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Macrominerals
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Macrominerals

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Phosphorus Total body content of phosphorus is 1kg.
    • second most abundant mineral in the body.
    • It is an intracellular ion.
  • 3.
    • 80% of it occurs in combination with Ca in the bones and teeth.
    • 10% is found in muscles and blood in association with proteins,carbohydrates and lipids.
    • Remaining 10% is widely distributed in various chemical compounds.
  • 4.
    • BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS :
    • Formation of bone & teeth.
    • Production of high energy phosphate compounds e.g ATP,GTP,Creatine phosphate.
    • Synthesis of coenzymes NAD+, NADP+,pyridoxal phosphate.
    • DNA & RNA Synthesis,phospholipids and phosphoprotein synthesis.
  • 5.
    • Involved in Phosphorylation reactions for activation of proteins and enzymes.
    • Regulates Acid Base balance(Phosphate buffer).
    • Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates,Glucose-6- phosphate, Fructose-6-phosphate.
  • 6.
    • DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES.
    • RDA of phosphate is based on the calcium intake. Ca:P in 1:1 is recommended.This is found in milk.Other sources include,cereals,green leafy vegetables,meat and eggs.
  • 7.
    • ABSORPTION
    • Calcitriol favours phosphate absorption
    • Acidity favours while phytate decreases phosphate uptake.
  • 8.
    • PLASMA PHOSPHATE.
    • 40mg/dl of whole blood.
    • Serum contains 3-4mg/dl.
    • Phosphate may exist as free ions (inorganic) or in complex form, with cations such as Ca,Mg,Na,K ,OR bound to proteins ( organic phosphate).
    • Inorganic phosphate is present in two forms, HPO ₄⁻⁻ ,H ₂ PO ₄⁻
  • 9.
    • RBC’s contain more phosphate chiefly organic phosphate.
    • Plasma inorganic levels are higher in children.
    • Fasting serum phosphate levels are higher than post-prandial levels.
  • 10.
    • EXCRETION.
    • A reciprocal relation with Phosphorus and Calcium
    • The reabsorption of phosphate by renal tubules is inhibited by PTH .
  • 11.
    • Level decreases in Hyperparathyroidism and increases in Hypoparathyroidism.
    • In Renal failure – Phosphorus excretion diminished - Ca excretion Increase leading to low Ca levels and high phosphorus level causing acidosis.
    • Vitamin D deficient rickets is characterized by decreased serum phosphate(1-2mg/dl)
  • 12.
    • BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS:
    • Regulation of acid base balance,fluid balance and osmotic pressure.
    • Formation of HCl in gastric juice.
    • The enzyme salivary amylase is activated by chloride.
    • Chloride shift involves the active participation of Cl⁻.
  • 13.
    • DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES
    • 5-10g per day.Adequate intake of sodium satisfy the chloride requirement of the body.
    • Common salt,leafy vegetables,whole grains,eggs and milk are good sources.
  • 14.
    • PLASMA CHLORIDE.
    • 95-105meq/l
    • Cerebrospinal fluid contains higher level of Chloride(125meq/l),due to low protein in CSF.So chloride is higher in order to maintain donnan membrane equilibrium .
    • EXCRETION.
    • Exists parallel relationship between excretion of chloride and sodium.
  • 15.
    • HYPOCHLOREMIA:
    • Reduction in serum chloride due to vomiting diarrhea,respiratory alkalosis,addison’s disease and excessive sweating.
    • HYPERCHLOREMIA:
    • Increase in serum chloride due to dehydration,respiratory acidosis and cushing’s syndrome.