<ul><li>Phosphorus Total body content of phosphorus is 1kg. </li></ul><ul><li>second most abundant mineral in the body. </...
<ul><li>80% of it occurs in combination with Ca in the bones and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>10% is found in muscles and bloo...
<ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of bone & teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of high energy p...
<ul><li>Involved in Phosphorylation reactions for activation of proteins and enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Acid Bas...
<ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES. </li></ul><ul><li>RDA of phosphate is based on the calcium intake. Ca:P in 1:1 is...
<ul><li>ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitriol  favours phosphate absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Acidity  favours while  ph...
<ul><li>PLASMA PHOSPHATE. </li></ul><ul><li>40mg/dl of whole blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Serum contains 3-4mg/dl. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>RBC’s contain more phosphate chiefly organic phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma inorganic levels are higher in ch...
<ul><li>EXCRETION. </li></ul><ul><li>A reciprocal relation with Phosphorus and Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>The reabsorption ...
<ul><li>Level decreases in Hyperparathyroidism and increases in Hypoparathyroidism. </li></ul><ul><li>In Renal failure – P...
<ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of acid base balance,fluid balance and osmotic pressure. </li>...
<ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>5-10g per day.Adequate intake of sodium satisfy the chloride req...
<ul><li>PLASMA CHLORIDE. </li></ul><ul><li>95-105meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid contains higher level of Chlo...
<ul><li>HYPOCHLOREMIA: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in serum chloride due to vomiting diarrhea,respiratory alkalosis,addiso...
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Macrominerals

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Macrominerals

  1. 2. <ul><li>Phosphorus Total body content of phosphorus is 1kg. </li></ul><ul><li>second most abundant mineral in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an intracellular ion. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>80% of it occurs in combination with Ca in the bones and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>10% is found in muscles and blood in association with proteins,carbohydrates and lipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining 10% is widely distributed in various chemical compounds. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of bone & teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of high energy phosphate compounds e.g ATP,GTP,Creatine phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of coenzymes NAD+, NADP+,pyridoxal phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA & RNA Synthesis,phospholipids and phosphoprotein synthesis. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Involved in Phosphorylation reactions for activation of proteins and enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Acid Base balance(Phosphate buffer). </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates,Glucose-6- phosphate, Fructose-6-phosphate. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES. </li></ul><ul><li>RDA of phosphate is based on the calcium intake. Ca:P in 1:1 is recommended.This is found in milk.Other sources include,cereals,green leafy vegetables,meat and eggs. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitriol favours phosphate absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Acidity favours while phytate decreases phosphate uptake. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>PLASMA PHOSPHATE. </li></ul><ul><li>40mg/dl of whole blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Serum contains 3-4mg/dl. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate may exist as free ions (inorganic) or in complex form, with cations such as Ca,Mg,Na,K ,OR bound to proteins ( organic phosphate). </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic phosphate is present in two forms, HPO ₄⁻⁻ ,H ₂ PO ₄⁻ </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>RBC’s contain more phosphate chiefly organic phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma inorganic levels are higher in children. </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting serum phosphate levels are higher than post-prandial levels. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>EXCRETION. </li></ul><ul><li>A reciprocal relation with Phosphorus and Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>The reabsorption of phosphate by renal tubules is inhibited by PTH . </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Level decreases in Hyperparathyroidism and increases in Hypoparathyroidism. </li></ul><ul><li>In Renal failure – Phosphorus excretion diminished - Ca excretion Increase leading to low Ca levels and high phosphorus level causing acidosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D deficient rickets is characterized by decreased serum phosphate(1-2mg/dl) </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of acid base balance,fluid balance and osmotic pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of HCl in gastric juice. </li></ul><ul><li>The enzyme salivary amylase is activated by chloride. </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride shift involves the active participation of Cl⁻. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>5-10g per day.Adequate intake of sodium satisfy the chloride requirement of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Common salt,leafy vegetables,whole grains,eggs and milk are good sources. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>PLASMA CHLORIDE. </li></ul><ul><li>95-105meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid contains higher level of Chloride(125meq/l),due to low protein in CSF.So chloride is higher in order to maintain donnan membrane equilibrium . </li></ul><ul><li>EXCRETION. </li></ul><ul><li>Exists parallel relationship between excretion of chloride and sodium. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>HYPOCHLOREMIA: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in serum chloride due to vomiting diarrhea,respiratory alkalosis,addison’s disease and excessive sweating. </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERCHLOREMIA: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in serum chloride due to dehydration,respiratory acidosis and cushing’s syndrome. </li></ul>

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