Inflammation

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Inflammation

  1. 1. Introduction: <ul><li>“ Inflame” – to set fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation is “dynamic response of vascularised tissue to injury.” </li></ul><ul><li>Is a protective response. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves to bring defense & healing mechanisms to the site of injury. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Lewis Triple Response: <ul><li>Flush : capillary dilatation. </li></ul><ul><li>Flare : arteriolar dilatation. </li></ul><ul><li>Weal : exudation, edema. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Red, Warm & Swollen (Flare, Flush & Weal – Lewis) Triple response
  4. 4. Inflammation - Mechanism <ul><li>Vaso dilatation </li></ul><ul><li>Exudation - Edema </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotaxis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mechanism of Inflammation:
  6. 7. Chemical Mediators: <ul><li>Chemical substances synthesised or released which mediate the changes in inflammation. </li></ul><ul><li>Histamine by mast cells - vasodilatation. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins – Cause pain & fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Bradykinin - Causes pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Products of the complement system </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphokines released by sensitized T cells </li></ul>
  7. 8. Acute Vs Chronic <ul><li>Flush, Flare & Weal </li></ul><ul><li>Acute inflammatory cells - Neutrophils </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular damage </li></ul><ul><li>More exudation </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Little signs - Fibrosis, </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammatory cells – Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-vascularisation </li></ul><ul><li>No/less exudation </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent fibrosis </li></ul>
  8. 9. Walling-off effect of inflammation
  9. 10. Macrophage and neutrophil responses during inflammation
  10. 11. <ul><li>Tissue macrophage is a First line of defense against infection </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrophil invasion of the inflamed area is Second line of defense </li></ul><ul><li>Second macrophage invasion into the inflamed tissue is a Third line of defense </li></ul><ul><li>Increased production of granulocytes and monocytes by the bone marrow is a Fourth line of defense </li></ul>
  11. 12. Feedback control of the macrophages and neutrophil response
  12. 14. Formation of pus <ul><li>Combination of necrotic tissue, dead neutrophils and macrophages and tissue fluid. </li></ul>
  13. 15. The 5 Cardinal Signs of Heat Redness Swelling Pain Loss Of Func.

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