Thus, no matter what you may have seen in the movies, early man did not live during the same period in history as dinosaurs! Lucy told them!
Invented the writing system called cuneiform(meaning wedge) because wedge shape marks they made by writing on clay tables with a cut-reed stylus. The highest class included the ruling family, leading officials, and high priests. Lesser priests and scribes, merchants, and artisans made up the middle class. And at the base of society were the majority people, peasant farmers.
External attacks and internal weaknesses destroyed their empire
Babylonian scientific literature of the Babylonians included treatises on astronomy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, botany, and nature. Babylonian religion was temple-centered, with elaborate festivals and many different types of priests, especially the exorcist and the diviner, who mainly were trained to drive away evil spirits.
Religions: Ashurism and Christianity Chariots: A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle used in ancient warfare and racing.
Due to geography n climate, it was more isolated and enjoyed far more security than Mesopotamia The 3ooo span of Egyptian history is traditionally divided into 31 royal dynasties
Just for info First female to ever hold the title of Pharoah Technically co-ruler – with her son Kept empire’s boundaries secure and built trade Stepson of Hatshepsut Continued trend of mother Expanded Egypt’s territory to its largest extent until his death in 1450 B.C.
Like other ancient peoples, the Greeks believed their gods controlled the human and natural worlds. 12 major gods, goddesses lived on Mount Olympus, Greek's highest peak The ancient Greeks honored their gods through festivals that included rituals and athletic games. Early Greek literature included stories that taught lessons, and long poems that told of adventures.
Instead of being a uniﬁed country, Greece was organized into separate city-states. • Oligarchy—means “rule by the few” - people rule because of wealth, land, not birth monarchies ruled by king or queen In democracy, all citizens make political decisions in government
Pericles was strongest leader from 460 B.C. until death 31 years later
Greek art and architecture introduced new styles and concepts that set standards for generations of artists around the world. The Greek love of reason and logic inﬂuenced the development of Western knowledge. Hellenistic science provided much of the scientiﬁc knowledge of the world until the modern age.
According to legend, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C Romeʼs geography encouraged the growth of Roman civilization. • Roman society beneﬁ ted from the hard work and discipline of Roman farmers.
Complex civilization developed, along with two unequal classes - patricians—upper-class landowners, held high government positions - plebeians—common farmers that could vote but not hold power • Roman government established tripartite, or three-branch, government - legislative makes law, executive enforces law, judicial interprets law To gain more land and wealth, Rome began to expand by conquering entire Italian Peninsula by 275 B.C.
Angry poor people, power-hungry generals, and ambitious politicians threatened the Roman Republic. Caesar was a great politician, reformer; was popular with plebeians. Caesar assassinated in 44 B.C. by group of senators After Caesar was assassinated, Augustus founded an empire that enjoyed peace and prosperity for about 200 years.
• Early Romans worshiped nature spirits, household gods - later, they adopted Etruscan rituals and borrowed Greek gods A series of problems—including food shortages, wars, and political conﬂicts—weakened the Roman Empire. Because the empire was so huge, Diocletian divided it into eastern and western regions to make governing more efﬁcient. Emperor Constantine reunited the eastern and western empires and tried to restore the Roman Empire to greatness.
Waves of the migration and settlement in these plains due to fertile soil of Indus plains.
Architectural evidences-well planned streets, a drainage system, public buildings and a citadel(fortress) They were farmers, craftsmen, and traders. King-priests who conducted religious cermonies Indus-seals probably used by traders to identify goods. Some Indus valley seals show swastikas, which are found in other religions worldwide, especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism
Entered India in small groups, fought with original settlers, but settled down Gradually moved eastwards into Ganges valley Culture of Aryans began to mix with the Indus people and original settlers
Modern Global Civilizations The modern world arguably features four global civilizations . Each of these civilizations spans a large proportion of the world’s population and territory (hence the term “global”). The nations within a global civilization share a common cultural foundation , despite their vast cultural diversity
The above map indicates the oldest global civilization in a given region; some parts of the world have experienced the arrival of another global civilization (overtop the original civilization). For instance, while South Asian civilization is the original global civilization of South Asia, Islamic civilization was eventually firmly superimposed upon parts of South Asia (especially Pakistan ,afghanistan and Bangladesh). In the modern age, Western civilization has been superimposed (to varying degrees) over the entire world.
The definition of civilization , like that of many historical terms, varies from source to source. Throughout Essential Humanities, “civilization” simply means urban culture ; in other words, a culture with at least one city is considered a civilization. Essential Humanities defines the term city as a settlement with a population of at least ten thousand
Ancient Civilizations of World Hira (EN-42) Asma (EN-43) Zohaib (EN- 44) Maryam (EN-45) Waqas (EN-47) Salman (EN-48) Ammara (EN-49)
Contents:» Civilization» Prehistory of Humans and their Development» Civilization of Mesopotamia» Egyptian Civilization» Greek Civilization» Roman Civilization» Indus Valley Civilization» Conclusion
Civilization:» Food surpluses, new technology, and advanced social organization led to a complex way of life. It is called civilization.
The Beginnings of Civilization 3,700,000 to 587 B.C.
Exploration of History » Dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The first human like hominids did not appear until around 3 million years ago. » How do scientists know about an early man who lived 3 million years ago?
Lucy» Oldest human-like skeletal remains ever found» 3-4 Million Years old» Found in Africa» Discovery has been questioned lately over the species of the find
First Humans » Characteristics » Powerful jaw » Receding chins » Low foreheads » Heavy eyebrows
More First Humans» Hunter/gatherers » Nomadic » Traveled in clans of 40-50 » Men hunted while women gathered nuts/berries/seeds
Homo Sapiens » Characterized by an upright gait increased brain size intelligence only living members are modern humans
First Homo Sapiens Neanderthals Cro-Magnons» Appeared 35,000- » Appeared about 130,000 years ago 35,000 years ago (Old Stone Age) » Better tools» Wore animal skins » Cave Art» Used fire » Textbook» Buried their dead » History lessons » Religious
Bronze Age » Developed as an alloy of copper and tin » Easily made into tools » Weakness: not strong enough
Iron Age» Iron was smelted (melted) from iron ore» Much stronger than bronze» Gave those who possessed iron weapons a huge advantage over those who did not
Early Civilizations in the Middle East to About 1000 B.C.E.
Mesopotamian Civilization» Started around 3600 BC» First civilization in Mesopotamia; the land between the two rivers» Region is divided in south and north of modern Baghdad» Main civilizations in this are……
Sumerians» Located in Sumer» Cuneiform» Architecture» Class system» Gods were forces of nature and heavenly bodies
Akkadians Major leader was Sargon » 2334 B.C. to 2279 B.C » Akkadians conquered all the Sumerian city- states » Akkadian empire lasted 150 years
Babylonians» Exist between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers» Literature was mainly dominated by mythology and legends» Religion was temple- centered
Assyrians» Warrior like» have practiced two religions» First people to use chariots and cavalry in battle» First to effectively rule a large empire» Capital was Nineveh
Egyptians» Great civilization emerged in Egypt, centered on Nile river» Two geographical divisions; Upper and Lower» History divided to 31 royal dynasties from Menes to Alexander: The Great
Egypt: Role of the Nile» Started around 2800 BC» Civilization found upon the Nile River Valley» Nile River is the longest river flowing north in the World
Nile River » Flows northward – divided into two parts: » Upper Egypt (South) » Lower Egypt (North) » Originates at Lake Victoria » Cataracts » Surrounded by two deserts » Flows into delta – then into the Mediterranean
The Old Kingdom» Class society » Lower: Peasants and Farmers » Upper: Pharaoh, the Royal Family, Priests, Scribes, and Government Officials» At end of dynasty the pharaohs became weaker and the nobles grew stronger» Revolutions began probably because of famine and lack of food
First Intermediate Period» Lasted from 2180 B.C. to 2050 B.C.» Time period marked by many civil wars» Period ends as new line of pharaoh comes to power
New Kingdom» Kingdom centered around their capital, Thebes» Drove the Hyksos out of Egypt with use of a strong army» Begin to build an empire» The strongest of the rulers were….
Rulers» Hatshepsut» Thutmose III» Amenhotep IV» Ramses II (the Great)
Art and Technology Arts and Architecture Science, Math, and Medicine
Greek Civilization» Started around 900BC» Centered on the mainland of modern Greece but spread to the Islands of the Aegean lower Balkans parts of North Africa southern France
Beliefs and Customs» Greek gods looked like humans» Zeus ruled the gods» Each city protected by a god or goddess» Honored their gods through festivals» Wrote fables and
The City-State andDemocracy» Organized into separate city-states» Types of government: monarchy, oligarchy, and direct democracy.
The Golden Age of Greece» Pericles led Athens after Persian Wars» Democracy expanded under his leadership» Expanded the wealth and power» Launched a program to make Athens beautiful.
Culture, Science and Technology» Introduced new styles and concepts of arts» Set standards of logic, reason, and record keeping.» Scientists made important discoveries about the world
Roman Civilization» Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C» Encouraged the growth of Roman civilization.» Beneﬁted from the hard work and discipline of Roman farmers
The Roman Republic» Complex civilization developed -Patricians -Plebeians» Government divided into three parts» Began to expand by conquering
Rome Becomes an Empire» Expansion produced social conﬂict and civil war» Julius Caesar; a dictator» Augustus founded an empire
Roman Beliefs & Decline ofEmpire» Worshiped nature spirits, household gods» Series of problems» Division of Empire by Diocletian» Constantine uniﬁed the empire
Indus Civilization» Started around 3000 B.C.E» Indus plain had fertile soil» Built cities Mohenjo-Daro Harappa
Features of Indus Civilizations streets» Variety of occupation» Government» Writing» Religion drainage Seal
Decline» Probable causes -severe flood killed many and forced many to leave -invasions by another people; the Aryans
Aryans» Nomads came the western part of the Asia» Entered India in small groups» Gradually moved eastwards» Culture began to mix
Modern Global Civilizations The modern world arguably features four global civilizationsGlobal civilization TerritoryIslamic civilization Middle EastSouth Asian civilization South Asia Southeast AsiaEast Asian civilization East AsiaWestern civilization Europe and its colonial offshoots
ConclusionREGARDLESS of the ups and downs of the miscarriage of the plans for world betterment projected in the missions of Adam, the basic organic evolution of thehuman species continued to carry the racesforward in the scale of human progress and racial development. Evolution can be delayed but it cannot be stopped.