Computer Fundamentals   Thursday, March 22, 2012
A Computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data...
   Speed   Accuracy   Storage Capacity   Consistency/Diligence                            Computer Fundamentals   Thur...
   Can not think it self   Task to be describe in detail   Can not learn form experience   Wrong information provided ...
   First Generation    (1940-1956)    ◦ Use of vacuum tubes    ◦ Big & Clumsy    ◦ High Electricity      Consumption    ◦...
   Second Generation    (1956-1963)    ◦ Transistors were used    ◦ Core Memory was      developed    ◦ Faster than First...
Continued…   Second Generation    (1956-1963)    ◦ Magnetic tapes & discs      were used    ◦ Computers became smaller   ...
   Third Generation    (1964-1971)    ◦ Integrated circuits      developed    ◦ Power consumption was      low    ◦ SSI &...
   Fourth Generation (1971 onwards)    ◦ LSI & VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration)      Technology used    ◦ Development ...
   Fifth Generation (Present & Beyond)    ◦   Used   in parallel processing    ◦   Used   superconductors    ◦   Used   i...
   Microcomputer:    ◦ It is small in size but capable of handling large      tasks.   Minicomputer:    ◦ It can very in...
   Hardware    ◦ The hardware consist of all devices of the computer that      you can see and touch. These include input...
Hardware                                      CPU (CentralInput Device   Output Device                                    ...
   Collect Date, Information   Convert Into machine language   Send to CPUE.g.    1.   Keyboard    2.   Mouse    3.   S...
   Receive from CPU   Convert into Human Language   Send to UserE.g..    1. Monitor    2. Printer    3. Speaker        ...
Traditional Keyboard Argonic KeyboardWireless Keyboard        Flexible Keyboard                          Computer Fundamen...
1.   Alphabetic keys      a-z2.   Numeric keys         0-93.   Alpha Numeric Keys    !-)4.   Navigation Keys      Arrows, ...
Mechanical Mouse   Optical MouseWireless Mouse                        Computer Fundamentals   Thursday, March 22, 2012
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Monitor          LCD (Liquid crystal Display) Monitor                         Computer Fundamentals...
   SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array)    ◦ 800 X 600 Pixels      15” Monitor   XGA (Extended Graphic Array)    ◦ 1,024 X ...
   Impact Printer (printing with hammering)    ◦ Daze wheel printer    ◦ Dot Matrix Printer   Non Impact Printer (printi...
CPU                    ALU (Arithmetic &CU (Control Unit)                           MU (Memory Unit)                      ...
Memory                        Type as per                Flexibility   Period      PreferenceROM (Read       Non-         ...
   ROM            Floppy Disk    RAM                           CD  Hard    Disk                 Pen Drive           ...
   0/1                       1   Bit   4 Bit                     1   Nibble   8 Bit                     1   Byte   1 C...
…Continued   1024   Byte         1   Kilo Byte (KB)   1024   KB           1   Mega Byte (MB)   1024   MB           1   ...
 RAM            64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512  MB, 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB Hard Disk      2 GB, 10 GB, 20 GB, 40 GB,              ...
   System Software    ◦ Operating System    ◦ Utility        Disk Cleanup        Disk Defragmenter        Uninstaller ...
DOS                WindowsB/W Screen            Color ScreenCUI (Character User   GUI (Graphical UserInterface)           ...
553844 634216100295120000(1)
553844 634216100295120000(1)
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553844 634216100295120000(1)

  1. 1. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  2. 2. A Computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data.Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, store devices and processing unit. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  3. 3.  Speed Accuracy Storage Capacity Consistency/Diligence Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  4. 4.  Can not think it self Task to be describe in detail Can not learn form experience Wrong information provided result also wrong Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  5. 5.  First Generation (1940-1956) ◦ Use of vacuum tubes ◦ Big & Clumsy ◦ High Electricity Consumption ◦ Programming in Mechanical Language ◦ Larger AC were needed Continue… ◦ Lot of electricity failure occurred Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  6. 6.  Second Generation (1956-1963) ◦ Transistors were used ◦ Core Memory was developed ◦ Faster than First Generation computers ◦ First Operating System was developed ◦ Programming was in Continue… Machine Language & Aseembly Language Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  7. 7. Continued… Second Generation (1956-1963) ◦ Magnetic tapes & discs were used ◦ Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers ◦ Computers consumed less heat & consumed less electricity Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  8. 8.  Third Generation (1964-1971) ◦ Integrated circuits developed ◦ Power consumption was low ◦ SSI & MSI Technology was used ◦ High level languages were used Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  9. 9.  Fourth Generation (1971 onwards) ◦ LSI & VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Technology used ◦ Development of Portable Computers ◦ RAID Technology of data storage ◦ Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulation ◦ Computers started in use for Data Communication ◦ Different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacity Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  10. 10.  Fifth Generation (Present & Beyond) ◦ Used in parallel processing ◦ Used superconductors ◦ Used in speech recognition ◦ Used in intelligent robots ◦ Used in artificial intelligence Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  11. 11.  Microcomputer: ◦ It is small in size but capable of handling large tasks. Minicomputer: ◦ It can very in size from a small desktop model to the size of a small filling cabinet. Mainframe Computer: ◦ It is more powerful & large in size. Super Computer ◦ It is largest, fastest and most expensive computer. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  12. 12.  Hardware ◦ The hardware consist of all devices of the computer that you can see and touch. These include input, processing and output devices. Software ◦ The software is sets of instruction that control the working of the computer’s operations Super Computer Data (text, Audio, Video, Graphics) ◦ Data consists or raw facts and figures which manipulates and processes into meaningful information. Users ◦ A User is a person who uses the computer externally with a specific objective. Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  13. 13. Hardware CPU (CentralInput Device Output Device Processing Unit) Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  14. 14.  Collect Date, Information Convert Into machine language Send to CPUE.g. 1. Keyboard 2. Mouse 3. Scanner 4. Mic Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  15. 15.  Receive from CPU Convert into Human Language Send to UserE.g.. 1. Monitor 2. Printer 3. Speaker Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  16. 16. Traditional Keyboard Argonic KeyboardWireless Keyboard Flexible Keyboard Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  17. 17. 1. Alphabetic keys a-z2. Numeric keys 0-93. Alpha Numeric Keys !-)4. Navigation Keys Arrows, End, Home Page Up, Page Dn5. Functional Keys F1-F126. Combination Keys Shift, Alt, Ctrl7. Toggle Keys Num Lock, Scroll Lock, Caps Lock8. Special Keys Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  18. 18. Mechanical Mouse Optical MouseWireless Mouse Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  19. 19. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Monitor LCD (Liquid crystal Display) Monitor Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  20. 20.  SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array) ◦ 800 X 600 Pixels  15” Monitor XGA (Extended Graphic Array) ◦ 1,024 X 768 Pixels  17” To 19” SXGA (Super Extended Graphics Array) ◦ 1,280 X 1,034 Pixels  19” To 21” UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) ◦ 1,600 X 1,200 Pixels  Above 21” Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  21. 21.  Impact Printer (printing with hammering) ◦ Daze wheel printer ◦ Dot Matrix Printer Non Impact Printer (printing without hammering) ◦ Ink-Jet Printer ◦ Laser Printer Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  22. 22. CPU ALU (Arithmetic &CU (Control Unit) MU (Memory Unit) Logical Unit) Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  23. 23. Memory Type as per Flexibility Period PreferenceROM (Read Non- Permanent -Only Memory) RemovableRAM (Random Non- Temporary PrimaryAccess Memory RemovableHard Disk Non- Permanent Secondary RemovableFloppy Disk Removable Permanent SecondaryCompact Disk Removable Permanent Secondary(CD)Pen Drive Removable Permanent Secondary Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  24. 24.  ROM Floppy Disk  RAM CD  Hard Disk Pen Drive  Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  25. 25.  0/1 1 Bit 4 Bit 1 Nibble 8 Bit 1 Byte 1 Character 1 Byte 1 Space 1 Byte 1 Enter/Paragraph 2 Byte Continue… Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  26. 26. …Continued 1024 Byte 1 Kilo Byte (KB) 1024 KB 1 Mega Byte (MB) 1024 MB 1 Giga Byte (GB) 1024 GB 1 Terabyte (TB) Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  27. 27.  RAM 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB, 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB Hard Disk 2 GB, 10 GB, 20 GB, 40 GB, 80 GB, 160 GB, 320 GB, Floppy 1.44 MB CD 700 MB DVD 4.7 GB Pen Drive 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  28. 28.  System Software ◦ Operating System ◦ Utility  Disk Cleanup  Disk Defragmenter  Uninstaller  Antivirus ◦ Device Driver Application Software Computer Fundamentals Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
  29. 29. DOS WindowsB/W Screen Color ScreenCUI (Character User GUI (Graphical UserInterface) Interface)Single Tasking Multiple TaskingSingle User Multiple User Computer Fundamentals Thursday, March 22, 2012
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