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  • 1. Plant Parts and their Functions 13.00 Describe principles of plant science as related to horticulture 14.00 Compare the anatomical parts and distinguishing characteristics of horticultural plants
  • 2. Plant Sciences
    • Biology-the branch of science that deals with both plant and animal organisms and life processes
      • Zoology-the part of biology that deals with animals
      • Botany the part of biology that deals with plants
  • 3. Plant Sciences
    • Applied plant sciences are based on the purposes for which the plants are grown
      • Agronomy
      • Forestry
      • Horticulture
  • 4. Agronomy
    • The science and practice of growing field crops such as cotton, wheat, tobacco, corn and soybeans.
  • 5. Forestry
    • The science and practice of growing, managing and harvesting trees for building materials and other products.
  • 6. Horticulture
    • The science and practice of growing, processing and marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants
  • 7. Life Cycles of Plants
    • Annual-a plant that completes its life cycle in one year
    • Biennial-a plant that completes its life cycle in two years
    • Perennial-a plant that lives more than two years
  • 8. Leaf Retention
    • Deciduous-loses leaves during the dormant season
    • Evergreen-keeps leaves and remains green year-round
  • 9. Plant Hormones
    • Several types of hormones are used to help plants work more efficiently.
      • Inhibitors
      • cytokinins
      • gibberellias
      • auxins
  • 10. Inhibitors
    • Inhibitors hasten fruit ripening, retain seed germination and stem elongation.
  • 11. Cytokinins
    • Hormones that work with auxins to stimulate cell division.
  • 12. Gibberellias
    • Hormones that stimulate cell elongation, premature flowering, and breaking of dormancy.
  • 13. Auxins
    • Hormones that speed plant growth by stimulating cell enlargement
  • 14. Moisture in Plants
    • Turgid-plant is swollen or filled with moisture
    • Wilted-plant is limp because it does not have enough moisture
  • 15. Plant Parts
    • Leaves
    • Stems
    • Roots
    • Flowers
  • 16. Leaves-External
    • Petiole-leaf stalk or part that connects the leaf to the stem
    • Blade-the large, flat part of the leaf
    • Midrib-the large center vein
    • Veins-the structural framework of the leaf
    • Margin-the edge of the leaf
  • 17. Leaves-External
  • 18. Leaves-Internal
    • Upper and lower epidermis-skin of the leaf that prevents the loss of too much moisture
    • Stomates-small openings under the leaf for breathing or transpiration
    • Guard Cells-open and close stomates
  • 19. Leaves-Internal
    • Chloroplasts-small green particles that contain chlorophyll
      • gives leaves their green color
      • necessary for photosynthesis
  • 20. Leaves-Internal
  • 21. Leaves-Internal
  • 22. Stems-External
    • Lenticels-breathing pores
    • Bud scale scars-show where terminal buds have been located
    • Leaf Scars-show where leaves were attached
    • Terminal bud-bud on the end of a stem
    • Axillary or lateral bud-bud on side of stem
  • 23. Stems-Internal
    • Xylem-tissue that transports water and nutrients up from the roots to stems and leaves
    • Phloem-tissue that transports food down from leaves to roots
  • 24. Stems-Internal Phloem Phloem Xylem
  • 25. Stems-Internal
    • Cambium-thin, green, actively growing tissue located between bark and wood and produces all new stem cells
    • Bark-old inactive phloem
    • Heartwood-old inactive xylem
    • Sapwood-new active xylem
  • 26. Stems-Internal Cambium Heartwood Sapwood Bark
  • 27. Stems-Internal
    • Monocota-plant stems have vascular bundles that contain both xylem and phloem in each bundle
      • examples: corn, grasses
    • Dicata-plant stems have the phloem layer and xylem layer separated by cambium
      • example: trees
  • 28. Stems-Internal Monocot Dicot
  • 29. Roots-External
    • Root cap-indicates growth of new cells
    • Root hairs-absorb moisture (water) and minerals
    Root images from a rice plant
  • 30. Roots-Internal
    • Much like stems in that they have a phloem, cambium, and xylem layer
    • Phloem-the outer layer that carries food down the root
    • Xylem-the inner layer that carries water and minerals up to the stem
  • 31. Layers of Roots
    • Fibrous-many branched shallow roots
      • are easier to transplant
    • Tap-long root with few branched ones
      • more difficult to transplant
  • 32. Flowers
    • Sepals-Green parts that cover and protect flower bud before it opens
    • Petals-are really leaves that are modified to attract insects for flower pollination, the pretty part that we call flowers
    • Stamen-male part of the flower
    • Pistil-female part of the flower
  • 33. Flowers
  • 34. Parts of the Stamen
    • Filament-short stalk that holds up the anther
    • Anther-a sac-like structure that contains pollen, the male sex cells
  • 35. Parts of the Pistil
    • Ovules-the eggs or female sex cells that become seeds if fertilized
    • Ovary-if fertilized becomes a fruit or seed coat
    • Style-holds up the stigma and connects it to the ovary
    • Stigma-sticky part on top of style where insects leave pollen
  • 36. Parts of the Pistil Stigma Style Ovary
  • 37. Complete-vs-Incomplete
    • Complete flowers have both male and female parts
    • Incomplete flowers have only male or female parts
  • 38. What are the functions of these plant parts?
  • 39. Functions of Leaves
    • Photosynthesis-manufactures food in green plants which is the beginning of the food chain for all living things
    • Photosynthesis is the process by which carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen
  • 40. Functions of Stems
    • Translocation-moves water and minerals from roots up to the leaves and move food from the leaves down to the roots
    • Supports branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds
  • 41. Functions of Roots
    • Absorption-take water and nutrients from the soil and conduct them to the stem
    • Anchor the plant and hold it upright
    • Store food for plant use
    • Asexual reproduction in some plants
  • 42. Functions of Flowers
    • Produce seeds used for sexual reproduction
    • Attract insects for pollination (Pollination is the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma.)
    • Produce fruit to protect, nourish and carry seeds