Sodium

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Sodium

  1. 1. <ul><li>(Na+) Sodium Total body Sodium is 4000 meq. </li></ul><ul><li>50% in bones, 40% in ECF & 10% in Soft tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the major Extracellular cation . </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Sodium regulates Osmotic pressure and fluid balance. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Regulates Acid-base balance in association with chloride and bicarbonate. </li></ul><ul><li>3) It is involved in absorption of Glucose, Galactose & Aminoacids. </li></ul><ul><li>4) It helps in cell permeability . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>DAILY REQUIREMENT AND FOOD SOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Daily requirement 5-10 gm/day In Hypertensive 1 gm/day is recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>5g of NaCl contains 2g of sodium. </li></ul><ul><li>Table salt (Nacl) is the major source. Other sources are Bread,whole grains, vegetables, nuts, eggs and milk. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Sodium is readily absorbed in GIT. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Serum level is 135-145 meq/L . </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium is extracellular cation so very less ammount is present in RBC’s(35meq/l). </li></ul><ul><li>Mineralocorticoids secreted by adrenal cortex,influence sodium metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney is the major source of excretion. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 800 gm/day is filtered by Glomerulus in that 99% is reabsorbed by tubules. </li></ul><ul><li>Reabsorbtion is controlled by Aldosterone. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Hyponatremia. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease Sodium levels. </li></ul><ul><li>- Diarrhea, Vomiting, - Chronic renal failure Addisons disease (adreno cortical Insufficiency) ,Mild - head ache, Moderate & severe - Low Blood pressure & Circulatory failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Overhydration,administration of salt free fluids to patients. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Hypernatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Sodium levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Cushing’s syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged administration of steroid hormones (Cortisone, ACTH/Sex hormones). </li></ul><ul><li>Severe dehydration (only water) as in case of Diabetes Insipidus Increased Blood volume Hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>It maintains Intracellular Osmotic pressure,acid base balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves in cardiac & skeletal muscle activities, Mainly K+ required in depolarization & contraction of Heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved proper transmission of Nerve Impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate kinase(of glycolysis) needs K+. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in Biosynthesis of proteins. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Absorption is efficient(90%). </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Serum Potassium 3.5 – 5 meq/L (Cell contain 100 – 120 meq/L ). </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion is through urine, during absorption of Na+ there is obligatory loss of K+, Aldosterone increases K+ excretion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>DAILY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium Total body potassium is 3500 meq 75% in skeletal muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily requirement 3-4 gm/day </li></ul><ul><li>Banana, Orange, Potato, beans, Liver etc. Rich Source is Tender coconut water. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Serum K+ less than 3 meq/L </li></ul><ul><li>Cushing syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Renal tubular acidosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic alkalosis, Diarrhea & vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>In Diabetic coma treatment with Insulin & Glucose Diuretics. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness, Tachycardia ,Cardiac arrest. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Hyperkalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>Addison’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Severe dehydration. </li></ul><ul><li>Intravenous administration of fluids with excessive potassium salts. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression of CNS, </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia. </li></ul>

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