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stepper motor

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  • 1. STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL USING PLC
    • PREPARED BY:
    • BRINDA TALATI
    • ZALAK SHAH
    • SOMYA SINGH
    • GUIDED BY:
    • ASST. PROF. DEEPA
    • KARVAT
  • 2. NAME: SERVILINK ENGINEERS PVT.LTD ADDRESS: 988/16/1, GIDC, MAKARPURA, BARODA-10. GUIDED BY: ANANT PARIKH LOGO:
  • 3. A stepper motor is a brushless, electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor’s position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism. What is Stepper motor?
  • 4. OPERATION OF STEPPER MOTOR
    • Stepper motors have multiple “toothed” electromagnets around a centre gear shaped piece of iron.
    • The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit,such as a microcontroller or plc.
    • To make the motor shaft turn,first,one electromagnet is given power which makes the gear’s teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnets teeth.
    • When the gear’s teeth are aligned to the first electromagnet,they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet.
  • 5.
    • So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from these the process is repeated.
    • Each of those slight rotations is called a “step” with an integer number of steps making a full rotation.
    • In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.
  • 6. Stepper motor Types Permanent magnet Hybrid Synchronous Variable reluctance/ unipolar
  • 7. Characteristics of stepper motor
    • Stepper motor are constant power devices.
    • As motor speed increases torque decreases.
    • Stepper motor exhibits more vibration than other motor types, so this makes more noiser than DC motor.
    • This vibration can become very bad at some speed and cause the motor to lose torque or lose direction
    • This effect can be controlled by using a micro stepping driver.
  • 8. Application of stepper motor As stepper motors are digitally controlled and more rugged so they are also used in packaging machinery .
  • 9. WHAT IS PLC?
    • PLCs are often defined as miniature industrial computers that contain hardware and software that is used to perform control functions. A PLC consists of two basic sections: the central processing unit (CPU) and the input/output interface system.
    A PLC can also be defined as “A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions by implementing specific functions such as logic sequencing , timing, counting, and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or processes”.
  • 10.
      • The CPU, which controls all PLC activity, can further be broken down into the processor and memory system. The input/output system is physically connected to field devices (e.g., switches, sensors, etc.) and provides the interface between the CPU and the information providers (inputs) and controllable devices (outputs).
  • 11. WHY PLC?
    • Today's PLCs offer faster scan times, space efficient high-density input/output systems, and special interfaces to allow non-traditional devices to be attached directly to the PLC.
    • They can communicate with other control systems, they can also perform reporting functions and diagnose their own failures, as well as the failure of a machine or process.
    • Small, non-modular PLCs (also known as fixed I/O PLCs) generally have less memory and accommodate a small number of inputs and outputs in fixed configurations. Modular PLCs have bases or racks that allow installation of multiple I/O modules, and will accommodate more complex applications.
  • 12. PLC’S AVAILABLE IN MARKET
    • SIEMENS
    • ATMEL
    • OMRON
    • ALLEN BRADLEY ROCKWELL
    • ABB
    • FUJITSU
    • FESTO
    • ATOS
    • MITSIBUSHI
  • 13. SPECIFICATIONS OF CPU 226 PARTICULARS SPECIFICATIONS Supply voltage max 264 VAC Supply voltage min 85 VAC Analogue input/output 0-10 Volts No. of digital inputs 24 No. of digital outputs 16 (Transistor) DC voltage input/output 24 VDC Current mode: 2 mA – 10mA Sourcing current 750 mA for logic - ‘1’ For use with SIMATIC S7-200 CPU
  • 14. LADDER DIAGRAM
    • A Ladder Diagram is one of the simplest methods used to program a PLC. It is a graphical programming language developed from electrical relay circuits.
    • RUNG
    • COIL
    • CONTACTS
    COIL CONTACTS RUNG
  • 15. BLOCK DIAGRAM
  • 16. LOGIC TABLE Counter clockwise Clockwise STEP WINDING 1 WINDING 2 WINDING 3 WINDING 4 1. 1 0 0 1 2. 1 1 0 0 3. 0 1 1 0 4. 0 0 1 1
  • 17. STEPPER MOTOR STEP ANGLES rpm x steps per revolution 60 Steps per second = STEP ANGLE STEPS PER REVOLUTION 0.72 500 1.8 200 2.0 180 2.5 144 5.0 72 7.5 48 15 24
  • 18. THANK YOU

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