Eating Causing Problems

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Eating Causing Problems

  1. 1. Eating Disorders
  2. 2. True/False <ul><li>1. Eating disorders affect both males and females. </li></ul>
  3. 3. True/False <ul><li>1. Eating disorders affect both males and females. </li></ul><ul><li>1. True—approximately 5% of females and 1% of males are affected. </li></ul>
  4. 4. True/False <ul><li>2. Ten percent of people diagnosed with anorexia will die from effects of the disease. </li></ul>
  5. 5. True/False <ul><li>2. Ten percent of people diagnosed with anorexia will die from effects of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>False—20% of people diagnosed with anorexia will die from the effects of the disease. </li></ul>
  6. 6. True/False <ul><li>3. Individuals who have anorexia nervosa always eat less than they should and so starve themselves in order to lose weight. </li></ul>
  7. 7. True/False <ul><li>3. Individuals who have anorexia nervosa always eat less than they should and so starve themselves in order to lose weight. </li></ul><ul><li>False--Some anorexics may eat a normal amount of food but may exercise so much that they burn off a majority of the calories they consume. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is an eating disorder? <ul><li>Eating disorders are extreme expressions of a range of weight and food issues experienced by both men and women. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is anorexia? <ul><li>An eating disorder in which people starve themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have extreme weight loss (<85% of ideal body weight) </li></ul><ul><li>People are very skinny but convinced they are overweight and have an intense fear of becoming fat </li></ul><ul><li>Common weight loss techniques: excessive exercise, intake of laxatives, and not eating </li></ul><ul><li>Common among athletes </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is bulimia? <ul><li>Episodes of binge-eating followed by inappropriate methods of weight control (purging), often in secret </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of lack of control over quantity eaten </li></ul><ul><li>Acting to get rid of large amount of calories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purging includes vomiting, fasting, enemas (causing increased defecation), excessive use of laxatives (causing increased defecation) and diuretics (causing increased urination), or compulsive exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes bulimics eat up to 4,000 calories at a time, compared to the normal 2,000-2,500 calories a day </li></ul><ul><li>Most bulimics are of normal weight or overweight </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is binge eating disorder? <ul><li>Similar to bulimia except the person does not engage in purging </li></ul>
  12. 12. What are some reasons why people may develop an eating disorder? <ul><li>Any thoughts…? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Many factors involved: <ul><li>Influences from society and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure due to sports, dance, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Family environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with disorders often come from families preoccupied with image, dieting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 25% of those with anorexia have a relative with an eating disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Severe trauma or stress </li></ul><ul><li>Biological factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inheriting tendency to be more likely to overreact to stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serotonin in brain altered by disease and may contribute to persistence of disorder </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Athletes and Eating Disorders <ul><li>Athletes tend to be highly competitive, high-achieving, and self-disciplined, which can lead to the development of an eating disorder when these qualities are taken to the extreme </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes in sports emphasizing appearance and a lean body are at higher risk than those in sports requiring muscle mass and bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Female athletes at a higher risk due to social pressures and naturally higher percentages of body fat than men </li></ul><ul><li>Transition from wanting to lose weight and get fit to a loss of control: binging, purging, starvation, frantic compulsive exercise </li></ul>
  15. 15. Athletes and Eating Disorders <ul><li>Risks of injury are greater among athletes who have an eating disorder—for example, stress fractures </li></ul><ul><li>“ Female athlete triad” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disordered eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amenorrhea—stopping of menstrual periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteopenia—mild bone loss that can lead to osteoporosis </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Wrestlers <ul><li>Cycles of binging and purging to achieve target weight dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Three wrestlers died in the latter part of 1997 from rapid weight loss, which is mostly water weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two wore rubber suits while working out in hot rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Severe dehydration can cause death from kidney failure, heart malfunction and brain damage </li></ul>
  17. 17. How does Anorexia affect the body? <ul><li>Starvation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nails and hair become brittle, and skin may become dry and yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body breaks down muscles to provide energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals may have constipation or edema, which is bloating due to water retention in tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe dehydration can lead to kidney failure </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How does Anorexia affect the body? <ul><li>Brain and nervous tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin deficiencies cause cognitive problems like poor judgment or memory loss and other psychiatric conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to nerves, causing loss of feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in chemical signals which impact appetite, mood and reward systems </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How does Anorexia affect the body? <ul><li>Hormonal changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain senses the decrease in weight and sends signals to ovaries to decrease amount of estrogen made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of regular menstrual cycles due to less estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in estrogen causes decrease in bone density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both males and females with anorexia have loss of bone density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth hormone levels altered, decreasing bone mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body under stress and so cortisol levels are high, causing bone loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May develop lanugo (a term used to describe the fine hair on a new born) on the body due to hormonal changes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. How does Anorexia affect the body? <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alterations in body’s concentrations of electrolytes like sodium and potassium and stress on heart can cause dangerous fast irregular heart beat patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrophy of heart muscle </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. How does Bulimia affect the body? <ul><li>Callused or bruised fingers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From using the fingers to vomit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salivary gland enlargement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may have puffy face </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dental problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>erosion enamel, gum recession, teeth loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Damage to the esophagus from acid due to purging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>internal bleeding which may lead to death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upset of the body's fluid/mineral balance, possibly causing rapid or irregular heartbeats or even a heart attack </li></ul>

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