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Chemical properties of monosaccharides
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Chemical properties of monosaccharides

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  • 1. Chemical properties of monosaccharides
    • Reaction with hydrazines to form osazones.
    • Reduction to form sugar alcohols
    • Name of monosaccharide Sugar derivative
    • Glucose Sorbitol
    • Mannose Mannitol
    • Galactose Dulcitol
    • Fructose Sorbitol and
    • Mannitol
    • Ribose Ribitol
    • Glyceraldehyde Glycerol
    • Dihydroxyacetone Glycerol
  • 2.
    • Mannitol acts as diuretic and used in the patients of cerebral edema.
    • Sorbitol gets deposited in the lens of the diabetic patient and contributes to an early cataract formation.
  • 3.
    • Oxidation to produce sugar acids
    • Gluconic acid,Glucuronic acid,Glucaric acid
    • Gluconic acid is of great physiological importance,used in the detoxification and inactivating many substances like benzoic acid,steroid hormones,bilirubin etc.
  • 4.
    • Reducing action of sugars in alkaline solutions
    • Action of acids and bases
    • Formation of esters
    • 1.Phosphates acetates,propionates,stearatesetc.
    • 2.Glucose catabolism
    • 3.Nucleoproteins
  • 5. Several sugar esters important in metabolism
  • 6.
    • Formation of amino sugars
    • 1.Hexosamines(D-glucosamine,D-galactosamine and D manosamine).
    • 2.Constituent of Glycosaminoglycans.
    • Fermentation
  • 7. Special monosaccharides: amino sugars Constituents of mucopolysaccharides
  • 8.
    • FORMATION OF GLYCOSIDES.
    • Compounds in which carbohydrate residue is attatched by an acetal linkage at the anomeric carbon atom to an alcoholic residue called aglycone which is a non carbohydrate.
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • The aglycone may attach through to sugar through –OH or -NH2 group forming O and
    • N-glycosides.
    • Aglycone may be methyl alcohol,a sterol,phenol,a purine or a pyrimidine(sugar nucleosides),a protein(glycoproteins,GAG’s) and lipids(glycolipids).
  • 11.
    • Physiologically important glycosides.
    • Cardiac glycosides
    • Streptomycin
    • Ouabain
    • Glucovanillin
  • 12.  
  • 13. Deoxy sugars.
    • Oxygen of the hydroxyl group is removed.
    • Most important deoxy sugar is 2’-deoxy-D-ribose.
  • 14.
    • Component of DNA
    • L- fucose(deoxy L-galactose) in milk and blood group substances.
    • 2-deoxy glucose is used in research.
  • 15. Some important Monosaccharides.
    • HEXOSES
    • D-GLUCOSE .
    • Grape sugar or dextrose.
    • Form glycogen, starch and cellulose.
    • Represents almost 100% of monosaccharides in blood therefore known as blood sugar.
    • Found in the urine of diabetics
    • Sorbitol.sugar acids
    • Can occur in pyran and furan form
    • 74% as sweet as sucrose.
  • 16.
    • FRUCTOSE
    • Fruit sugar and levulose.
    • Occurs in honey and plant kingdom.
    • Source of energy for spermatozoa.
    • Occur in pyran and furan form
    • Constituent of sucrose.
    • Sweetest of all sugars(173%) of sucrose
  • 17.
    • GALACTOSE .
    • Part of lactose,seed coat of legumes.
    • Constituent of glycolipids and glycoproteins.
    • 32% sweeter than sucrose.
    • MANNOSE
    • Constituent of glycoproteins
    • In the body turns into glucose
  • 18.
    • PENTOSES
    • Monosaccharides contain ring of five atoms.
    • Constituent of nucleic acids,ATP,GTP,CTP,UTP,NAD+,NADP+,FMN,FAD and coenzyme A.
    • Phosphates as intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism.
    • L-Xylulose is intermediate in uronic acid pathway of glucose metabolism.
  • 19.
    • D-lyxose is found in heart muscle.
    • D-arabinose and D-Xylose is found in glycoproteins.