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Creating Knowledge with Users

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(1) Nonaka's Original Scrum and Knowledge Creation …

(1) Nonaka's Original Scrum and Knowledge Creation
(2) Mindmapping for exploring User Wish

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  • 1. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Creating Knowledge With Users Change Vision, Inc. Kenji Hiranabe By Yasunobu Kawaguchi
  • 2. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.
  • 3. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. SAP Waldorf
  • 4. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Agenda • Introduction • Part I: –Nonaka’s Scrum: People As The Conveyor of Knowledge • Part II: –Exploring User Wish Through Mindmapping
  • 5. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Kenji HIRANABE(1/2) • (co-)Translator of OO, UML books Mind Map book XP/ Agile books • (co-)Author of C++ book Scrum book Agile and Scrum: Collaborative Software Development That Connects Customers, Engineers and Management
  • 6. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Kenji HIRANABE(2/2) • CEO of Astah.net. • astah – UML editor – With Mind Map, ERD, SysML – http://astah. net/ – Runs on • PC, Mac, Linux, iPad
  • 7. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Part I Nonaka’s Scrum People as the Conveyor of Knowledge Change Vision, Inc. Kenji Hiranabe By Yasunobu Kawaguchi
  • 8. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Scrum
  • 9. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.
  • 10. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Do you know where the word “Scrum” came from ?
  • 11. http://www.publickey1.jp/blog/11/10_innovation_sprint_2011.html Innovation Sprint 2011 Jeff Sutherland Ikujiro Nonaka me
  • 12. Quote from the first Scrum Book • “Agile Software Development with Scrum” (by Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle) starts with the following quote. The "relay race" approach to product development ... may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or "rugby" approach – where the team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth – may better serve today's competitive requirements. -- “The New New Product Development Game”
  • 13. Copyright © 2005-2007 Kenji HIRANABE, Some rights reserved 14
  • 14. Toyota Production System Lean Lean Software Development Kanban Lean Startup Agile Scrum XP The New New Product Development Game Four steps to the epiphany Agile and Lean Startup Patterns Manufacturing Industry in Japan 2013 Yasunobu Kawaguchi
  • 15. Prof. Ikujiro Nonaka 1 The New New Product Development Game(HBR) Scrum Stop the relay race, take up rugby 2 The Knowledge Creating Company SECI-model Spiral transformation of Tacit knowledge and Explicit knowledge 3 Managing Flow, The Wise Leadership(HBR) Phronesis The third knowledge type after Science (explicit knowledge) And art (tact knowledge) U.S. Marine Fractal Organization Self-similar structure at all levels 4
  • 16. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. SECI model
  • 17. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 Two Types of Knowledge Spiral up throughSpiral up through dynamic interactiondynamic interaction AnalogAnalog--Digital SynthesisDigital Synthesis Objective and rational knowledge that can be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or formulas (context-free) Theoretical approach Problem solving Manuals Database Subjective and experiential knowledge that can not be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or Formulas (Context-specific) Cognitive Skills beliefs images perspectives mental models Technical Skills craft know-how Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge
  • 18. http://www.flickr.com/photos/visitabudhabi/6708954439/ Tacit Knowledge Subjective and experiential knowledge that can not be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or Formulas (Context-specific)
  • 19. • Explicit Knowledge • Objective and rational knowledge that can be expressed in words, sentences, numbers, or formulas (context-free) http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuartpilbrow/4264302708/
  • 20. “Sticky” Information • Product developers need two types of information in order to succeed at their work: need and context-of-use information (generated by users) and generic solution information (often initially generated by manufacturers specializing in a particular type of solution) Bringing these two types of information together is not easy. Both need information and solution information are often very “sticky”—that is, costly to move from the site where the information was generated to other sites . • -- “Democratizing Innovation” (by Eric Von Hippel)
  • 21. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 SECI Model Explicit Explicit Tacit Tacit Tacit Explicit Explicit Tacit SocializationSocialization ExternalizationExternalization InternalizationInternalization CombinationCombination O G E I Environment Individual I G G G G Org. E I I I I I Group IE O Copyright Nonaka I. 2010
  • 22. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 Organizational Knowledge Creation SECI Model Sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience I = Individual, G = Group, O = Organization, E = Environment Learning and acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice 1. Perceiving reality as it is 2. Sensing and Empathizing with others and the environment 3. Transferring of tacit knowledge 9. Embodying explicit knowledge through action and reflection 10. Using simulation and experiments Articulating tacit knowledge through dialogue and reflection 4. Articulating tacit knowledge using symbolic language 5. Translating tacit knowledge into a concept or prototype Systemizing and applying explicit knowledge and information 6. Gathering and integrating explicit knowledge 7. Breaking down the concept and finding relationships among the concepts 8. Editing and systemizing explicit knowledge Explicit Explicit Tacit Tacit Tacit Explicit Explicit Tacit SocializationSocialization ExternalizationExternalization InternalizationInternalization CombinationCombination O G E I Environment Individual I G G G G Org. E I I I I I Group IE O
  • 23. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. A Story of Matsushita Electric’s “Home Bakery” (Bread Making Machine) Source: http://panasonic.co.jp/ism/bakery/vol01/index.html
  • 24. Ms. Ikuko Tanaka Current Title: Senior Engineer at Living Environment Development Center Ever since she joined the company, she has involved in development of cooking software. “I have been studying cooking science, and I feel a calling in this job, that is development of cooking appliance software.” In 1984, 3 divisions “Rice-Cooker Division”, “Heating Appliances Division”, “Rotation Division” were integrated into New “Cooking Appliances Division”. Source: http://panasonic.co.jp/ism/bakery/vol01/index.html Let me do it!
  • 25. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 First Internal Attempt Failed miserably. Crust was overcooked leaving the dough inside raw. Bread is very sensitive. Proper cooking time changes 1 hour if the temperature of the dough differs in 1°C Compared machine-kneaded dough and professional baker-kneaded dough using X rays. → But no meaningful data She proposed an idea Let me work with “him” as an apprentice!
  • 26. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 At Osaka International Hotel Apprentice to the head baker “A software engineer kneads dough and bakes bread, exploring what is the best set of conditions, and the hardware engineer make a prototype that clears the conditions. With that prototype the software engineer make another try, and… this process repeats like playing catch obsessively.” I ate 5,000 piece of bread in those 3 years!
  • 27. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 “I was always watching the master to steal the way he kneaded the dough and tried it myself. He not only slaps but also “twists and stretches” the dough. When I found it, I went straight to the hardware engineer and talked about it.” This “Twisting Stretch” is implemented (or transformed to explicit knowledge) as this Special Rib. “The rotated dough is trapped by this rib and this effect realized the master’s hand movements.”
  • 28. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 Results 536,000 units in its first year. Exported to the United States, West Germany, and Hong Kong. Later to Sweden, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand. 1,000,000 units sold by the time competitors released their version. Users' voices to the engineers, fresh air to the Cooking Appliances Division. Inspired other divisions throughout Matsushita.
  • 29. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Design Thinking Relationship with
  • 30. Design Thinking “Design thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” —Tim Brown, president and CEO
  • 31. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. IDEO Method Cards
  • 32. There’s also an App !
  • 33. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.
  • 34. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.
  • 35. Source: Tobias Hildenbrand http://de.slideshare.net/hildenbrand/keynote-alm-days-2012-combining-design-and-development
  • 36. Socialization • “Sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience • 1. Perceiving reality as it is • 2. Sensing and empathizing with others and the environment • 3. Transferring of tacit knowledge”
  • 37. Source: Tobias Hildenbrand http://de.slideshare.net/hildenbrand/keynote-alm-days-2012-combining-design-and-development
  • 38. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Scrum Back to
  • 39. SECI Model and Agile Practices Explicit Explicit Tacit Tacit Explicit Explicit Tacit SocializationSocialization ExternalizationExternalization InternalizationInternalization CombinationCombination Sprint DemoSprint Demo Visit UsersVisit Users Coding StandardCoding Standard Tacit Sprint PlanningSprint Planning Story WritingStory Writing Everything about Learning Everything about Learning Daily StandupDaily Standup Sit TogetherSit Together Pair ProgrammingPair Programming RetrospectivesRetrospectives
  • 40. SECI As Knowledge Creation Machine E E T T T E E T SS EE II CC T T Created Knowledge Knowledge about How to create it Knowledge about User and Usage Growing Working Software Learning Scrum Team Implemented as 1. Design Thinking 2. Agile Product People
  • 41. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010Copyright Nonaka I. 2009 Contemplation in Action: Indwelling in Actuality with Deep Thinking “I can see many things when I see a machine. How can we maneuver through that curve? We should do this, we should do that.... Then I think about the next machine. We can make a faster machine if we think like this, and so on. It’s a natural progress into the next step.” - Soichiro Honda Source: Honda Motor Corporation (Picture at the Automobile Hall of Fame, Detroit) Copyright Nonaka I. 2010
  • 42. Copyright Nonaka I. 2010Copyright Nonaka I. 2010 Concept Building: Dialoguing on the Spot Soichiro Honda Drawing on the floor Words and actions By articulating into language, we clearly understand what we are thinking Source: Honda Motor Corporation Automobile Hall of Fame (Detroit)
  • 43. What’s the product owner ? The person(s) who had the first belief, should run through the whole process As the conveyer of knowledge.
  • 44. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. FEEL, Before you THINK!
  • 45. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Part II Exploring User Wish Through Mindmapping Change Vision, Inc. Kenji Hiranabe By Yasunobu Kawaguchi
  • 46. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Exploring User Wish through Mind Mapping Kenji HIRANABE Mind map by Michal Splho
  • 47. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Agenda • Introduction • What is a Mind Map and Why • Exploring User Wish using Mind Mapping • Demonstration • Conclusion
  • 48. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Mind Map • Tony Buzan • Graphical note technique –And more than that • Visualize thoughts with a radiant structure
  • 49. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. IDEO Method Cards
  • 50. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Affinity Diagrams
  • 51. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.da Vinci uses Pictures and Words at the same time
  • 52. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. “How it feels to have a stroke” Brain Scientist Jill Bolte Taylor http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyyjU8fzEYU
  • 53. Mind map by Michal Splho
  • 54. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.
  • 55. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Mind Mapping • Examples
  • 56. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.Kent Beck’s XP 2nd
  • 57. Seminar Ideas
  • 58. Project Christmas Planning
  • 59. Meeting Minutes Template
  • 60. Guitar Chord Diagram
  • 61. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. “Mastering the Requirements” Process by Suzanne and James Robertson,1999.
  • 62. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.
  • 63. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Mind Map 1. Keyword Oriented 2. Loose syntax and semantics 3. Fast and Easy 4. High level View 5. Evocative 6. Explore and Gather Ideas
  • 64. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. User Stores: Ron Jeffries’ 3 Cs • Card – Written on note cards. – Cards may be annotated with estimates, notes, etc. • Conversation – Details behind the story come out during conversation with customer • Confirm – Acceptance tests confirm the story was coded correctly
  • 65. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. User Stories: Mike Cohn • Shift focus from writing to talking • Metaphor of Trawling (by Suzanne and James Robertson) – Requirements can be captured with different sized nets – Requirements change, mature, possibly die – Skill is a factor • Avoid “The user”, find “Roles” • In order to <benefit>, as a <role>, I want to <story>,
  • 66. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Why Mind Map and User Stories Fit ? • Shift focus from writing to talking • Trawl requirements with coarse sized net first • Capture Emotion, Use your right brain ! Colors, and Pictures ! – To fully utilize broadband communication and preserve it in your brain, as the same time, keep it into a mind map as a memento of the situation. In the future conversation, you can use it to resume the context back.
  • 67. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. User Wish Mind Map • The first step of getting what you want. • Get the Big Picture. • Who? first. • Semi-structured. • Gather info and mine UseCases/User Stories.
  • 68. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Demonstration • City Library System Interview
  • 69. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Library Interview Mind Map
  • 70. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. UseCase Diagram
  • 71. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. User Stories Mind Map
  • 72. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. User Stories Spreadsheet Also to PowerPoint!
  • 73. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. User WishUser Wish Big Picture Mind MapBig Picture Mind Map User Stories/ Use CasesUser Stories/ Use Cases Why?Why? Who?Who? When?When? Estimate, Plan, Prioritize, Test value role The big picture of this presentation
  • 74. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding.
  • 75. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Stickyminds.com article “Agile Modeling with Mind Map and UML” Search: stickyminds Kenji HIRANABE
  • 76. Seeing is understanding.Seeing is understanding. Seeing is Understanding

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