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Microminerals2

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  • Very poor information regarding fluoride.....
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  • 1.
    • iodine is necessary for the formation of thyroid hormones (T-4 and T-3)
    • deficiency of iodine is manifested by a goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland)
    • to prevent the development of endemic goiter, tablet salt has been spiked with sodium iodide
  • 2.
    • The total iodine content of the body is 20-30mg.
    • 80% present in THYROID GLAND .
    • 1% as iodide ions
    • 20-25% incorporated in thyroid hormones.
    • Thyroglobulin
  • 3.
    • PLASMA IODINE
    • 4-10micrograms/100ml
    • INORGANIC or filterable ionic form .(5%)
    • ORGANIC or hormonal iodine .Protein bound iodine(PBI).3.5-8 micrograms/100ml.
  • 4.
    • DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES:
    • 1OO-150micrograms/day.
    • Drinking water,sea foods,vegetables fruits(grown on seaboard)
    • High altitudes are deficient in iodine content.
  • 5.
    • IODINE DEFICIENCY
    • SIMPLE COLLOID ENDEMIC GOITER:
  • 6.
    • BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS:
    • Mostly found in bones and teeth.
    • Prevents dental caries,Forms a protective layer of acid resistant fluoroapatite with hydroxy apataite of the enamel and prevents the tooth decay by bacterial acids.
    • Inhibitor of several enzymes,inhibit bacterial enzymes,Sodium fluoride inhibits enolase(of glycolysis),fluroacetate inhibits aconitase(TCA cycle)
  • 7.
    • Fluoride is important for proper development of bones.
  • 8.
    • DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES:
    • Less than 2ppm of fluoride will meet the daily requirement.
    • Drinking water is the main source.the optimum fluoride content of the drinking water is placed at 1-2ppm.Plant source include spinach,onions and lettuce.
    • 95% fluoride in the body is present in calcified tissues.
  • 9.
    • Fluoride supplementation is available in both oral and topical forms:
        • Oral: mainly sodium fluoride
        • Topical: either sodium or stannous fluoride
  • 10.
    • DISEASE STATES
    • DENTAL CARIES .
    • Drinking water containing less than 0.5 ppm fluoride is associated with the development of dental caries in children.
    • DENTALFLUOROSIS
    • An intake greater than 5ppm in children causes mottling of enamel and discoloration of teeth.
  • 11.
    • Intake greater than 20ppm is toxic and causes pathological changes in bones.
    • Hypercalcification increases the density of bones of limbs,pelvis and spine.
    • Ligaments of collagen and spine get calcified.
    • Skeletal flurosis.
  • 12.
    • 15mg-Total body contentt.
    • Liver and kidney are rich in manganese.
    • Mainly found in nuclei in association with nucleic acids.
  • 13.
    • BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS.
    • Cofactor for several enzymes,arginase,pyruvate carboxylase,Isocitrate dehydrogenase,superoxide dismutase(mitochondrial) and peptidase.
    • Necessary for the synthesis of mucoplysaccharides and glycoproteins.
    • Hb synthesis
    • Inhibits lipid peroxidation.
    • Cholesterol biosynthesis.
  • 14.
    • Tea is a rich source of Mn.
    • 5-20 μ g/dl.
    • Transmagnanin.
  • 15.
    • MOLYBDENUM.
    • Xanthine oxidase.
    • Widely distributed in natural foods.
    • COBALT
    • Only important as a constituent of vitamin B12.
    • Administration of cobalt stimulates the production of erythropoietin.

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