People As the Conveyor of Knowledge

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Keynote at AgileRoots 2014.
"People As the Conveyor of Knowledge"
Agile can learn more from Ikujiro Nonaka's Knowlege Creation Theory.

1. Scrum
2. SECI-model
3. Fractal Organization
4. Phronetic Leadership

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  • Thank you for allowing me to be part of the conference Agile Roots 2014!
    The first Agile Conference I attended was Agile Development Conference 2014 in SLC, 10 years back.
    Met Kay Johansen. Thank you Kay for suggesting me to come to SLC again.
  • How many of you know this Anime ? (How do you call him ? Pica Chu..) yes.
    Because I’m from Japan, I really wanted to bring something very unique from this AgileRoots.
  • Yul Brynner, Steve McQueen,
    Seven Samurai
    1954, Directed by Akira Kurosawa
    Starring Toshiro Mifune
  • Then did you know there is a Japanese movie which inspired Jorge Lucas to shoot Star Wars series ?
  • Star Wars has a lot of homages to Kurosawa's
    Hidden Fortress = 隠し砦の三悪人
    Princess Leia
    Mifune is also starred in Seven Samurai and it is a remake of "The Magnificent Seven".
    凹凸コンビ
    bumbling pesants
    This is MIFUNE, again, and this is … I forgot this famous actor’s anme …
    Harrison Ford George Lucas
  • Scrum to us…
  • Nonaka speaks like Yoda, very slowly wisely…
    “Powerful is Scrum.”
    “Important is the context”
    “Natural is scrum in software development human behavior…”
    Suddenly to me, Jeff began to look like “Obi wan” or “Darse Vader”
  • First, there are two types of knowledge; tacit and explicit
    = read the slide
    Knowledge is created through the dynamic interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge.
    ⇒ next slide
  • Craft, know-how, how to ride a bicycle
  • Logics
    Theoretical approach
    Manuals
    Database
  • This is the details of the SECI model.
    *****Socialization
    Sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience
    1. Perceiving reality
    as it is
    2. Sensing and
    Empathizing with
    others and the
    environment
    3. Transferring of
    tacit knowledge
    **** Externalization
    Articulating tacit knowledge through dialogue and reflection
    4. Articulating tacit
    knowledge using symbolic language
    5. Translating tacit
    knowledge into a
    concept or prototype
    **** Combination
    Systemizing and applying explicit knowledge and information
    6. Gathering and
    integrating explicit
    knowledge
    7. Breaking down the
    concept and finding
    relationships among
    the concepts
    8. Editing and
    systemizing explicit
    knowledge
    **** Internalization
    Learning and acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice
    9. Embodying explicit
    knowledge through action and reflection
    10. Using simulation and experiments
    SECI model can be explained with core concepts of the philosophers.
    Socialization is close to the concept of “pure experience” by Kitaro Nishida, a Japanese philosopher. It is the state prior to the division of subject and object. It is the phenomenology.
    Externalization is represented by the “dialogue” by Plato. It is a process of clarifying the essence of things in search for new knowledge, or the “ideal.”
    Combination is about “rationalism”, the most famous philosopher is Rene Descartes, a Frenchman. Break down into pieces and analyze. Doubt everything.
    Internalization is “pragmatism,” particularly by Dewey’s notion of “secondary action,” experience which includes reflection in action.
    ⇒ next slide
  • This is the details of the SECI model.
    = read the slide
    SECI model can be explained with core concepts of the philosophers.
    Socialization is close to the concept of “pure experience” by Kitaro Nishida, a Japanese philosopher. It is the state prior to the division of subject and object. It is the phenomenology.
    Externalization is represented by the “dialogue” by Plato. It is a process of clarifying the essence of things in search for new knowledge, or the “ideal.”
    Combination is about “rationalism”, the most famous philosopher is Rene Descartes, a Frenchman. Break down into pieces and analyze. Doubt everything.
    Internalization is “pragmatism,” particularly by Dewey’s notion of “secondary action,” experience which includes reflection in action.
    ⇒ next slide
  • Bread Maker = Matsushita Electric’s“Home Bakery”(Bread Making Machine)
  • In other word, she is “socialized” into the craft.
  • This is the details of the SECI model.
    *****Socialization
    Sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience
    1. Perceiving reality
    as it is
    2. Sensing and
    Empathizing with
    others and the
    environment
    3. Transferring of
    tacit knowledge
    **** Externalization
    Articulating tacit knowledge through dialogue and reflection
    4. Articulating tacit
    knowledge using symbolic language
    5. Translating tacit
    knowledge into a
    concept or prototype
    **** Combination
    Systemizing and applying explicit knowledge and information
    6. Gathering and
    integrating explicit
    knowledge
    7. Breaking down the
    concept and finding
    relationships among
    the concepts
    8. Editing and
    systemizing explicit
    knowledge
    **** Internalization
    Learning and acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice
    9. Embodying explicit
    knowledge through action and reflection
    10. Using simulation and experiments
    SECI model can be explained with core concepts of the philosophers.
    Socialization is close to the concept of “pure experience” by Kitaro Nishida, a Japanese philosopher. It is the state prior to the division of subject and object. It is the phenomenology.
    Externalization is represented by the “dialogue” by Plato. It is a process of clarifying the essence of things in search for new knowledge, or the “ideal.”
    Combination is about “rationalism”, the most famous philosopher is Rene Descartes, a Frenchman. Break down into pieces and analyze. Doubt everything.
    Internalization is “pragmatism,” particularly by Dewey’s notion of “secondary action,” experience which includes reflection in action.
    ⇒ next slide
  • Not only commercial success, but also it changed the company.
  • This is one of the two famous picture of Soichiro Honda, the founder of Honda Motor Company, which are displayed at the Automobile Hall of Fame in Detroit, United States.
    As you can see, Soichiro Honda is on his needs, crouching, with his hands on the ground. He is listening with his hands, feeling the vibration of the motor cycle running. At the same time, he is keeping the same eye level with the rider. He is becoming the rider.
    = Read slide
    This is a good picture of “contemplation in action”, indwelling in actuality with deep thinking.
    --Next slide
  • People As the Conveyor of Knowledge

    1. 1. People as the Conveyor of Knowledge Leaning from Prof. Nonaka, Grandfather of Scrum Kenji Hiranabe By Yasunobu Kawaguchi
    2. 2. “Thank you for Coming All the way from Japan“ Award from Alistair
    3. 3. Kenji HIRANABE(1/2) • (co-)Translator of … OO, UML books Mind Map book XP/ Agile books • (co-)Author of … C++ book Scrum book Agile and Scrum: Collaborative Software Development That Connects Customers, Engineers and Management
    4. 4. Kenji HIRANABE(2/2) • CEO of Astah.net. • astah – UML Mind Mapping integrated editor – With ERD, SysML – http://astah. net/ – Runs on • PC, Mac, Linux, iPad
    5. 5. Hello,! I’m from Japan.
    6. 6. Seven Samurai, 1954 Directed by Akira Kurosawa Starring Toshiro Mifune, … The Magnificent Seven, 1960 Directed by John Eliot Sturges Starring Yul Brynner, Steve McQueen,… http://noisepicnic.com/podcasts/double-bill/sevensamuraimagnificentseven
    7. 7. Start Wars, 1977 Directed by George Lucas Starring Harrison Ford http://screenaddict.wordpress.com/2010/02/22/the-hidden-fortress/ The Hidden Fortress, 1958 Directed by Akira Kurosawa Starring Toshiro Mifune, …
    8. 8. Japan’s Influence to Lean and Agile
    9. 9. 10 Do you know where the word “Scrum” came from ?
    10. 10. Toyota Production System Lean Lean Software Development Kanban Lean Startup Agile Scrum XP The New New Product Development Game Four steps to the epiphany Agile and Lean Startup Patterns Manufacturing Industry in Japan 2013 Yasunobu Kawaguchi 1 2
    11. 11. Nonaka’s Scrum
    12. 12. Quote from the first Scrum Book • “Agile Software Development with Scrum” (by Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle) starts with the following quote. The "relay race" approach to product development ... may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or "rugby" approach – where the team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth – may better serve today's competitive requirements. -- “The New New Product Development Game”
    13. 13. Copyright © 2005-2007 Kenji HIRANABE, Some rights 16
    14. 14. http://www.publickey1.jp/blog/11/10_innovation_sprint_2011.html Innovation Sprint 2011 Jeff Sutherland Ikujiro Nonaka me
    15. 15. Nonaka’s Text Agile/Scrum (Software) 1993 Org. Patterns(by Jim Coplien) (at PLoP) 2001 “Agile Software Development with Scrum” (by Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle) “The Knowledge Creating Company”(HBR) 1991 SECI-model アメリカ海兵隊 (U.S. Marine) 1995 Fractal Organization 1994/1 First Sprint of Scrum by Jeff Sutherland Scrum Master 1994/2 Second Sprint of Scrum (with Cope’s Ideas) Daily Scrum “The New New Product Development Game” 1986 “Scrum” 2012 “Software in 30 days” “Wise Leadership”(HBR)   2010 Phronetic Leadership “Managing Flow”   2008 2001 “The Agile Manifesto” 2013 “ アジャイル開発とスクラム - ”顧客・技術・経営をつなぐ協調的ソフトウェエア開発 Collaborative Software Development That Connects Customers, Engineers, and Management 2011 Innovation Sprint
    16. 16. Prof. Ikujiro Nonaka 1 The New New Product Development Game(HBR) Scrum Stop therelay race, take up rugby 2 The Knowledge Creating Company SECI-model Spiral transformation of Explicit knowledge and Tacit knowledge 3 Managing Flow, The Wise Leadership(HBR) Phronesis The third knowledge type after Science (explicit knowledge) And art (tact knowledge) U.S. Marine Fractal Organization Self-similar structure at all levels 4
    17. 17. Where does “knowledge” come from ? (SECI-Model)
    18. 18. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 Two Types of Knowledge Spiral up throughSpiral up through dynamic interactiondynamic interaction Analog-Digital SynthesisAnalog-Digital Synthesis Objective and rational knowledge that can be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or formulas (context-free) Theoretical approach Problem solving Manuals Database Objective and rational knowledge that can be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or formulas (context-free) Theoretical approach Problem solving Manuals Database Subjective and experiential knowledge that can not be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or Formulas (Context-specific) Cognitive Skills beliefs images perspectives mental models Technical Skills craft know-how Subjective and experiential knowledge that can not be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or Formulas (Context-specific) Cognitive Skills beliefs images perspectives mental models Technical Skills craft know-how Tacit KnowledgeTacit Knowledge Explicit KnowledgeExplicit Knowledge
    19. 19. http://www.flickr.com/photos/visitabudhabi/6708954439/ Tacit Knowledge Subjective and experiential knowledge that can not be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or Formulas (Context- specific)
    20. 20. Explicit Knowledge Objective and rational knowledge that can be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or formulas (context- free) http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuartpilbrow/4264302708/
    21. 21. “Sticky” Information Product developers need two types of information in order to succeed at their work: need and context-of-use information (generated by users) and generic solution information (often initially generated by manufacturers specializing in a particular type of solution) Bringing these two types of information together is not easy. Both need information and solution information are often very “sticky”—that is, costly to move from the site where the information was generated to other sites…. -- “Democratizing Innovation” (by Eric Von Hippel)
    22. 22. SECI Model Explicit Explicit Tacit Tacit Tacit Explicit Explicit Tacit Socialization Externalization Internalization Combination O G E I Environment Individual I G G G G Org. E I I I I I Group IE O Copyright Nonaka I. 2010
    23. 23. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 Organizational Knowledge Creation SECI Model Sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience I = Individual, G = Group, O = Organization, E = Environment Learning and acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice 1. Perceiving reality as it is 2. Sensing and Empathizing with others and the environment 3. Transferring of tacit knowledge 9. Embodying explicit knowledge through action and reflection 10. Using simulation and experiments Articulating tacit knowledge through dialogue and reflection 4. Articulating tacit knowledge using symbolic language 5. Translating tacit knowledge into a concept or prototype Systemizing and applying explicit knowledge and information 6. Gathering and integrating explicit knowledge 7. Breaking down the concept and finding relationships among the concepts 8. Editing and systemizing explicit knowledge Explicit Explicit Tacit Tacit Tacit Explicit Explicit Tacit Socialization Externalization Internalization Combination O G E I Environment Individual I G G G G Org. E I I I I I Group IE O
    24. 24. A Story Source: http://panasonic.co.jp/ism/bakery/vol01/index.html for this part. Read “Knowledge Creating Company” the book
    25. 25. Results 536,000 units in its first year. Exported to the United States, West Germany, and Hong Kong. Later to Sweden, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand. 1,000,000 units sold by the time competitors released their version. Users' voices to the engineers, fresh air to the Cooking Appliances Division. Inspired other divisions throughout Matsushita.
    26. 26. Relationship with Design Thinking
    27. 27. Design Thinking “Design thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” —Tim Brown, president and CEO
    28. 28. IDEO Method Cards
    29. 29. There’s also an App !
    30. 30. Conveyer of Knowledge
    31. 31. Copyright Nonaka I. 2009 Contemplation in Action: Indwelling in Actuality with Deep Thinking “I can see many things when I see a machine. How can we maneuver through that curve? We should do this, we should do that.... Then I think about the next machine. We can make a faster machine if we think like this, and so on. It’s a natural progress into the next step.” - Soichiro Honda Source: Honda Motor Corporation (Picture at the Automobile Hall of Fame, Detroit) Copyright Nonaka I. 2010
    32. 32. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 Concept Building: Dialoguing on the Spot Soichiro Honda Drawing on the floor Words and actions By articulating into language, we clearly understand what we are thinking Source: Honda Motor Corporation Automobile Hall of Fame (Detroit)
    33. 33. What’s the product owner ? The person(s) who had the first belief, should run through the whole process As the conveyer of knowledge.
    34. 34. Prof. Ikujiro Nonaka 1 The New New Product Development Game(HBR) Scrum Stop the relay race, take up rugby 2 The Knowledge Creating Company SECI-model Spiral transformation of Explicit knowledge and Tacit knowledge 3 Managing Flow, The Wise Leadership(HBR) Phronesis The third knowledge type after Science (explicit knowledge) And art (tact knowledge) U.S. Marine Fractal Organization Self-similar structure at all levels 4
    35. 35. One More Thing …
    36. 36. 51 Do a Retreat!
    37. 37. FEEL… Before you THINK

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