Ancient Civilizations of World                          Hira (EN-42)                  Asma (EN-43)                        ...
Contents:»   Civilization»   Prehistory of Humans and their    Development»   Civilization of Mesopotamia»   Egyptian Civi...
Civilization:»   Food surpluses, new technology, and    advanced social organization led to a    complex way of life. It i...
The Beginnings of Civilization       3,700,000 to 587 B.C.
Exploration of History            »   Dinosaurs died out about 65                million years ago. The first             ...
Lucy»   Oldest human-like    skeletal remains ever    found»   3-4 Million Years old»   Found in Africa»   Discovery has b...
First Humans               »   Characteristics                   »   Powerful jaw                   »   Receding chins    ...
More First Humans»   Hunter/gatherers    »   Nomadic    »   Traveled in clans of        40-50    »   Men hunted while     ...
Homo Sapiens               »   Characterized by                  an upright gait                  increased brain size  ...
First Homo Sapiens      Neanderthals              Cro-Magnons»   Appeared 35,000-    »   Appeared about    130,000 years a...
Three Stone Ages      Old     Middle      New
Old Stone Age»   Very crude tools    »   Stones used to throw at        animals
Middle Stone Age                    Mesolithic Age          Was a period of African prehistory          » 10,000 to 5,500 ...
New Stone Age       Neolithic Age»   Development of    Agriculture»   Domestication of    animals/plants for    food
Characteristics of the Evolution        of Civilization
Agriculture to SurplusProduction                           20                           18»   People began to grow        ...
Establishment of Towns/Cities»   With surplus    populations could    grow»   Families now could be    larger
Division of Labor                »   In towns/cities people                    could specialize in one                    ...
Evolution of Civilization    Lesser Characteristics
Calendar»   Needed to track    seasons for    planting/harvesting    and migrations (if    needed)
Form of Writing                  »   Needed for                      communication                  »   Early forms were  ...
Development of Metal Ages
Bronze Age             »   Developed as an alloy                 of copper and tin             »   Easily made into tools ...
Iron Age»   Iron was smelted    (melted) from iron ore»   Much stronger than    bronze»   Gave those who    possessed iron...
Early Civilizations in the Middle  East to About 1000 B.C.E.
Mesopotamian Civilization»   Started around 3600 BC»   First civilization in    Mesopotamia; the land    between the two r...
Sumerians»   Located in Sumer»   Cuneiform»   Architecture»   Class system»   Gods were forces of    nature and heavenly  ...
Akkadians            Major leader was             Sargon                »   2334 B.C. to 2279 B.C            » Akkadians c...
Babylonians»   Exist between the    Tigris and the    Euphrates Rivers»   Literature was mainly    dominated by    mytholo...
Assyrians»   Warrior like»   have practiced two    religions»   First people to use    chariots and cavalry    in battle» ...
Egyptians»   Great civilization emerged in Egypt,    centered on Nile river»   Two geographical divisions; Upper and    Lo...
Egypt: Role of the Nile»   Started around 2800 BC»   Civilization found upon    the Nile River Valley»   Nile River is the...
Nile River             »   Flows northward –                 divided into two parts:                 »   Upper Egypt (Sout...
Egyptian Kingdoms
The Old Kingdom»   Class society    »   Lower: Peasants and Farmers    »   Upper: Pharaoh, the Royal Family, Priests,     ...
First Intermediate Period»   Lasted from 2180 B.C. to 2050 B.C.»   Time period marked by many civil wars»   Period ends as...
New Kingdom»   Kingdom centered around their capital,    Thebes»   Drove the Hyksos out of Egypt with use of a    strong a...
Rulers»   Hatshepsut»   Thutmose III»   Amenhotep IV»   Ramses II (the Great)
Art and Technology Arts and Architecture  Science, Math, and       Medicine
Greek Civilization»   Started around 900BC»   Centered on the    mainland of modern    Greece but spread to the        Is...
Beliefs and Customs»   Greek gods looked    like humans»   Zeus ruled the gods»   Each city protected    by a god or    go...
The City-State andDemocracy»   Organized into    separate city-states»    Types of    government:    monarchy,    oligarch...
The Golden Age of Greece»   Pericles led Athens    after Persian Wars»    Democracy expanded    under his leadership»   Ex...
Culture, Science and Technology»   Introduced new styles    and concepts of arts»   Set standards of logic,    reason, and...
Roman Civilization»   Romulus founded Rome    in 753 B.C»   Encouraged the growth    of Roman civilization.»   Benefited fr...
The Roman Republic»   Complex civilization    developed      -Patricians      -Plebeians»   Government divided    into thr...
Rome Becomes an Empire»   Expansion produced    social conflict and    civil war»   Julius Caesar; a    dictator»   Augustu...
Roman Beliefs & Decline ofEmpire»   Worshiped nature    spirits, household    gods»   Series of problems»   Division of Em...
Indus Civilization»   Started around    3000 B.C.E»   Indus plain had    fertile soil»   Built cities     Mohenjo-Daro    ...
Features of Indus Civilizations                          streets»   Variety of    occupation»   Government»   Writing»   R...
Decline»   Probable causes    -severe flood killed    many and forced    many to leave    -invasions by    another people;...
Aryans»   Nomads came the    western part of the    Asia»   Entered India in    small groups»   Gradually moved    eastwar...
Modern Global Civilizations    The modern world arguably features four global    civilizationsGlobal civilization       Te...
Global Civilizations Map
ConclusionREGARDLESS of the ups and downs of the     miscarriage of the plans for world   betterment projected in the miss...
Civilization2
Civilization2
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  • Origins of civilizations
  • Thus, no matter what you may have seen in the movies, early man did not live during the same period in history as dinosaurs! Lucy told them!
  • Invented the writing system called cuneiform(meaning wedge) because wedge shape marks they made by writing on clay tables with a cut-reed stylus. The highest class included the ruling family, leading officials, and high priests. Lesser priests and scribes, merchants, and artisans made up the middle class. And at the base of society were the majority people, peasant farmers.
  • External attacks and internal weaknesses destroyed their empire
  • Babylonian scientific literature of the Babylonians included treatises on astronomy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, botany, and nature. Babylonian religion was temple-centered, with elaborate festivals and many different types of priests, especially the exorcist and the diviner, who mainly were trained to drive away evil spirits.
  • Religions: Ashurism and Christianity Chariots: A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle used in ancient warfare and racing.
  • Due to geography n climate, it was more isolated and enjoyed far more security than Mesopotamia The 3ooo span of Egyptian history is traditionally divided into 31 royal dynasties
  • Just for info First female to ever hold the title of Pharoah Technically co-ruler – with her son Kept empire’s boundaries secure and built trade Stepson of Hatshepsut Continued trend of mother Expanded Egypt’s territory to its largest extent until his death in 1450 B.C.
  • Like other ancient peoples, the Greeks believed their gods controlled the human and natural worlds. 12 major gods, goddesses lived on Mount Olympus, Greek's highest peak The ancient Greeks honored their gods through festivals that included rituals and athletic games. Early Greek literature included stories that taught lessons, and long poems that told of adventures.
  • Instead of being a unified country, Greece was organized into separate city-states. • Oligarchy—means “rule by the few” - people rule because of wealth, land, not birth monarchies ruled by king or queen In democracy, all citizens make political decisions in government
  • Pericles was strongest leader from 460 B.C. until death 31 years later
  • Greek art and architecture introduced new styles and concepts that set standards for generations of artists around the world. The Greek love of reason and logic influenced the development of Western knowledge. Hellenistic science provided much of the scientific knowledge of the world until the modern age.
  • According to legend, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C Romeʼs geography encouraged the growth of Roman civilization. • Roman society benefi ted from the hard work and discipline of Roman farmers.
  • Complex civilization developed, along with two unequal classes - patricians—upper-class landowners, held high government positions - plebeians—common farmers that could vote but not hold power • Roman government established tripartite, or three-branch, government - legislative makes law, executive enforces law, judicial interprets law To gain more land and wealth, Rome began to expand by conquering entire Italian Peninsula by 275 B.C.
  • Angry poor people, power-hungry generals, and ambitious politicians threatened the Roman Republic. Caesar was a great politician, reformer; was popular with plebeians. Caesar assassinated in 44 B.C. by group of senators After Caesar was assassinated, Augustus founded an empire that enjoyed peace and prosperity for about 200 years.
  • • Early Romans worshiped nature spirits, household gods - later, they adopted Etruscan rituals and borrowed Greek gods A series of problems—including food shortages, wars, and political conflicts—weakened the Roman Empire. Because the empire was so huge, Diocletian divided it into eastern and western regions to make governing more efficient. Emperor Constantine reunited the eastern and western empires and tried to restore the Roman Empire to greatness.
  • Waves of the migration and settlement in these plains due to fertile soil of Indus plains.
  • Architectural evidences-well planned streets, a drainage system, public buildings and a citadel(fortress) They were farmers, craftsmen, and traders. King-priests who conducted religious cermonies Indus-seals probably used by traders to identify goods. Some Indus valley seals show swastikas, which are found in other religions worldwide, especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism
  • Entered India in small groups, fought with original settlers, but settled down Gradually moved eastwards into Ganges valley Culture of Aryans began to mix with the Indus people and original settlers
  • Modern Global Civilizations The modern world arguably features four  global civilizations . Each of these civilizations spans a large proportion of the world’s population and territory (hence the term “global”). The nations within a global civilization share a common  cultural foundation , despite their vast cultural diversity
  • The above map indicates the  oldest  global civilization in a given region; some parts of the world have experienced the arrival of another global civilization (overtop the original civilization). For instance, while South Asian civilization is the original global civilization of South Asia, Islamic civilization was eventually firmly  superimposed  upon parts of South Asia (especially Pakistan ,afghanistan and Bangladesh). In the modern age, Western civilization has been superimposed (to varying degrees) over the entire world.
  • The definition of  civilization , like that of many historical terms, varies from source to source. Throughout Essential Humanities, “civilization” simply means  urban culture ; in other words, a culture with at least one city is considered a civilization. Essential Humanities defines the term  city  as a settlement with a population of at least  ten thousand
  • Civilization2

    1. 1. Ancient Civilizations of World Hira (EN-42) Asma (EN-43) Zohaib (EN- 44) Maryam (EN-45) Waqas (EN-47) Salman (EN-48) Ammara (EN-49)
    2. 2. Contents:» Civilization» Prehistory of Humans and their Development» Civilization of Mesopotamia» Egyptian Civilization» Greek Civilization» Roman Civilization» Indus Valley Civilization» Conclusion
    3. 3. Civilization:» Food surpluses, new technology, and advanced social organization led to a complex way of life. It is called civilization.
    4. 4. The Beginnings of Civilization 3,700,000 to 587 B.C.
    5. 5. Exploration of History » Dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The first human like hominids did not appear until around 3 million years ago. » How do scientists know about an early man who lived 3 million years ago?
    6. 6. Lucy» Oldest human-like skeletal remains ever found» 3-4 Million Years old» Found in Africa» Discovery has been questioned lately over the species of the find
    7. 7. First Humans » Characteristics » Powerful jaw » Receding chins » Low foreheads » Heavy eyebrows
    8. 8. More First Humans» Hunter/gatherers » Nomadic » Traveled in clans of 40-50 » Men hunted while women gathered nuts/berries/seeds
    9. 9. Homo Sapiens » Characterized by  an upright gait  increased brain size  intelligence only living members are modern humans
    10. 10. First Homo Sapiens Neanderthals Cro-Magnons» Appeared 35,000- » Appeared about 130,000 years ago 35,000 years ago (Old Stone Age) » Better tools» Wore animal skins » Cave Art» Used fire » Textbook» Buried their dead » History lessons » Religious
    11. 11. Three Stone Ages Old Middle New
    12. 12. Old Stone Age» Very crude tools » Stones used to throw at animals
    13. 13. Middle Stone Age Mesolithic Age Was a period of African prehistory » 10,000 to 5,500 years ago » Not only use stones but bones » Bows and arrows » Fish hooks » Harpoons
    14. 14. New Stone Age Neolithic Age» Development of Agriculture» Domestication of animals/plants for food
    15. 15. Characteristics of the Evolution of Civilization
    16. 16. Agriculture to SurplusProduction 20 18» People began to grow 16 more food than they 14 would need – allowed 12 people to do things 10 8 other than farming 6 4 2 0
    17. 17. Establishment of Towns/Cities» With surplus populations could grow» Families now could be larger
    18. 18. Division of Labor » In towns/cities people could specialize in one job or another
    19. 19. Evolution of Civilization Lesser Characteristics
    20. 20. Calendar» Needed to track seasons for planting/harvesting and migrations (if needed)
    21. 21. Form of Writing » Needed for communication » Early forms were cumbersome with too many symbols – became better as time past
    22. 22. Development of Metal Ages
    23. 23. Bronze Age » Developed as an alloy of copper and tin » Easily made into tools » Weakness: not strong enough
    24. 24. Iron Age» Iron was smelted (melted) from iron ore» Much stronger than bronze» Gave those who possessed iron weapons a huge advantage over those who did not
    25. 25. Early Civilizations in the Middle East to About 1000 B.C.E.
    26. 26. Mesopotamian Civilization» Started around 3600 BC» First civilization in Mesopotamia; the land between the two rivers» Region is divided in south and north of modern Baghdad» Main civilizations in this are……
    27. 27. Sumerians» Located in Sumer» Cuneiform» Architecture» Class system» Gods were forces of nature and heavenly bodies
    28. 28. Akkadians Major leader was Sargon » 2334 B.C. to 2279 B.C » Akkadians conquered all the Sumerian city- states » Akkadian empire lasted 150 years
    29. 29. Babylonians» Exist between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers» Literature was mainly dominated by mythology and legends» Religion was temple- centered
    30. 30. Assyrians» Warrior like» have practiced two religions» First people to use chariots and cavalry in battle» First to effectively rule a large empire» Capital was Nineveh
    31. 31. Egyptians» Great civilization emerged in Egypt, centered on Nile river» Two geographical divisions; Upper and Lower» History divided to 31 royal dynasties from Menes to Alexander: The Great
    32. 32. Egypt: Role of the Nile» Started around 2800 BC» Civilization found upon the Nile River Valley» Nile River is the longest river flowing north in the World
    33. 33. Nile River » Flows northward – divided into two parts: » Upper Egypt (South) » Lower Egypt (North) » Originates at Lake Victoria » Cataracts » Surrounded by two deserts » Flows into delta – then into the Mediterranean
    34. 34. Egyptian Kingdoms
    35. 35. The Old Kingdom» Class society » Lower: Peasants and Farmers » Upper: Pharaoh, the Royal Family, Priests, Scribes, and Government Officials» At end of dynasty the pharaohs became weaker and the nobles grew stronger» Revolutions began probably because of famine and lack of food
    36. 36. First Intermediate Period» Lasted from 2180 B.C. to 2050 B.C.» Time period marked by many civil wars» Period ends as new line of pharaoh comes to power
    37. 37. New Kingdom» Kingdom centered around their capital, Thebes» Drove the Hyksos out of Egypt with use of a strong army» Begin to build an empire» The strongest of the rulers were….
    38. 38. Rulers» Hatshepsut» Thutmose III» Amenhotep IV» Ramses II (the Great)
    39. 39. Art and Technology Arts and Architecture Science, Math, and Medicine
    40. 40. Greek Civilization» Started around 900BC» Centered on the mainland of modern Greece but spread to the  Islands of the Aegean  lower Balkans  parts of North Africa  southern France
    41. 41. Beliefs and Customs» Greek gods looked like humans» Zeus ruled the gods» Each city protected by a god or goddess» Honored their gods through festivals» Wrote fables and
    42. 42. The City-State andDemocracy» Organized into separate city-states» Types of government: monarchy, oligarchy, and direct democracy.
    43. 43. The Golden Age of Greece» Pericles led Athens after Persian Wars» Democracy expanded under his leadership» Expanded the wealth and power» Launched a program to make Athens beautiful.
    44. 44. Culture, Science and Technology» Introduced new styles and concepts of arts» Set standards of logic, reason, and record keeping.» Scientists made important discoveries about the world
    45. 45. Roman Civilization» Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C» Encouraged the growth of Roman civilization.» Benefited from the hard work and discipline of Roman farmers
    46. 46. The Roman Republic» Complex civilization developed -Patricians -Plebeians» Government divided into three parts» Began to expand by conquering
    47. 47. Rome Becomes an Empire» Expansion produced social conflict and civil war» Julius Caesar; a dictator» Augustus founded an empire
    48. 48. Roman Beliefs & Decline ofEmpire» Worshiped nature spirits, household gods» Series of problems» Division of Empire by Diocletian» Constantine unified the empire
    49. 49. Indus Civilization» Started around 3000 B.C.E» Indus plain had fertile soil» Built cities Mohenjo-Daro Harappa
    50. 50. Features of Indus Civilizations streets» Variety of occupation» Government» Writing» Religion drainage Seal
    51. 51. Decline» Probable causes -severe flood killed many and forced many to leave -invasions by another people; the Aryans
    52. 52. Aryans» Nomads came the western part of the Asia» Entered India in small groups» Gradually moved eastwards» Culture began to mix
    53. 53. Modern Global Civilizations The modern world arguably features four global civilizationsGlobal civilization TerritoryIslamic civilization Middle EastSouth Asian civilization South Asia Southeast AsiaEast Asian civilization East AsiaWestern civilization Europe and its colonial offshoots
    54. 54. Global Civilizations Map
    55. 55. ConclusionREGARDLESS of the ups and downs of the miscarriage of the plans for world betterment projected in the missions of Adam, the basic organic evolution of thehuman species continued to carry the racesforward in the scale of human progress and racial development. Evolution can be delayed but it cannot be stopped.

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