Atoms, Molecules, and Life
electron shell Carbon (C) Oxygen (O) Phosphorus (P) Calcium (Ca)
Phosphorus (P) Calcium (Ca)
(b) Sodium ion (+) Chlorine ion (–) Attraction between opposite charges
(c) An ionic compound: NaCl
II.  Matter  <ul><li>A.  Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>92 naturally occurring elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biologicall...
II.  Matter <ul><li>B.  Atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Nucleus  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a.  Protons and neutrons  ...
electron nucleus Hydrogen (H) Helium (He)
II.  Matter <ul><li>C.  Molecules and compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms usually exist chemically bonded to other atoms to ...
II.  Matter <ul><li>D.  Types of chemical bonds  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Bonds between individual atoms  </li></ul></ul>...
(a) Sodium atom (neutral) Chlorine atom (neutral) Electron transferred
(a) (b) (c) Sodium atom (neutral) Chlorine atom (neutral) Sodium ion (+) Chlorine ion (–) Electron transferred Attraction ...
II.  Matter <ul><li>D.  Types of chemical bonds  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Bonds between individual atoms  </li></ul></ul>...
(a) nonpolar covalent bonding (b) polar covalent bonding (slightly negative) (slightly positive) Water (H–O–H or H 2 O), a...
(a) nonpolar covalent bonding Hydrogen (H–H or H 2 ), a nonpolar molecule Oxygen (O=O or O 2 ), a nonpolar molecule
(b) polar covalent bonding (slightly negative) (slightly positive) Water (H–O–H or H 2 O), a polar molecule
II.  Matter <ul><li>D.  Types of chemical bonds (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.  Bonds between parts of polar molecules  ...
hydrogen bonds
III.  Water and life  <ul><li>A.  Water and chemical reactions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Hydrolysis  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
III.  Water and life <ul><li>B.  Water, the solvent of polar and ionic molecules  </li></ul><ul><li>C.  Water and cohesion...
 
 
 
hydroxide ion (OH  –  ) hydrogen ion (H + ) water (H 2 O)
stomach acid, lime juice lemon juice “ acid rain” (2.5-5.5), vinegar, cola, orange juice, tomatoes beer black coffee, tea ...
IV.  Carbon and life  <ul><li>A.  Carbon is versatile  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Each atom can form four covalent bonds  <...
electron shell Carbon (C) Oxygen (O)
V.  Complex biological molecules are synthesized from simple subunit molecules <ul><li>A.  Polymers form from bonding two ...
Dehydration synthesis
V.  Complex biological molecules are synthesized from simple subunit molecules <ul><li>B.  Polymers can be broken down int...
Hydrolysis
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds  <ul><li>A.  Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosacchar...
 
glucose fructose sucrose Dehydration synthesis
individual cellulose molecules bundle of cellulose molecules hydrogen bonds cross-linking cellulose molecules cellulose fi...
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>A.  Carbohydrates (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.  ...
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>B.  Lipids  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Fatty acids co...
fatty acids glycerol 3 water molecules
Beef fat (saturated) carbon hydrogen oxygen
Peanut oil (unsaturated)
Cardiovascular diseases Evidence is accumulating that increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake can decrease the risk of cardio...
 
 
fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) polar head (hydrophilic) glycerol backbone
estradiol cholesterol testosterone
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>B. Lipids (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.  Function...
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>C.  Proteins  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Amino acids ...
amino group carboxyl group variable group hydrogen
amino group amino acid amino acid amino group carboxyl group carboxyl group peptide bond peptide water
Peptide chain of amino acids folds into complex shape two or more folded  chains may join to  form a complex protein
 
Peptide chain of amino acids folds into complex shape
Two or more folded  chains may join to  form a complex protein.
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>C.  Proteins (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.  Prote...
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>C.  Proteins (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.  Funct...
VI.  Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>D.  Nucleic acids  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Nucleot...
phosphate base Deoxyribose nucleotide sugar
phosphate base Nucleotide chain sugar
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  • Atomsmollife

    1. 1. Atoms, Molecules, and Life
    2. 2. electron shell Carbon (C) Oxygen (O) Phosphorus (P) Calcium (Ca)
    3. 3. Phosphorus (P) Calcium (Ca)
    4. 4. (b) Sodium ion (+) Chlorine ion (–) Attraction between opposite charges
    5. 5. (c) An ionic compound: NaCl
    6. 6. II. Matter <ul><li>A. Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>92 naturally occurring elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biologically important elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous (P) Sulfur (S) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. II. Matter <ul><li>B. Atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Atomic number and atomic mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Electron shells, orbitals, energy level </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. electron nucleus Hydrogen (H) Helium (He)
    9. 9. II. Matter <ul><li>C. Molecules and compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms usually exist chemically bonded to other atoms to form molecules and compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Inert atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Reactive atoms </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. II. Matter <ul><li>D. Types of chemical bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Bonds between individual atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Ionic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Covalent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Nonpolar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Polar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. (a) Sodium atom (neutral) Chlorine atom (neutral) Electron transferred
    12. 12. (a) (b) (c) Sodium atom (neutral) Chlorine atom (neutral) Sodium ion (+) Chlorine ion (–) Electron transferred Attraction between opposite charges An ionic compound: NaCl
    13. 13. II. Matter <ul><li>D. Types of chemical bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Bonds between individual atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Ionic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Covalent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Nonpolar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Polar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. (a) nonpolar covalent bonding (b) polar covalent bonding (slightly negative) (slightly positive) Water (H–O–H or H 2 O), a polar molecule Hydrogen (H–H or H 2 ), a nonpolar molecule Oxygen (O=O or O 2 ), a nonpolar molecule
    15. 15. (a) nonpolar covalent bonding Hydrogen (H–H or H 2 ), a nonpolar molecule Oxygen (O=O or O 2 ), a nonpolar molecule
    16. 16. (b) polar covalent bonding (slightly negative) (slightly positive) Water (H–O–H or H 2 O), a polar molecule
    17. 17. II. Matter <ul><li>D. Types of chemical bonds (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Bonds between parts of polar molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Hydrogen bonds </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. hydrogen bonds
    19. 19. III. Water and life <ul><li>A. Water and chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Hydrolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Respiration </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. III. Water and life <ul><li>B. Water, the solvent of polar and ionic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>C. Water and cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>D. Water and pH </li></ul>
    21. 24. hydroxide ion (OH – ) hydrogen ion (H + ) water (H 2 O)
    22. 25. stomach acid, lime juice lemon juice “ acid rain” (2.5-5.5), vinegar, cola, orange juice, tomatoes beer black coffee, tea normal rain (5.6), pure water (7.0), saliva, blood, sweat (7.4) seawater (7.8-8.3) baking soda phosphate detergents chlorine bleach, milk of magnesia household ammonia, some detergents (without phosphates) washing soda oven cleaner 1-molar sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 1-molar hydrochloric acid (HCl) urine (5.7)
    23. 26. IV. Carbon and life <ul><li>A. Carbon is versatile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Each atom can form four covalent bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Carbon atoms are joined in short, long chains or rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Organic molecules </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. electron shell Carbon (C) Oxygen (O)
    25. 28. V. Complex biological molecules are synthesized from simple subunit molecules <ul><li>A. Polymers form from bonding two or more subunit molecules in a dehydration synthesis reaction </li></ul>
    26. 29. Dehydration synthesis
    27. 30. V. Complex biological molecules are synthesized from simple subunit molecules <ul><li>B. Polymers can be broken down into individual subunit molecules in a hydrolysis reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Food we eat is hydrolyzed to provide the raw materials to build new polymers </li></ul></ul>
    28. 31. Hydrolysis
    29. 32. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>A. Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) combine to form Disaccharides (sucrose) and Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates: starch and cellulose)) </li></ul></ul>
    30. 34. glucose fructose sucrose Dehydration synthesis
    31. 35. individual cellulose molecules bundle of cellulose molecules hydrogen bonds cross-linking cellulose molecules cellulose fiber
    32. 36. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>A. Carbohydrates (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Energy storage (starch, glycogen, simple sugars) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Structural support (cellulose, chitin) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 37. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>B. Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Fatty acids combine in dehydration synthesis with glycerol to form triglycerides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Are nonpolar </li></ul></ul>
    34. 38. fatty acids glycerol 3 water molecules
    35. 39. Beef fat (saturated) carbon hydrogen oxygen
    36. 40. Peanut oil (unsaturated)
    37. 41. Cardiovascular diseases Evidence is accumulating that increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake can decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 1) preventing arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death, 2) decreasing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation) that can lead to heart attack or stroke, 3) decreasing serum triglyceride levels, 4) slowing the growth of atherosclerotic plaque, 5) improving vascular endothelial function, 6) lowering blood pressure slightly, 7) decreasing inflammation. The American Heart Association found the evidence discussed below convincing enough to recommend that all adults eat a variety of fish, particularly oily fish, at least twice weekly, in addition to consuming vegetable oils rich in ALA
    38. 44. fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) polar head (hydrophilic) glycerol backbone
    39. 45. estradiol cholesterol testosterone
    40. 46. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>B. Lipids (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Energy storage (fats, oils) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Protection (oils, waxes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Waterproof coating of body surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Component of cell membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Hormones </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 47. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>C. Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Amino acids combine in dehydration synthesis to form polypeptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Proteins are functional units made of one or more polypeptide chains </li></ul></ul>
    42. 48. amino group carboxyl group variable group hydrogen
    43. 49. amino group amino acid amino acid amino group carboxyl group carboxyl group peptide bond peptide water
    44. 50. Peptide chain of amino acids folds into complex shape two or more folded chains may join to form a complex protein
    45. 52. Peptide chain of amino acids folds into complex shape
    46. 53. Two or more folded chains may join to form a complex protein.
    47. 54. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>C. Proteins (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Protein structure is based on the amino acid sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Have varying degrees of polarity based on amino acid composition </li></ul></ul>
    48. 55. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>C. Proteins (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Structural components (cells, tissues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Transport O 2 in blood (hemoglobin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Receptors for hormones (insulin receptor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. Contractile proteins (actin and myosin in muscle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f. Immunoproteins (antibodies) </li></ul></ul>
    49. 56. VI. Four classes of biologically important organic compounds <ul><li>D. Nucleic acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Nucleotides combine in dehydration synthesis to form nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Hereditary material (genes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Direct the production of proteins </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 57. phosphate base Deoxyribose nucleotide sugar
    51. 58. phosphate base Nucleotide chain sugar
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