Development process of mis
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  • 1. Chapter 9:DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF MIS
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Process of mis development Linkage of business goals to MIS goals Relationship between Business goals and business stretergy Mis goal and stretergy Mis to generate all classes of information for all users Methods for handling uncertaintity and risk Approach to MIS development Implementation of MIS MIS: Factors of success and FailuresPage  2
  • 3. Development of long range plan of mis To achieve success it is necessary to make plan first Constructing MIS plan take information as resource Use proper data entry methods and plan can be made from proper resources of organizations In short mis plan is flexible enough to deal with changing according to time, Situation and adopt latest technology Mis plan can contain following major elements- Deal with business plan- Strategy for plan achievement- The architecture of mix- The system development schedule- Hardware versus software planPage  3
  • 4. Contents of the mis plan A long range MIS plan provides direction for the development of the systems It provide basis for achieving the specific targets or tasks against a time frame. Pan is strectly related with goals and objectives of the mis which are as under given below- Provide an online information of everything- Quick process of query- The focus of system will be on end user- Information support system will contain stretegic,tactical and operational area of businessPage  4
  • 5. MIS Plan vs Business plan Business plan MIS plan Business goals and objectives Mis,objectives,business goals Business plan and strategy Information strategy for business plan ,implementation playing a supportive role Strategy planning and decisions Architecture for mis to support decision Management plan for execution and Sytem development schedule,matching control the plan execution Operation plan for execution Hardware and software plan for implementationPage  5
  • 6. Strategy for plan achievement The designer has to take number of strategic decision to achieve goal and objective of organization the strategy are:a)Development strategy: An online, a batch, a real time. Technology platformb)System development strategy: Any approach to the system development- operational versus functional, Accounting versus analysis, database versus multiple databasesc)Resources for system development: In house versus external,Customised development versus the use of packages.d)Manpower composition: Analyst, programmer skill and know-howPage  6
  • 7. The Architecture of the MIS*The architecture of the mis plan provide a system structure and their input, output and linkages- It also provide a way to handle the system or subsystems by way of simplification, coupling and decoupling of subsystems- It spells out in detail the subsystems from the data entry to procesing,analyst to modeling and storage to printingPage  7
  • 8. The System Development Schedule A schedule is made for the development of the system Preparing information schedule first importance is given to the system requirement The development schedule is changed according to be weighted against the time scale for achieving certain requirement. Which is linked with business plan Schedule can be revised according to performance of businessPage  8
  • 9. Hardware and Software plan Feasibility studies can effect on planning of MIS The hardware and software which is selected for mis plan should be technically sound and up to date Selection of proper hardware and software should be part of strategic level decisions Proper selection of hardware and software should link with goals and objectives of organizationsPage  9
  • 10. A Model of the mis plan Contents Particulars Focus Corporate Information Business environment Where are We? and current operations Mission, Goal and Current mission, goal and Where do we want to Objectives objectives reach? Business risks and Risk analysis and current What is risk? rewards status Policy and strategy Details of policies and How do we achieve status goals? Information needs Strategic planning What is key information? Architecture of plan IT detail What are tools of achievement? Schedule of development Detail of system and When it will achieve? subsystem Budget and Roi Detail of investment What is cost of budgetPage  10 schedule and benefits and roi?
  • 11. Ascertaining class of information Information Class Example User Organizational Employee,products,servi Many users at all levels ces,location,turnover etc Functional Purchase,sales,producti Functional heads and ons,stocks,marketing etc others Managerial Payable,outstanding,bud Middle and top level get,statutory information management Knowledge Entire organization Middle ,top and bottom level management Decision Support Status of information, Middle and low level various standard etc management Operational Information on Operational and production,sales management supervisorPage  11 ,purchase etc
  • 12. Determining the information requirement The difficulty to determine to determine a correct and complete sets of information is on account of the factor given below:1)The capability constraint of human being as an information processor2)The nature and the variety of information in précised terms3)Reluctance of decision maker to spell out the information4)The ability of the decision makers to specify information• There are 4 methods of determining information requirements1)Asking or interviewing2)Determining from existing system3)Analyzing the critical success factors4)Experimentation and modelingPage  12
  • 13. Methods of handling Uncertainty Levels of uncertainty Level of management Method Low Operational Interview management A risk situation Middle management Determine from existing system Very risky Middle and top Determine threw critical management success factors High Top management Experiment ,modeling and sensitivity analysisPage  13
  • 14. Development and implementation of MIS The plan consists of various system and subsystems The choice of the subsystem depends on the its positions in the total mis plan The designer first develops systems independently and start integrated them with other systems Basically 2 approaches effected on MIS1)Prototype approach2)Life cycle approachPage  14
  • 15. Prototype approach It is useful for complex system Prototyping is a process of progressively ascertaining the information needs, developing methodology, trying it out on a smaller scale with respect to the data and the complexity. Designers task is complex and full of difficult in this approach Multiple user can involve in this approachPage  15
  • 16. Development process model of prototype approach Mission, Goals Identify Refine the Modify information review needs prototype Define Develop Develop System Implement And test Revised boundries In parallel prototype Define Initial System Satisfy? Prototype training objectives Examine Develop Develop Feasibility prototype application documentationPage  16
  • 17. Life Cycle Approach It is useful when there are periodic review of system take place It is useful in modification of system required after particular time period It provide system a stability with regular evaluation This approach is based on rules and regulation on which system follows and it can not allow significant change in system. It is used in closed system where outcome of system is already decided before implementation of systemPage  17
  • 18. Development process model of Lifecycle approach System, Application Assess Physical Install Feasibility Design System Information System Req. Conduct Specification analysis Training Define Program Operate System Specification System objectives Conceptual Physical Review Design Design And AuditPage  18
  • 19. Prototype VS Lifecycle Approach Prototype Approach Lifecycle Approach Useful in open system where high Useful in closed system which have amount of uncertainty about information certain information is there. Necessary to try out some assumption No need to try out any assumption in decision making process Experiment is necessary and control the No need to experiment anything cost before system has been implemented Tryout system before it commits on The user is confident enough about specific information requirements system so no need to try anything System is custom oriented The system is universalPage  19
  • 20. Implementation of MIS There are certain guidelines to user about proper implementation of system in organization which are as given beloved No question beyond limit the information need to user Don’t forget his role is to offer service not demand Give priority to user not designer Don’t mix technical need with information need Impress upon user global nature in system design with provide attractiveness in system design Don’t challenge application of information in decision making Maintain quality of information in system Provide information as corporate resource and contribute you as a user Take regular feedback of user with proper interaction with userPage  20
  • 21. Implementation of MIS Ensure the overall system effort has management acceptance Enlist user’s participation time to time Realize user that threw serving they are true guide of system Allover proper change in system time to time Identify role of user in system Conduct periodic meeting with user time to time Provide proper training to user with proper guidelines about usage of systemPage  21
  • 22. Management of information quality in the MIS The quality of parameters is assured if following steps are taken.1)All the input is process and controlled as input and pricess design2)All updating and correction are completed the data processing begins3)Inputs are subjected with validity checks4)Access of data file is protected and secured threw authorization scheme5)Ensure that complete data is processed in one transaction6)Due attention is given to the proper file namePage  22
  • 23. Management of information quality in the MIS7) Back up of data and files are taken safeguard corruption or loss of data8) Time to time audit constructed9) Modification of system is necessary10) System are developed within standard specification of design and development11) Information system is controlled threw program and provide perticular access control12) Mis model will provide consistency into business plan so that information needs to acheiee its goals.Page  23
  • 24. Quality parameters of information Parameter of quality Example comments Complete data of all All invoice of the month Achieves integrity of data transaction with voucher with respect to time period Valid transaction and Only correct transaction is Validity of data input data allowed Accuracy and precision of Correct use of formula Results are accurate results with relevant data Relevance to the user Concentrate strategic Relevance towards the and decision maker areas of business goal of organization Timely information Information of sales, Information should be up dispatch etc to date Meaningful and complete Production information is Incomplete information information about quality with proper makes user wrong format and so on decisions.Page  24
  • 25. Organization for development of mis There are some major issues involved in interaction of mis with organization the issues are:1)Whether the mis function should be handled as centralized or decentralized activity2)The allocation of the hardware and software resources3)The maintaince of the mis service levels at an appropriate level4)Fitting the organization of the mis in the corporate organization, its culture and the management philosophy.Page  25
  • 26. Organization for development of mis The question of centralization versus decentralization is depends on information resource management in the organization In a centralized set the responsibility of acquisition of the data, of the information to the users becomes the centralized function In a decentralized set of responsibility information is at second level so priority is given to the requirement and other things. The development process model is divided into centralized and decentralized organization which are as mentionPage  26
  • 27. Development process model of mis Centralized model of mis Selections, expansition Hardware and Technology MD Software Upgarate decision Information System planning Head of Centralized system MIS Developement Training Management and developement Operations, Day to day maintaince operationPage  27 System,software maintaince
  • 28. Development process model of mis Decentralized model of mis Selections, Distributed or expansitiondecisions Decentralized Hardware and Management of HW Technology MD Software Upgarate decision Information Selection of System planning Hardware solution Head of Centralized system Hw & Sw Techno Training Selection of OS MIS Developement Management and developement Corporate Operations, Users in System Day to day DBMS maintaince Developement operation Training and System,softwarePage  28 Problem solving maintaince
  • 29. Features of Contributing Success of mis It focus major issues of business and also adequate development resources are provided and barrier are removed An appropriate information processing technology, required to meet the data processing and analysis needs of users of the mis,is selected Mis defined user’s requirement and its operational validity is ensured Mis is kept under continuous surveliance,so that its open system design is modified according to changing information needs. Mis focus on business objectives and goal. Mis is not allowed to end up into an information generation mill avoiding the noise in the information and communication system Mis will consider all human behaviour factors in the process of management Mis is focused on different information needs for different objectivesPage  29
  • 30. Features of Contributing Success of mis Mis is interacted with term globalization so that it should be prepared with lattest technology. Mis is easy to operate Mis design provide basic capability for user to deal with complex situation The mis concentrate on the development the information support to manage critical success factors in organizations Mis concentrates on the mission critical applications serving the need of the top management.Page  30
  • 31. Features of Contributing Failures of mis The mis is conceived as a data processing and not an information processing system Mis is not those information that manager needs instead of it provide those information that function calls. Mis is not provide proper way to deal with system complexity instead of it recognized its successful implementation Mis is not concentrate on system control and its neglect basic system tools which are input, process and output The mis is developed without streamlining the BPS in organization Mis is not concentrate towards the training aspects of users The mis does not meet certain critical and key factors of the users such as a response to the query on database.Page  31
  • 32. Features of Contributing Failure of mis Mis is not fully guaranteed that it will provide complete problem solving mechanism in the organization Sometimes lack of capability of developers makes mis an unused product in organization The mis does not give perfect information to all the users in the organization. Mis is assumption of developer so sometime this assuming becomes reason for failures.Page  32
  • 33. Approach to MIS developement Identify business goals Determine critical success factors Determine business stretergy Identify critical business application Make decision analysis Develop business performance indicators Identify information entities to decision support for business Build mis superset as precribed I the general model of misPage  33
  • 34. Mis develop process model Study business environment Study organization and structure Identify missions and goal Identify critical success factors Identify critical business applications Ascertain the business strategy Identify business decisions Develop key performance indicators Determine mis goals supporting business goals Developed it strategy to meet goals Develop it support structure to meet data and information needs. Determine mis superetPage  34
  • 35. Mis develop process model Link and map mis and information outcome to business goals and strategy Design KMS & BI systems Design information reporting structure- Periodic reports- Exception reports- Control reportsPage  35