Sodium
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Sodium

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Sodium Sodium Presentation Transcript

    • (Na+) Sodium Total body Sodium is 4000 meq.
    • 50% in bones, 40% in ECF & 10% in Soft tissues.
    • It is the major Extracellular cation .
    • BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS:
    • 1)Sodium regulates Osmotic pressure and fluid balance.
    • 2) Regulates Acid-base balance in association with chloride and bicarbonate.
    • 3) It is involved in absorption of Glucose, Galactose & Aminoacids.
    • 4) It helps in cell permeability .
    • DAILY REQUIREMENT AND FOOD SOURCES:
    • Daily requirement 5-10 gm/day In Hypertensive 1 gm/day is recommended.
    • 5g of NaCl contains 2g of sodium.
    • Table salt (Nacl) is the major source. Other sources are Bread,whole grains, vegetables, nuts, eggs and milk.
    •  
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    • Sodium is readily absorbed in GIT.
    • Normal Serum level is 135-145 meq/L .
    • Sodium is extracellular cation so very less ammount is present in RBC’s(35meq/l).
    • Mineralocorticoids secreted by adrenal cortex,influence sodium metabolism.
    • Kidney is the major source of excretion.
    • Around 800 gm/day is filtered by Glomerulus in that 99% is reabsorbed by tubules.
    • Reabsorbtion is controlled by Aldosterone.
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    • Hyponatremia.
    • Decrease Sodium levels.
    • - Diarrhea, Vomiting, - Chronic renal failure Addisons disease (adreno cortical Insufficiency) ,Mild - head ache, Moderate & severe - Low Blood pressure & Circulatory failure.
    • Overhydration,administration of salt free fluids to patients.
    • Hypernatremia
    • Increase Sodium levels.
    • Cushing’s syndrome.
    • Prolonged administration of steroid hormones (Cortisone, ACTH/Sex hormones).
    • Severe dehydration (only water) as in case of Diabetes Insipidus Increased Blood volume Hypertension.
    •  
    • BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS:
    • It maintains Intracellular Osmotic pressure,acid base balance.
    • Involves in cardiac & skeletal muscle activities, Mainly K+ required in depolarization & contraction of Heart.
    • Involved proper transmission of Nerve Impulses.
    • Pyruvate kinase(of glycolysis) needs K+.
    • Involved in Biosynthesis of proteins.
    • Absorption is efficient(90%).
    • Normal Serum Potassium 3.5 – 5 meq/L (Cell contain 100 – 120 meq/L ).
    • Excretion is through urine, during absorption of Na+ there is obligatory loss of K+, Aldosterone increases K+ excretion.
    • DAILY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES
    • Potassium Total body potassium is 3500 meq 75% in skeletal muscle.
    • Daily requirement 3-4 gm/day
    • Banana, Orange, Potato, beans, Liver etc. Rich Source is Tender coconut water.
    • Hypokalemia
    • Serum K+ less than 3 meq/L
    • Cushing syndrome
    • Renal tubular acidosis.
    • Metabolic alkalosis, Diarrhea & vomiting
    • In Diabetic coma treatment with Insulin & Glucose Diuretics.
    • Muscle weakness, Tachycardia ,Cardiac arrest.
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Renal failure
    • Addison’s disease
    • Severe dehydration.
    • Intravenous administration of fluids with excessive potassium salts.
    • Depression of CNS,
    • Bradycardia.