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  • 1. Atoms, Molecules, and Life
  • 2. electron shell Carbon (C) Oxygen (O) Phosphorus (P) Calcium (Ca)
  • 3. Phosphorus (P) Calcium (Ca)
  • 4. (b) Sodium ion (+) Chlorine ion (–) Attraction between opposite charges
  • 5. (c) An ionic compound: NaCl
  • 6. II. Matter
    • A. Elements
      • 92 naturally occurring elements
    • Biologically important elements:
      • Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H)
      • Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N)
      • Phosphorous (P) Sulfur (S)
  • 7. II. Matter
    • B. Atoms
      • 1. Nucleus
        • a. Protons and neutrons
        • b. Atomic number and atomic mass
      • 2. Electrons
        • a. Electron shells, orbitals, energy level
  • 8. electron nucleus Hydrogen (H) Helium (He)
  • 9. II. Matter
    • C. Molecules and compounds
    • Atoms usually exist chemically bonded to other atoms to form molecules and compounds
      • 1. Inert atoms
      • 2. Reactive atoms
  • 10. II. Matter
    • D. Types of chemical bonds
      • 1. Bonds between individual atoms
        • a. Ionic
        • b. Covalent
          • 1) Nonpolar
          • 2) Polar
  • 11. (a) Sodium atom (neutral) Chlorine atom (neutral) Electron transferred
  • 12. (a) (b) (c) Sodium atom (neutral) Chlorine atom (neutral) Sodium ion (+) Chlorine ion (–) Electron transferred Attraction between opposite charges An ionic compound: NaCl
  • 13. II. Matter
    • D. Types of chemical bonds
      • 1. Bonds between individual atoms
        • a. Ionic
        • b. Covalent
          • 1) Nonpolar
          • 2) Polar
  • 14. (a) nonpolar covalent bonding (b) polar covalent bonding (slightly negative) (slightly positive) Water (H–O–H or H 2 O), a polar molecule Hydrogen (H–H or H 2 ), a nonpolar molecule Oxygen (O=O or O 2 ), a nonpolar molecule
  • 15. (a) nonpolar covalent bonding Hydrogen (H–H or H 2 ), a nonpolar molecule Oxygen (O=O or O 2 ), a nonpolar molecule
  • 16. (b) polar covalent bonding (slightly negative) (slightly positive) Water (H–O–H or H 2 O), a polar molecule
  • 17. II. Matter
    • D. Types of chemical bonds (cont.)
      • 2. Bonds between parts of polar molecules
        • a. Hydrogen bonds
  • 18. hydrogen bonds
  • 19. III. Water and life
    • A. Water and chemical reactions
      • 1. Hydrolysis
      • 2. Dehydration synthesis
      • 3. Photosynthesis
      • 4. Respiration
  • 20. III. Water and life
    • B. Water, the solvent of polar and ionic molecules
    • C. Water and cohesion
    • D. Water and pH
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24. hydroxide ion (OH – ) hydrogen ion (H + ) water (H 2 O)
  • 25. stomach acid, lime juice lemon juice “ acid rain” (2.5-5.5), vinegar, cola, orange juice, tomatoes beer black coffee, tea normal rain (5.6), pure water (7.0), saliva, blood, sweat (7.4) seawater (7.8-8.3) baking soda phosphate detergents chlorine bleach, milk of magnesia household ammonia, some detergents (without phosphates) washing soda oven cleaner 1-molar sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 1-molar hydrochloric acid (HCl) urine (5.7)
  • 26. IV. Carbon and life
    • A. Carbon is versatile
      • 1. Each atom can form four covalent bonds
      • 2. Carbon atoms are joined in short, long chains or rings
      • 3. Organic molecules
  • 27. electron shell Carbon (C) Oxygen (O)
  • 28. V. Complex biological molecules are synthesized from simple subunit molecules
    • A. Polymers form from bonding two or more subunit molecules in a dehydration synthesis reaction
  • 29. Dehydration synthesis
  • 30. V. Complex biological molecules are synthesized from simple subunit molecules
    • B. Polymers can be broken down into individual subunit molecules in a hydrolysis reaction
      • 1. Food we eat is hydrolyzed to provide the raw materials to build new polymers
  • 31. Hydrolysis
  • 32. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • A. Carbohydrates
      • Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) combine to form Disaccharides (sucrose) and Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates: starch and cellulose))
  • 33.  
  • 34. glucose fructose sucrose Dehydration synthesis
  • 35. individual cellulose molecules bundle of cellulose molecules hydrogen bonds cross-linking cellulose molecules cellulose fiber
  • 36. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • A. Carbohydrates (cont.)
      • 3. Functions
        • a. Energy storage (starch, glycogen, simple sugars)
        • b. Structural support (cellulose, chitin)
  • 37. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • B. Lipids
      • 1. Fatty acids combine in dehydration synthesis with glycerol to form triglycerides
      • 2. Are nonpolar
  • 38. fatty acids glycerol 3 water molecules
  • 39. Beef fat (saturated) carbon hydrogen oxygen
  • 40. Peanut oil (unsaturated)
  • 41. Cardiovascular diseases Evidence is accumulating that increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake can decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 1) preventing arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death, 2) decreasing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation) that can lead to heart attack or stroke, 3) decreasing serum triglyceride levels, 4) slowing the growth of atherosclerotic plaque, 5) improving vascular endothelial function, 6) lowering blood pressure slightly, 7) decreasing inflammation. The American Heart Association found the evidence discussed below convincing enough to recommend that all adults eat a variety of fish, particularly oily fish, at least twice weekly, in addition to consuming vegetable oils rich in ALA
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44. fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) polar head (hydrophilic) glycerol backbone
  • 45. estradiol cholesterol testosterone
  • 46. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • B. Lipids (cont.)
      • 3. Functions
        • a. Energy storage (fats, oils)
        • b. Protection (oils, waxes)
          • 1) Waterproof coating of body surfaces
        • c. Component of cell membranes
        • d. Hormones
  • 47. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • C. Proteins
      • 1. Amino acids combine in dehydration synthesis to form polypeptides
      • 2. Proteins are functional units made of one or more polypeptide chains
  • 48. amino group carboxyl group variable group hydrogen
  • 49. amino group amino acid amino acid amino group carboxyl group carboxyl group peptide bond peptide water
  • 50. Peptide chain of amino acids folds into complex shape two or more folded chains may join to form a complex protein
  • 51.  
  • 52. Peptide chain of amino acids folds into complex shape
  • 53. Two or more folded chains may join to form a complex protein.
  • 54. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • C. Proteins (cont.)
      • 3. Protein structure is based on the amino acid sequence
      • 4. Have varying degrees of polarity based on amino acid composition
  • 55. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • C. Proteins (cont.)
      • 5. Functions
      • a. Structural components (cells, tissues)
      • b. Enzymes
      • c. Transport O 2 in blood (hemoglobin)
      • d. Receptors for hormones (insulin receptor)
      • e. Contractile proteins (actin and myosin in muscle)
      • f. Immunoproteins (antibodies)
  • 56. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds
    • D. Nucleic acids
      • 1. Nucleotides combine in dehydration synthesis to form nucleic acids
      • 2. Functions
        • a. Hereditary material (genes)
        • b. Direct the production of proteins
  • 57. phosphate base Deoxyribose nucleotide sugar
  • 58. phosphate base Nucleotide chain sugar