553844 634216100295120000(1)
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  • 1. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 2. A Computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data.Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, store devices and processing unit. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 3.  Speed Accuracy Storage Capacity Consistency/Diligence Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 4.  Can not think it self Task to be describe in detail Can not learn form experience Wrong information provided result also wrong Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 5.  First Generation (1940-1956) ◦ Use of vacuum tubes ◦ Big & Clumsy ◦ High Electricity Consumption ◦ Programming in Mechanical Language ◦ Larger AC were needed Continue… ◦ Lot of electricity failure occurred Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 6.  Second Generation (1956-1963) ◦ Transistors were used ◦ Core Memory was developed ◦ Faster than First Generation computers ◦ First Operating System was developed ◦ Programming was in Continue… Machine Language & Aseembly Language Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 7. Continued… Second Generation (1956-1963) ◦ Magnetic tapes & discs were used ◦ Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers ◦ Computers consumed less heat & consumed less electricity Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 8.  Third Generation (1964-1971) ◦ Integrated circuits developed ◦ Power consumption was low ◦ SSI & MSI Technology was used ◦ High level languages were used Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 9.  Fourth Generation (1971 onwards) ◦ LSI & VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Technology used ◦ Development of Portable Computers ◦ RAID Technology of data storage ◦ Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulation ◦ Computers started in use for Data Communication ◦ Different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacity Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 10.  Fifth Generation (Present & Beyond) ◦ Used in parallel processing ◦ Used superconductors ◦ Used in speech recognition ◦ Used in intelligent robots ◦ Used in artificial intelligence Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 11.  Microcomputer: ◦ It is small in size but capable of handling large tasks. Minicomputer: ◦ It can very in size from a small desktop model to the size of a small filling cabinet. Mainframe Computer: ◦ It is more powerful & large in size. Super Computer ◦ It is largest, fastest and most expensive computer. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 12.  Hardware ◦ The hardware consist of all devices of the computer that you can see and touch. These include input, processing and output devices. Software ◦ The software is sets of instruction that control the working of the computer’s operations Super Computer Data (text, Audio, Video, Graphics) ◦ Data consists or raw facts and figures which manipulates and processes into meaningful information. Users ◦ A User is a person who uses the computer externally with a specific objective. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 13. Hardware CPU (CentralInput Device Output Device Processing Unit) Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 14.  Collect Date, Information Convert Into machine language Send to CPUE.g. 1. Keyboard 2. Mouse 3. Scanner 4. Mic Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 15.  Receive from CPU Convert into Human Language Send to UserE.g.. 1. Monitor 2. Printer 3. Speaker Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 16. Traditional Keyboard Argonic KeyboardWireless Keyboard Flexible Keyboard Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 17. 1. Alphabetic keys a-z2. Numeric keys 0-93. Alpha Numeric Keys !-)4. Navigation Keys Arrows, End, Home Page Up, Page Dn5. Functional Keys F1-F126. Combination Keys Shift, Alt, Ctrl7. Toggle Keys Num Lock, Scroll Lock, Caps Lock8. Special Keys Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 18. Mechanical Mouse Optical MouseWireless Mouse Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 19. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Monitor LCD (Liquid crystal Display) Monitor Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 20.  SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array) ◦ 800 X 600 Pixels  15” Monitor XGA (Extended Graphic Array) ◦ 1,024 X 768 Pixels  17” To 19” SXGA (Super Extended Graphics Array) ◦ 1,280 X 1,034 Pixels  19” To 21” UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) ◦ 1,600 X 1,200 Pixels  Above 21” Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 21.  Impact Printer (printing with hammering) ◦ Daze wheel printer ◦ Dot Matrix Printer Non Impact Printer (printing without hammering) ◦ Ink-Jet Printer ◦ Laser Printer Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 22. CPU ALU (Arithmetic &CU (Control Unit) MU (Memory Unit) Logical Unit) Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 23. Memory Type as per Flexibility Period PreferenceROM (Read Non- Permanent -Only Memory) RemovableRAM (Random Non- Temporary PrimaryAccess Memory RemovableHard Disk Non- Permanent Secondary RemovableFloppy Disk Removable Permanent SecondaryCompact Disk Removable Permanent Secondary(CD)Pen Drive Removable Permanent Secondary Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 24.  ROM Floppy Disk  RAM CD  Hard Disk Pen Drive  Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 25.  0/1 1 Bit 4 Bit 1 Nibble 8 Bit 1 Byte 1 Character 1 Byte 1 Space 1 Byte 1 Enter/Paragraph 2 Byte Continue… Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 26. …Continued 1024 Byte 1 Kilo Byte (KB) 1024 KB 1 Mega Byte (MB) 1024 MB 1 Giga Byte (GB) 1024 GB 1 Terabyte (TB) Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 27.  RAM 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB, 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB Hard Disk 2 GB, 10 GB, 20 GB, 40 GB, 80 GB, 160 GB, 320 GB, Floppy 1.44 MB CD 700 MB DVD 4.7 GB Pen Drive 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 28.  System Software ◦ Operating System ◦ Utility  Disk Cleanup  Disk Defragmenter  Uninstaller  Antivirus ◦ Device Driver Application Software Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  • 29. DOS WindowsB/W Screen Color ScreenCUI (Character User GUI (Graphical UserInterface) Interface)Single Tasking Multiple TaskingSingle User Multiple User Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012