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  • 2. CONTENTS System Concepts Examples of System Generalized model of System System control Types of System Hierarchical structure of System Handling System Complexity Classes of System General model of MISPage  2
  • 3. System Concepts The word System is used in day to day in life with describing the subjects for example education system, business system etc System provides a meaningful framework for describing and undertanding the functions and features of subjects System is defined as a set of elements arranged in an orferly manner to accomplish an objective System is always deigned to fulfill a perticular task with special objectives for example Student information System will give complete detail of student.Page  3
  • 4. Examples Of System Systems Elements Objective Computer Input, Process and output Process data and provide devices, OS information ,Compilers ,Packages etc Accounting Financial transactions, Process the transactions Accounting principles and and produce monthly rules, Transaction books of account and processing methods and information about financial tools. management Business Organization People , Plant and Produce goods and Machinery, Product and services to achieve the services,Communications business objectives of ,Transport and Material Service, Turnover and profits.Page  4
  • 5. Generalized Model of System INPUT PROCESS OUTPUTPage  5
  • 6. System Control First control is regarding measuring output of system Then set standard of the output as an index as system performance If the measurement of output is not according to plan then feedback provided to system and stop the operations This process take place in comparison unit Mechanism which provide a signal to system about quality, performance is called feedback mechanism The process of measuring output, comparing with standard, Sending signal to the corrective unit and corrective unit active according to it is called control. It is done threw this diagramPage  6
  • 8. MIS and System ControlSystem Components Business System MISInputs Rawmaterials,plant,manuefact Data from purchase, uring,selling,accounting production and sales, receipt and paymentsProcess Purchasing,manufacturing,selli Transaction processing ng.acccounting. and data processingOutputs Quality of Computation of production production,Sales,Stock,Incom in numbers,sales in e and profit. value,stocks in weight,income and profit in rupeesSensor Profit Income less assigned postComparison unit Expectation profit vs Actual Income vs Budgeted incomeStandard Profit, Target Budgeted profits of various productsFeedback Balance sheet and Analysis Expectation reportsPage  8Corrective Unit MD and Business decision Decisions of marketing
  • 9. Types of System A system is defined and determined by its boundaries and objectives System is an arrangement of smaller system in logical order where many smaller system together make a larger system. A large system can be spilicit or decomposed into subsystems up to a certain level. The system can be classified in different categories based on predictability of its output and the output is known with certainty Some Examples are:- Determistic vs Probabilistic- Open vs Closed System- System vs SubsystemPage  9
  • 10. Types Of System Here is example of Sub Systems Bill Processing System Preparation of Collating Bill Amount Cheque and Collecting Bill To goods payable paymentBill Compute Compute Finance Bill Bill Auditing Gross Taxes andSecurity Booking Security Accounting Amount dutiesPage  10
  • 11. Handling System Compexity There are some methods used to deal with system complexity which are- Identify the subsystems which have together for the function ‘cohesion’- Form cluster of these subsystems and identify interconnection of this cluster- Form cluster of the remaining subsystems- Connect the cluster with interfacePage  11
  • 12. System Efficiency and Effectiveness The performance can measured 2 ways the efficiency and effectiveness The efficiency indicates manner in which inputs are used by the system The effectiveness is the measure of deciding whether a system provide a proper output or not. A system has to be effective and efficient for the highest utility of the system The effectiveness I measured goodness of output Efficiency is a measured a productivity of systemPage  12
  • 13. Post Implementation Problems of system There are lots of problem occurs after system has implemented successfully so to navigate this problem following steps has to be taken- A periodic review of system- User meeting to assess the current utility of the system and the level of satisfaction- Subjecting the system to an audit check threw the test data- Running the system under audit trail- Bringing out system modificationPage  13
  • 14. Post Implementation Problems of system The key terms to handle the post implementation problems in system are:- The core design must be comprehensive and flexible to undergo a quick change- The associated sub systems must be built under flexible design The most successful way of handling these problems is to have a business analyst in org provide proper information with decision making authority to them.Page  14
  • 15. Classes of System MIS should Classifies systems in 5 ways- Data processing System(DPS)- Transaction Processing System(TPS)- Application Processing System(APS)- Business function processing System(BPS)- Integrated Information Processing System(IPS)Page  15
  • 16. MODEL OF DPS System Of Checking, Result Input Validating Reports Processing Master Record Query Files Files ProcessingPage  16
  • 17. MODEL OF TPS Transaction TPS for Accuracy, Data Files Completeness, Report or Consistency, Document Validity, Decision for rejection Or acceptance Master Files Display Transaction Query Transaction Process Processing Records AlgorithmPage  17
  • 18. MODEL OF APS Application Data Files APS for Verification, Report or ,Checking, Selecting Document Rules and compute formula Master Files Display Application Query Application Process Processing Records RulesPage  18
  • 19. MODEL OF BPS Application APS for Verification, Future Mis Data Files ,Checking, Selecting Report or Rules and compute Document formula Transaction Files Display System System Summary of Query Process Result Result file Processing Rules Files For DSSPage  19
  • 20. General Model Of MIS Sourcing System Production System Data Processing Query Processing Transaction Processing Process Exception Reporting Application Processing Data base DSS System Processing MIS Model Or & packages Integration Other Systems Bps,Aps etcPage  20
  • 21. General Model Of MIS The MIS is an arrangement of data processing and information systems in an orderly manner to support the management in achieving the business objectives Mis is designed to provide the information The performance of the mis design starts decaying in the post implementation period Mis provide complete mechanism to bring back the system original equilibrium Mis provide hierarchical structure for proper system implementation Mis provide complete overview of system and ability to access Mis is useful to measure performance of system and helpful to system controlPage  21