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Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
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Minerals

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  • 1.  
  • 2. <ul><li>Inorganic constituents of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Make up about 4 to 5% of body weight (for a 70 kg individual: 2.8 kg) </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrominerals (Major or principal elements) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microminerals (Trace elements) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Macrominerals are essential at levels of 100mg or more per day for humans. </li></ul>
  • 4. Macrominerals <ul><li>Ca calcium 1200 grams </li></ul><ul><li>P phosphorus 860 grams </li></ul><ul><li>S sulfur 300 grams </li></ul><ul><li>K potassium 180 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Cl chloride 74 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Na sodium 64 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Mg magnesium 25 grams </li></ul>
  • 5. Microminerals <ul><li>F fluorine 2.6 V vanadium 0.018 </li></ul><ul><li>Zn zinc 2.0 Sn tin 0.017 </li></ul><ul><li>Cu copper 0.1 Se selenium 0.013 </li></ul><ul><li>I iodine 0.025 Mn manganese 0.012 </li></ul><ul><li>Cr chromium 0.006 Ni nickel 0.010 </li></ul><ul><li>Co cobalt 0.0015Mo molybdenum 0.009 </li></ul><ul><li>Si silicon 0.024 </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>GENERAL FUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>provide a suitable medium for cellular activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>permeability of membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irritability of muscles and nerve cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>involved in acid base-balance and osmotic phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Blood coagulation </li></ul><ul><li>confer rigidity and hardness to certain tissues (bones and teeth) </li></ul><ul><li>become part of specialized compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Metalloenzymes and metal activated enzymes. </li></ul>
  • 7. CALCIUM <ul><li>Calcium is found in highest concentration in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult human body contains 1.0 to 1.2kg. </li></ul><ul><li>About 99% is present in the skeletal tissue,bones&teeth.While the remaining in soft tissue( muscle,nervous tissue) </li></ul>
  • 8. Level <ul><li>Normal serum calcium level is 9---11mg/100ml. </li></ul>
  • 9. Forms <ul><li>Present in two main forms: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Diffusible </li></ul><ul><li>b) Non- diffusible </li></ul><ul><li>a ) Diffusible form: </li></ul><ul><li>Ionized </li></ul><ul><li>Complexed calcium </li></ul>
  • 10. Ionized <ul><li>Serum level is 5.4 to 6.2mg/100ml. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologically active form of Ca. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased in hyperparathyroidism and decreased in hypoparathyroidism. </li></ul><ul><li>Tetany occurs if level of serum ionized ca falls below 4.3mg /100ml. </li></ul><ul><li>Freely exchangeable between the soft tissues,ECF and the blood. </li></ul>
  • 11. Complexed Ca <ul><li>Level less than 0.6mg/100ml </li></ul><ul><li>Present in the form of salts with citrate& phosphate. </li></ul>
  • 12. Non diffusible <ul><li>Level is 3.4 to 4.4mg/100ml. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in firm combination with plasma protein </li></ul><ul><li>Level are low in hypoproteinemia. </li></ul>
  • 13. Sources& Requirement <ul><li>Varies from individual to individual and depends on many factors </li></ul><ul><li>Daily RDA is 800mg . </li></ul><ul><li>During pregnancy & lactation is increased to about 1.2g/day </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Milk and milk product . </li></ul><ul><li>Egg yolk </li></ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Leafy vegetables( cabbage, cauliflower) </li></ul><ul><li>Betel leaf (paan). </li></ul>
  • 15. Absorption of calcium. <ul><li>Occurs in the duodenm by energy dependent active process. </li></ul><ul><li>FACTORS PROMOTING ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>Low pH </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose </li></ul><ul><li>Lysine and arginine </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>FACTORS INHIBITING ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Phytates and oxalates </li></ul><ul><li>High posphate content in diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Free fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>High content of dietary fibre. </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>Calcium excretion. </li></ul><ul><li>Partly by kidney and mostly by intestine. </li></ul>
  • 18. FUNCTIONS <ul><li>Development of bones and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Blood coagulation </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane integrity and permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium as intracellular messenger </li></ul>
  • 19. <ul><li>Release of hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Secretory process </li></ul><ul><li>Contact inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Action on heart </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>Factors regulating plasma calcium levels </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitriol </li></ul><ul><li>PTH </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin </li></ul>
  • 21. DISEASE STATES <ul><li>Hypercalcemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocalcemia </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoprosis </li></ul>

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