Legislative measures- to formulate and effective implementation of measures.

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