Determinants of behavioural intentions in the mobile internet


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Determinants of behavioural intentions in the mobile internet

  1. 1. Determinants of Behavioural Intentions in the Mobile Internet Services in Malaysian Market Nazar Hireiz, Hadi Nejatian and Ilham Sentosa Centre of Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology AbstractThe rapid growth of the technology in general and Mobile Internet in particular hassignificant implications for mobile internet services market. Hence we need to define thecharacteristics of the Mobile Internet to understand the concerns of customers andidentifying the factors that promote the use of such techniques. Thus, this work aims toexamine the individual behavioural intention to use mobile internet services inMalaysian market among Malaysian respondents by identifying the influence of sevenservice quality determinants on overall service quality, concluded on connection quality,content quality, interaction quality, contextual quality, customer service, privacy anddevice quality, whereas value and satisfaction are posited as directly influencingbehavioural intentions. IntroductionZeithaml et al., (1996) argue that so as to grow the mobile internet market, favourableconsumer behaviour should be attained. Many studies investigate the businessimplications of the mobile Internet from the user’s perspective, and although some ofthem prove that the instant connectivity and privacy of the mobile Internet may have aconsiderable influence on the preference of customers but still we cannot directly applytheir results to other countries and cultures.The increasing of mobile phone presents a number of key challenges, starting fromissues with device characteristics such as screen-size (e.g., smaller screens and lessconvenient input mechanisms) ending to input capabilities. On the other hand manyresearches proved that the impact of service quality on costumers’ behaviouralintentions shows strong evidence of their being influenced by service quality.Past researches on mobile Internet focuses mainly on “what and how” people access.Understanding the “why” requires investigating the theoretical and empiricalmeaningfulness of a composite model of behavioural intentions in a pure mobile internetservices context as well as deeper picture of what drives people to incorporate mobileInternet access into their daily lives.According to Chae et al., 2002 Mobile internet, defined as the wireless access tointernet content via mobile devices, promises users, access to tremendous amount ofinformation and products available on the internet, anywhere and anytime, adding thatthe characteristics of the mobile Internet can be understood from three differentperspectives: user, environment, and system. First, from the user’s perspective, mobileInternet devices are usually more personal and individual than stationary Internetdevices (Kristoffersen et al, 1999). Second, from the environmental perspective, mobileCopyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 116
  2. 2. Internet systems usually provide instant connection to the Internet, which enables usersto access the Internet anywhere and anytime ( Lamming et al, 2000). Third, from thesystem’s perspective, most mobile Internet systems, especially cellular phones, have alower level of available resources compared to those provided by the stationary Internet.While mobile Internet devices are very portable and handy, they have smaller screens,less convenient input/output facilities, and lower multimedia processing capabilities thando desktop computers, for example. (Chae and Kim 2003).Success in mobile internet is dependent on understanding the concerns of customersand identifying the factors that promote the use of such technique and also understandmobile users in more detail will lead to effective mobile internet services and marketing,especially after 3G and nG revolution which is vividly has a deep effect on the number ofusers going online nowadays as well as creating a pleasant atmosphere of competition onthe mass communication market in general and on the mobile commerce market in particular. Literature ReviewThe literature review of the dissertation will analyze the essential parts required for thedeterminants of the behaviour intention in the mobile internet services market in term ofservice quality impact on overall service quality, concluded on connection quality,content quality, interaction quality and contextual quality, customer service, privacy anddevice quality, whereas value and satisfaction are posited as directly influencingbehavioural intentions.Due to their intangible natures, services are more difficult to evaluate than products,which typically can be inspected and evaluated for quality before the purchase takesplace. Since services comprise a large portion of economic activities, 50 to 70 percentin developed nations, researchers are eager to develop a measure suitable forassessing service quality.Delivering quality service is considered an essential strategy for success and survival intodays competitive environment (Dawkins and Reichheld 1990; Parasuraman,ZeithamI, and Ben7 1985; Reichheld and Sasser 1990; ZeithamI, Parasuraman, andBerry 1990).On the extant literature side, Chae et al. (2002) concluded on four factors of informationquality for wireless internet services: connection quality, content quality, interactionquality and contextual quality. Along these lines, electronic service quality literaturesuggests that besides information quality, customer service and privacy influenceservice quality (Parasuraman et al., 2005; Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003). Contentanalysis of Vlachos and Vrechopoulos (2004), qualitative data indicates that consumersconsistently view the handheld devices used so as to access the internet service as animportant antecedent of service quality. Therefore, they posit device quality as anantecedent of service quality too.According to Vlachos and Vrechopoulos (2004), Connection quality deals withconsumers having access to stable mobile services without interruption of connectionand to speedy system responses to users’ requests (clicks).Copyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 117
  3. 3. From the environmental perspective, mobile Internet systems usually provide instantconnection to the Internet, which enables users to access the Internet anywhere andanytime. (Lamming, M. et al., 2000). Wireless Local Area Networking (WLAN) andcellular telecommunication are the main connectors’ types that enabled the mobile Web.WLAN afforded a fast connection but limited mobility, typically in an indoor environmentwithin a restricted area while cellular networks enabled high mobility level, butsupported rather low connection speed; also it generated cost for each piece of datatraffic while WLAN connection did not. (Cui and Roto, 2008). With faster and cheaperWLAN connections available, the panelists engaged themselves in the activities thatgenerated large traffic, for example, web podcasting; while with cellular connection,users avoided downloading heavy Web pages because WLAN enabled longer andheavier web sessions than the existing cellular connections. (Cui and Roto, 2008).Mobile broadband provide Wi-Fi as a preferred WLAN technology for connectivity to theInternet by creating so-called HotSpots in public places.To sum that we can say connection quality is achieved when all customers can accessthe mobile service without confidently and without any kind off interruption ofconnection. In other words, mobile Internet services must decrease connection errorsthat may interrupt customers from accessing the target site. Therefore, the connectionquality is down shorthand into perceived stability and responsiveness of mobile Internetservices.According to Vlachos and Vrechopoulos (2004), Interaction quality mainly deals withthe provision of easy and efficient mobile Services.“I am using many mobile applicationsand I want them to interoperate seamlessly for example, Email, browser, feed reader,and text messaging.” (Helsinki). Barnes and Vidgen (2002) revealed that Interactionquality is made up of trust and empathy. The usability and service interaction constructseach miss one quality. The quality of the service interaction experienced by users asthey delve deeper into the services, embodied by trust and empathy.; for example,issues such as transaction and information security, product delivery, personalizationand communication.Use of new technology to ameliorate the mobile internet services will increase theperception of trust by customers. Take iPod touch as an example and its long wayahead of its competitors. It’s obviously that new inventions appear to be a key aspect ofcompetition in mobile internet in the future.Many businesses nowadays provide good customer services, on-time delivery andexcellent recovery effort to attract customers back. Customer service refers to serviceprovision that is responsive and helpful (Parasuraman et al., 2005). Vlachos andVrechopoulos (2004) found that customer service do not seem to influence servicequality perceptions. Also they found the non-significant relationship between customerservice perceptions and service quality might also be an artifact of the employedmethodology, since the service used was not a commercial one indicating thatconsumers couldn’t clearly infer and report customer service evaluations.Device quality is conceptualized as the perceptions that users form regarding the lookand feel of the device, they posits device quality as an antecedent of service quality(Vlachos and Vrechopoulos 2004). For example, the main idea of promotions andCopyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 118
  4. 4. advertisements is to give the young user a mobile service with much features such asmusic downloads, faster, the ability to send internet messages, and internet friendlydevices would be much better to interest the youth psyche.Contextual quality refers to the ubiquitous nature of mobile services andpersonalization issues. The importance of contextual quality implies that consumers’main motivation for using mobile internet services is their “anywhere” and “anytime”accessibility features. (Vlachos and Vrechopoulos 2004).According to Chae and Kim (2001) contextual quality highlights the importantcharacteristics of the mobile Internet; namely, timeliness, by which customers can gainunrestricted access to information regardless of time and place, and promptness, sothat the process of accessing the information is straightforward. In other wordscontextual quality provides contents at the right time in the right place for the rightpeople.Content quality refers to the inherent value and usefulness of the information providedby mobile services (Chae et al., 2002, p. 39). Customers prefer more individuallycustomized content on the mobile Internet because its personalization level is higherthan that of the stationary Internet. In other words, the content should be backed upwith objective and credible arguments to the users, and at the same time should provideenough information to be useful to the users task. (Minhee and Jinwoo 2003).The only way of creating hitting mobile content to be useful is by thoroughlyunderstanding mobile content quality and how it can be created. Understand that theunderlying aspects of, performance, cost, security usefulness, and communicationvalues are directing the general features of value-adding such as personalisation,timeliness, localisation, and performance. Mobile content is information products orservices, and it consists of sound, pictures, text, and video,. Some time is anycombination of these. According to Milne and Rohm (2000) Privacy exists when customers can restrict theuse of personal information. Privacy deals with a sense of feeling safe when using theservice and influence service quality (Parasuraman et al., 2005; Wolfinbarger and Gilly,2003 ). Zeithaml et al. (2000) conceptualized e-service quality with 11 dimensions, i.e.reliability, responsiveness, assurance/trust and security/privacy, access, flexibility, easeof navigation, efficiency, and price knowledge. Privacy relates to the concern about thepotential misuse of personal information by marketers (Milne and Rohm, 2000).H1a-H1g Connection quality, content quality, interaction quality, contextual quality,customer service, privacy and device quality positivity influence consumers’ perceptionsof service quality.Delivering superior value to customers is considered one of the most popular conceptsamong business managers and academia (Ulaga and Chacour, 2001). According toSnoj Boris et al., (2004) many authors suggested that the superior value should beconsidered as the most fundamental challenge for marketing strategies oforganizations. Academic research has built on defining the value construct as well as onlinking it to other constructs such as loyalty, satisfaction and repurchase behavior, Inother words, value has been seen as the trade-off between benefit and sacrifice in anCopyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 119
  5. 5. offering (Kristina Heinonen 2004). One of the more traditional perspectives (Monroe,1990), perceived value has been defined as “the consumer’s overall assessment of theutility of a product based on perceptions on what is received and what is given”(Zeithaml, 1988, p. 14).According to social exchange theory, the value received from an exchange relationshipdetermines a person’s attitude and behavior toward that relationship (Lawler, 2001;Thibaut and Kelley, 1959). Value refers to the perceived ratio of benefits to costs.Whereas conventional neoclassical theory restricts the definition of benefits and costs totangible elements, social exchange theory broadens the definition to incorporateintangible elements as well. Thus, in the context of services quality, the psychologicalcosts and benefits associated with acquiring and consuming a service, though notsignificant in the neoclassical definition of value, play important roles (Scott C. et al.,2009).H2 Service quality positively influences value.Satisfaction should be an indication of how people admire their experience at usingMobile Internet, and it is probably the best way to keep them loyal to services. is mainlyconceptualized as an affective construct. Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003) found asignificant positive relationship between overall service quality evaluations andsatisfaction in the context of fixed web retailing context.Montoya-Weiss et al. (2003), in their effort to model the determinants of online channelpreference for a multi-channel service provider, found empirical evidence for therelationship between service quality and overall satisfaction. Furthermore, value isacknowledged in the literature as a cognitive concept, implying that it can be postulatedas an antecedent of satisfaction (Choi et al., 2004)H3-H4 Service quality and value positively influence satisfaction.Many studies have investigated the relationship between service quality, satisfactionand value and consequence measures such as behavioural intentions (e.g., Choi etal., 2004). Which of the three service evaluation constructs, act as a mediator betweenthe remaining ones and behavioural intentions seems to be depended on the objectiveof the study; namely whether the goal is to investigate service quality, satisfaction orvalue.Boulding et al., (1993) in one of two studies they conducted, find a positive correlationbetween service quality and a 2-item measure of repurchase intentions and willingnessto recommend. In a second study involving university students, they find strong linksbetween service quality and behavioral intentions that are of strategic importance to theschool, including saying positive things about the school, planning to contribute moneyto the class pledge on graduation, and planning to recommend the school to employersas a place from which to recruit.The overall findings by Valarie A. ZeithamI et al., (1996) offer strong empirical supportfor the intuitive notion that improving service quality can increase favourablebehavioural intentions and decrease unfavourable intentions. The findings demonstratethe importance of strategies that can steer behavioural intentions in the right directions,Copyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 120
  6. 6. including striving to meet customers desired service levels (rather than merely desired-serviceperforming at their adequate adequate-service levels), emphasizing the prevention of service ,problems, and effectively resolving problems that do occur. In essence, behaviouralintentions become dependent variables with potentially higher validity (because they aremore closely related to actual behaviours) and richer diagnostic value than the "overallservice quality" or "customer satisfaction" variables currently being used in mostmeasurement programs. (Valarie A. ZeithamI et al., 1996).H5-H7 Service quality, value and satisfaction have a direct positive influence onbehavioral intentions. MethodologyFigure 1: Framework Reference: Vlachos and Vrechopoulos, “Determinants of behavioural intentions in the mobile internet services market” Journal of Services Marketing 22/4 (2008) 280 291qThe Research Procedure According to Jill and Hussey (2003) the procedures,resources and methods in which data is collected to complete the research is known asresearch methodology and it includes the techniques of data collection for investigation includesof research problems.The initial stage was is to conduct a pilot study of the questionnaire to check the validitybut in the case of this questionnaire it was previously tested by research experts, andbased on the same questions the survey was repeated in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia andthe 96 target respondents were identified by asking a question whether they had priormobile internet experience and then they were given the questionnaire. Also to measure tthe reliability of the research a statistical value for the Cronbach Alpha of 0.70 was Cronbach’sconsidered which was recommended as by Nunnally (1978) for any basic research.In conjunction of supporting green campaign in my research paper, I have decided to use paperLESS, instate of using four papers.Copyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 121
  7. 7. Data Analysis and ResultsAfter collecting the data which is the surveys that were filled by respondents -mostly inMaxis Centre (KLSS) and DiGi Centre (Berjaya Times Square)- among the people whohave a good level of experiences in Mobile Internet in the area of Selangor and KualaLumpur, The data analysis of the gathered information would be done using the software SPSSversion 14. Hierarchical regression is used to evaluate the relationship between a set ofindependent variables and the dependent variable, controlling for or taking into accountthe impact of a different set of independent variables on the dependent variable.Table 1: Measures Construct References Connection quality Chae et al. (2002) Interaction quality Chae et al. (2002) Content quality Chae et al. (2002), qualitative study Device quality Vlachos and Vrechopoulos 2004 Customer service Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003) Privacy Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003), Milne and Rohm (2000) Contextual quality Vlachos and Vrechopoulos 2004, Chae et al. (2002) Service Quality Dabholkar et al. (2000), Montoya-Weiss et al. (2003), Value Cronin et al. (2000), Satisfaction Dabholkar et al. (2000), Montoya-Weiss et al. (2003), Behavioral Intention Zeithaml et al. (1996)Table 2: Demographic description of the sample Frequency FrequencyGender Male 44.8 % n= 43 Education Qualification Female 55.2% n= 53Age High School and below 29.2 % n= 28 (< 20 ) 46.9% n=45 Diploma 39.6 % n= 38 (20 – 30) 33.3% n=32 University Degree 25 % n= 24 (31 - 40) 13.5% n=13 Master degree 4.2 % n= 4 (41 – 50) 6.3% n=6 PHD or other 2.1 % n= 2Copyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 122
  8. 8. Reliability Test: All the variables were measured and analyzed based on the number ofitems for each variable. The reliability test showed the high Cronbach’s Alpha for all thevariables as a result of the high reliability and consistency as shown in table 3.Table 3: Variables Reliability Test Variable Number of items Cronbach’s Alpha Interaction Quality 3 0.816 Content Quality 4 0.707 Device Quality 3 0.922 Privacy 3 0.713 Connection Quality 3 0.867 Contextual Quality 3 0.851 Customer Service 2 0.828 Service Quality 2 0.714 Value 4 0.942 Satisfaction 3 0.870Correlation and RegressionThe Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation between Service Quality andInteraction Quality is 0.318 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.092). The Pearson correlationcoefficient for the relation between Service Quality and Content Quality is 0.184 at 0.00significant level (r = 0.023). The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation betweenService Quality and Device Quality is 0.286 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.072). ThePearson correlation coefficient for the relation between Service Quality and Privacy is0.113 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.013). The Pearson correlation coefficient for therelation between Service Quality and Connection Quality is 0.333 at 0.00 significantlevel (r = 0.101). The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation between ServiceQuality and Contextual Quality is 0.260 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.057). The Pearsoncorrelation coefficient for the relation between Service Quality and Customer Services is0.682 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.460). The Pearson correlation coefficient for therelation between Service Quality and all the seven variables is significant level (r =0.554). Thus, the result confirmed the following hypotheses:H1a-H1g Connection quality, content quality, interaction quality, contextual quality,customer service, privacy and device quality positivity influence consumers’ perceptionsof service quality.The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation between Service Quality and Value is0.167 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.028). Thus, the result confirmed the followinghypothesis:H2 Service quality positively influences value.The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation between Satisfaction and ServiceQuality is 0.066 at 0.00 significant level (r = -0.006). The Pearson correlation coefficientfor the relation between Satisfaction and Value is 0.637 at 0.00 significant level (r = -0.646). The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation between Satisfaction and theCopyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 123
  9. 9. two variables (Service Quality and Value) is significant level (r = 0.394) Thus, the resultconfirmed the following hypotheses: H3-H4 Service quality and value positively influence satisfaction.The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation between Behavioural Intention andService Quality is 0. 226 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.41). The Pearson correlationcoefficient for the relation between Behavioural Intention and Value is 0.667 at 0.00significant level (r = 0.439). The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation betweenBehavioural Intention and Satisfaction is 0. 806 at 0.00 significant level (r = 0.646). ThePearson correlation coefficient for the relation between Behavioural Intention and all thethree variables together (Service Quality, Value and Satisfaction) is significant level(r = 0.700). Thus, the result confirmed the following hypotheses:H5-H7 Service quality, value and satisfaction have a direct positive influence onbehavioral intentions. ConclusionMany studies proved that customers are the greatest assets that a company can havein long term, with them you have options, opportunities and potential success, andwithout them you are doomed for failure. With the majority of today’s organisationsexperiencing a continuous increase in competition, is customer loyalty the sparkle thatthese organisations require in order to gain the ultimate edge and excel over theirrespective competitors. Without doubt customer loyalty is priceless, but without servicequality, value and customer satisfaction customer loyalty will never exist.The Mobile internet is very profitable and growing very fast. According to the text-bookpeople from all over the world started to use mobile internet in a reasonable price. Therevenues for communication companies are increased from month to month. Givingcustomers more than they want and providing them unique devices with advancedfeatures can change their behaviour intention 180 degree which will affect the mobileinternet market positively.Mobile internet services context is quite different from traditional, people-orientedservice industries and fixed web-based, so mobile internet is superior as it holds in ahandheld. In this study I provide empirical evidence that consumer intention is positivelyand directly influenced by service quality, satisfaction and value. Therefore, consumersuse perception criteria when evaluating a mobile entertainment service. we believe thatthe mobile as a medium is completely differs from any other medium in itspersonalisation and flexibility features. More over those mobile 3G and nG revolutionscreate a pleasant atmosphere of competition on the mass communication market ingeneral and on the mobile commerce market in particular. This will increase theopportunities on the mobile internet services market economicallyRecommendations for the study: The research study was mainly about thebehavioural intention in mobile internet market focusing on customers who had a mobileinternet contract in Malaysia. The authors recommend that this research could befurther elaborated by evaluating the mobile internet in different communicationCopyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 124
  10. 10. companies for example Maxis and DiGi. The research study was based on Malaysianconsumers but the same study can be applied in two different countries so that themore realistic views can be obtained and studied. The researcher can also make use ofsome other variables like the technological factors about mobile by focusing in towdevices such as iPhone and Blackberry, and other technical aspects to add moresignificance to the research. Also the research can be made more beneficial byensuring apart from behavioural intention, even the fear of behaviour intention can betested and the reasons behind it.Limitations of the study: The research study was limited to just the customer who hada mobile internet contract in Malaysia. Since the time was a constraint only 96respondents could be tested for carrying out the research. The study focused only onthe Mobile Internet in Malaysia. Picking out the people using mobile internet withexperience in Malaysia was a difficult task. ReferencesBarnes S.J.; Vidgen R.T. (2002) “An Integrative Approach To The Assessment Of E-Commerce Quality”, Journal Of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol 3, No 3.Boris Snoj; Aleksandra Pisnik Korda; Damijan Mumel “The relationships amongperceived quality, perceived risk and perceived product value” Journal of Product. 2004Boulding, William, Ajay Kalra, Richard Staelin, and Valarie A. Zeitham! (1993), "ADynamic Process Model of Service Quality: From Expectations to BehavioralIntentions," Journal of Marketing Research, 30 (February). 7-27.Chae M. and Kim J. (2001) Information quality for mobile internet services: A theoreticalmodel with empirical validation, Proc. of the International Conference on InformationSystems, New Orleans, LA, USA.Chae, M. and Kim, J. (2003), “What’s so different about the wireless internet”,Communications of the ACM, Vol. 46 No. 12, pp. 240-7.Chae, M., Kim, J., Kim, H. and Ryu, H. (2002), “Information quality for wireless internetservices”, Electronic Markets, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 38-46.Chae, M., Kim, J., Kim, H., and Ryu, H. Information quality for mobile Internet services:A theoretical model with empirical validation. Electronic Markets 12, 1 (2002), 38–46.Choi, K., Cho, W., Lee, S., Lee, H. and Kim, C. (2004), “The relationships amongquality, value, satisfaction and behavioural intention in health care provider choice: aSouth Korean study”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 57 No. 8, pp. 913-21.Cui and Roto “How People Use the Web on Mobile Devices”, WWW 2008 / AlternateTrack: Industrial Practice and Experience, April 21-25, 2008 · Beijing, China.Dawkins, P and F. Reichheld (1990), "Customer Retention as a Competitive Weapon."Directors and Boards. 14 (Summer), 42^7.Helsinki University of Technology - Espoo, Finland.Copyright © 2011 by Postgraduate Studies - Limkokwing University of Creative Technology - All rights reserved 125
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