Chemical properties of monosaccharides

16,656 views
15,859 views

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
16,656
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
168
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chemical properties of monosaccharides

  1. 1. Chemical properties of monosaccharides <ul><li>Reaction with hydrazines to form osazones. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction to form sugar alcohols </li></ul><ul><li>Name of monosaccharide Sugar derivative </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose Sorbitol </li></ul><ul><li>Mannose Mannitol </li></ul><ul><li>Galactose Dulcitol </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose Sorbitol and </li></ul><ul><li>Mannitol </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose Ribitol </li></ul><ul><li>Glyceraldehyde Glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Dihydroxyacetone Glycerol </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Mannitol acts as diuretic and used in the patients of cerebral edema. </li></ul><ul><li>Sorbitol gets deposited in the lens of the diabetic patient and contributes to an early cataract formation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Oxidation to produce sugar acids </li></ul><ul><li>Gluconic acid,Glucuronic acid,Glucaric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Gluconic acid is of great physiological importance,used in the detoxification and inactivating many substances like benzoic acid,steroid hormones,bilirubin etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Reducing action of sugars in alkaline solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Action of acids and bases </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of esters </li></ul><ul><li>1.Phosphates acetates,propionates,stearatesetc. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Glucose catabolism </li></ul><ul><li>3.Nucleoproteins </li></ul>
  5. 5. Several sugar esters important in metabolism
  6. 6. <ul><li>Formation of amino sugars </li></ul><ul><li>1.Hexosamines(D-glucosamine,D-galactosamine and D manosamine). </li></ul><ul><li>2.Constituent of Glycosaminoglycans. </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Special monosaccharides: amino sugars Constituents of mucopolysaccharides
  8. 8. <ul><li>FORMATION OF GLYCOSIDES. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds in which carbohydrate residue is attatched by an acetal linkage at the anomeric carbon atom to an alcoholic residue called aglycone which is a non carbohydrate. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>The aglycone may attach through to sugar through –OH or -NH2 group forming O and </li></ul><ul><li>N-glycosides. </li></ul><ul><li>Aglycone may be methyl alcohol,a sterol,phenol,a purine or a pyrimidine(sugar nucleosides),a protein(glycoproteins,GAG’s) and lipids(glycolipids). </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Physiologically important glycosides. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac glycosides </li></ul><ul><li>Streptomycin </li></ul><ul><li>Ouabain </li></ul><ul><li>Glucovanillin </li></ul>
  11. 13. Deoxy sugars. <ul><li>Oxygen of the hydroxyl group is removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Most important deoxy sugar is 2’-deoxy-D-ribose. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Component of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>L- fucose(deoxy L-galactose) in milk and blood group substances. </li></ul><ul><li>2-deoxy glucose is used in research. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Some important Monosaccharides. <ul><li>HEXOSES </li></ul><ul><li>D-GLUCOSE . </li></ul><ul><li>Grape sugar or dextrose. </li></ul><ul><li>Form glycogen, starch and cellulose. </li></ul><ul><li>Represents almost 100% of monosaccharides in blood therefore known as blood sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the urine of diabetics </li></ul><ul><li>Sorbitol.sugar acids </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur in pyran and furan form </li></ul><ul><li>74% as sweet as sucrose. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>FRUCTOSE </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit sugar and levulose. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in honey and plant kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of energy for spermatozoa. </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in pyran and furan form </li></ul><ul><li>Constituent of sucrose. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweetest of all sugars(173%) of sucrose </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>GALACTOSE . </li></ul><ul><li>Part of lactose,seed coat of legumes. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituent of glycolipids and glycoproteins. </li></ul><ul><li>32% sweeter than sucrose. </li></ul><ul><li>MANNOSE </li></ul><ul><li>Constituent of glycoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>In the body turns into glucose </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>PENTOSES </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides contain ring of five atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituent of nucleic acids,ATP,GTP,CTP,UTP,NAD+,NADP+,FMN,FAD and coenzyme A. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphates as intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>L-Xylulose is intermediate in uronic acid pathway of glucose metabolism. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>D-lyxose is found in heart muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>D-arabinose and D-Xylose is found in glycoproteins. </li></ul>

×