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The Cell
<ul><li>THE CELL </li></ul>
Cell membrane <ul><li>protective covering that surrounds the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains cell shape </li></ul><ul><l...
Functions of cell membrane
Functions of cell membrane
Composition of cell membrane <ul><li>Phosopholipid 25%   </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins 55% </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol 13% ...
 
Cell membrane structure <ul><li>Phospholipid bilayer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heads of the lipids are hydrophilic (water...
<ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integral; act as *channels (pores) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  *carriers  </li></...
<ul><li>Membrane CHO (Glycocalyx) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycoproteins / Glycolipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives negat...
<ul><li>Cytoplasm:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: gel-like material found inside the cell, made of water, salts, and or...
Cell Organelles <ul><li>Mitochondria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self repl...
Mitochondria
Formation of ATP
Uses of ATP
Cell Organelles <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: tubular & flat vesicular str </li></ul></...
Types of ER <ul><ul><li>Smooth ER:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>does not contain ribosomes,  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><u...
Cell Organelles <ul><li>Golgi Body:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure:  4 or more stacked layers of thin, flat enclosed ves...
Formation of proteins, lipids & vesicles from ER & GA
Cell Organelles <ul><li>Ribosomes:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>made of RNA and protei...
Lysosomes <ul><li>Formed from Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lipid bilayer </li></ul><...
Lysosomes <ul><li>Intracellular digestive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged cellular str. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He...
Lysosomes <ul><li>Bactericidal agents </li></ul><ul><li>Lysozymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolve the bacterial cell membra...
 
Peroxysomes <ul><li>Formed by self replication / SER </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Ox...
Nucleus <ul><li>Control center of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Contain DNA (genes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis <...
Structure of nucleus
Cell Organelles
Ameboid movement
 
Ameboid movement
Ameboid movement <ul><li>Movement of entire cells in relation to its surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Involves pseudopodium ...
Ameboid movement <ul><li>Cells that exhibit ameboid motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblast...
Genetic control of cell functions
DNA structure <ul><li>Nucleotides  </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphoric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li...
DNA structure
Significance of DNA <ul><li>Controls formation of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>By “Genetic code” </li></ul><ul><li>DNA code ...
Types of RNA <ul><li>mRNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carries the code to cytoplasm in the form of codons complementary to DNA c...
Transcription  <ul><li>Temporary separation of DNA strand  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(RNA Polymerase enzyme) </li></ul></ul><u...
DNA code
Protein synthesis <ul><li>Code  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>successive “triplets” of DNA bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It con...
<ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of proteins on the ribosomes </li></ul></...
 
 
 
Movement thru the Cell Membrane <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell membrane provides support and protection ...
Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Diffusion <ul><li>Diffusion  is the process of cells moving from areas of high concentrat...
Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Diffusion <ul><li>Molecules diffuse (move from high to low concentration) until the molec...
Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Diffusion <ul><li>Cells use diffusion to get substances into and out of the cell. </li></...
Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Osmosis <ul><li>Osmosis  is the diffusion of water through a membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Active Transport <ul><li>materials move from low concentration to high concentration. req...
Mec hanism of pinocytosis
Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Active Transport <ul><li>Endocytosis Exocytosis </li></ul>
Cell Growth and Division <ul><li>Multicellular organisms grow because cell division increases the number of cells in them....
Cell Growth and Division:  The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Interphase: The part of the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing.  <...
Cell Growth and Division:  The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Mitosis:  the part of the cell cycle where the nucleus divides.  Occurs ...
Cell Growth and Division:  The Cell Cycle
Cell Growth and Division:  The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Meiosis:  The cell division that takes place within reproductive cells. ...
Cell Growth and Division:  The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Meiosis I:  Pairs of chromosomes separate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase...
Cell Growth and Division:  The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Meiosis II:  Chromosomes separate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase II:  In...
 
Cells and Energy: Respiration <ul><li>Most chemical reactions that take place in cells require an energy source. </li></ul...
Cells and Energy: Respiration <ul><li>If oxygen is not present in the environment,  anaerobic respiration  takes place.  <...
Cells and Energy: Respiration <ul><li>If oxygen is present in the environment,  aerobic respiration  can occur. </li></ul>...
Cells and Energy: Photosynthesis <ul><li>Plant cells gain energy through the process of  photosynthesis . </li></ul><ul><u...
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Transcript of "Cells bds"

  1. 1. The Cell
  2. 2. <ul><li>THE CELL </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cell membrane <ul><li>protective covering that surrounds the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion by the cells (endocytosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion by the cells (exocytosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Takes part in cell locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in attachment of the cells </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid in nature; not solid </li></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of cell membrane
  5. 5. Functions of cell membrane
  6. 6. Composition of cell membrane <ul><li>Phosopholipid 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins 55% </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol 13% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates 3% </li></ul>
  7. 8. Cell membrane structure <ul><li>Phospholipid bilayer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heads of the lipids are hydrophilic (water loving) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tails are hydrophobic (water fearing). </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integral; act as *channels (pores) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> *carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> *enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral; act as enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Membrane CHO (Glycocalyx) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycoproteins / Glycolipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives negative charge to the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in attaching cells one to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as receptors </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Cytoplasm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: gel-like material found inside the cell, made of water, salts, and organic materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: holds the organelles, keeps them separate </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Cell Organelles <ul><li>Mitochondria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self replicative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two lipid bilayer membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>outer membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inner membrane – shelves with attached oxidative enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix; contains necessary enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: transform the energy in food to energy the cell can use to drive chemical reactions. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Mitochondria
  13. 14. Formation of ATP
  14. 15. Uses of ATP
  15. 16. Cell Organelles <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: tubular & flat vesicular str </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of lipid bilayer along with protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: located next to the nuclear membrane and connected to it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Types of ER <ul><ul><li>Smooth ER: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>does not contain ribosomes, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes lipids, transports proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs detoxification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain enzymes for glycogen breakdown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contains ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes proteins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Cell Organelles <ul><li>Golgi Body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: 4 or more stacked layers of thin, flat enclosed vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: near the nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>packages proteins from the ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize certain CHO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hyaluronic acid & chondroitin sulfate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysosomes/ secretory vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distribute them around or outside of the cell. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent in secretory cells </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Formation of proteins, lipids & vesicles from ER & GA
  19. 20. Cell Organelles <ul><li>Ribosomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>made of RNA and proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produce proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free in cytosol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Lysosomes <ul><li>Formed from Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lipid bilayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sac filled with enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound + water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins………………. a.a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen……………...Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids…………………..Fatty acid & glycerol </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Lysosomes <ul><li>Intracellular digestive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged cellular str. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat, cold, chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food particles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytic & pinocytic vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tissue regression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of activity in a tissue causes the lysosomes to increase their activity </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Lysosomes <ul><li>Bactericidal agents </li></ul><ul><li>Lysozymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolve the bacterial cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lysoferrin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds iron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activates hydrolases & inactivates bacterial metabolism </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Peroxysomes <ul><li>Formed by self replication / SER </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidize poisonous subs. as alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen + Hydrogen = Hydrogen peroxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalases </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Nucleus <ul><li>Control center of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Contain DNA (genes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer memb continuous with ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear pores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA and proteins </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Structure of nucleus
  26. 28. Cell Organelles
  27. 29. Ameboid movement
  28. 31. Ameboid movement
  29. 32. Ameboid movement <ul><li>Movement of entire cells in relation to its surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Involves pseudopodium and ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of new cell membrane & exocytosis at one end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment of pseudopodium to tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of the membrane & endocytosis in mid & rear portions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detachment of receptor proteins </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Ameboid movement <ul><li>Cells that exhibit ameboid motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of ameboid motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemotaxis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 34. Genetic control of cell functions
  32. 35. DNA structure <ul><li>Nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphoric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purine (adenine, guanine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines (thymine, cytosine) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. DNA structure
  34. 37. Significance of DNA <ul><li>Controls formation of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>By “Genetic code” </li></ul><ul><li>DNA code is transferred to an RNA code (transcription) </li></ul>
  35. 38. Types of RNA <ul><li>mRNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carries the code to cytoplasm in the form of codons complementary to DNA code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tRNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transports activated amino acids to ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triplets of bases on tRNA that allows it to recognize a specific codon is anticodon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>rRNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms ribosomes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>str. On which protein molecules are assembled </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 39. Transcription <ul><li>Temporary separation of DNA strand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(RNA Polymerase enzyme) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA code causes formation of complementary RNA codes (codons) </li></ul>
  37. 40. DNA code
  38. 41. Protein synthesis <ul><li>Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>successive “triplets” of DNA bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It controls the sequence of a.a in a protein molecule to be synthesized in cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transcription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA is formed containing codons which are complementary to the DNA code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process of transferring the genetic code to the RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of proteins on the ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA travels thru ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes read the codons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tRNA transports a.a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein molecule is formed </li></ul></ul>
  40. 46. Movement thru the Cell Membrane <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell membrane provides support and protection for the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell membrane is made of a lipid bilayer that is selectively permeable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lipid bilayer contains hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. Proteins in the bilayer help materials pass into and out of the cell. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 47. Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Diffusion <ul><li>Diffusion is the process of cells moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the scent diffusion lab from 7 th grade? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs because molecules are constantly moving. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This random movement causes the molecules to become evenly spread out. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 48. Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Diffusion <ul><li>Molecules diffuse (move from high to low concentration) until the molecules are evenly spread out. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is called equilibrium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion doesn’t stop at equilibrium, the molecules just move in equal numbers. If one molecule enters an area, another molecule leaves. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 49. Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Diffusion <ul><li>Cells use diffusion to get substances into and out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: During photosynthesis, oxygen is produced inside the cell. When this happens the concentration of oxygen becomes higher inside the cell than outside and oxygen diffuses out of the cell. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 50. Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Osmosis <ul><li>Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves into an area with low concentrations and out of areas with high concentrations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both diffusion and osmosis are forms of passive transport (they require no energy) </li></ul>
  45. 51. Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Active Transport <ul><li>materials move from low concentration to high concentration. requires energy! </li></ul><ul><li>Active transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocytosis: moving a particle into the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocytosis: moving a particle from inside the cell to outside. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 52. Mec hanism of pinocytosis
  47. 53. Movement thru the Cell Membrane: Active Transport <ul><li>Endocytosis Exocytosis </li></ul>
  48. 54. Cell Growth and Division <ul><li>Multicellular organisms grow because cell division increases the number of cells in them. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells become specialized during the development of an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells that are damaged or worn out are replaced by cell division. </li></ul>
  49. 55. Cell Growth and Division: The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Interphase: The part of the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the longest phase in the cell cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells grow and go about their daily routines in this part of the cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA (genetic material) replicates. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 56. Cell Growth and Division: The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Mitosis: the part of the cell cycle where the nucleus divides. Occurs in non-reproductive cells and produces exact copies of the parent cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase: The chromosomes condense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase: The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase: The chromosomes separate and are pulled to either end of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase: The new nuclear membrane forms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis: The cell splits in half. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 57. Cell Growth and Division: The Cell Cycle
  52. 58. Cell Growth and Division: The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Meiosis: The cell division that takes place within reproductive cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces cells that only have one pair of chromosomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis produces egg and sperm cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before meiosis begins, the chromosomes from the parent cell are copied. </li></ul>
  53. 59. Cell Growth and Division: The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Meiosis I: Pairs of chromosomes separate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase I: Chromosomes pair up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase I: The chromosome pairs line up in the middle of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase I: Chromosome pairs are pulled apart to opposite ends of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase I: A new cell membrane forms around the chromosomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis: The cell splits into two daughter cells </li></ul></ul>
  54. 60. Cell Growth and Division: The Cell Cycle <ul><li>Meiosis II: Chromosomes separate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase II: In each daughter cell, there are two copies of a chromosome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase II: Each chromosome in each daughter cell lines up in the middle of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase II: Each chromosome in each daughter cell is pulled apart to opposite ends of the cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase II: A new cell membrane forms, splitting each daughter cell into two new cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis: The cells divide into four new cells. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 62. Cells and Energy: Respiration <ul><li>Most chemical reactions that take place in cells require an energy source. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria in both plant and animal cells release this energy through respiration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration is the process by which oxygen (O 2 ) is combined with food (sugar) to release energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before respiration can occur in the mitochondria, sugar in the cytoplasm is broken down. This releases a small amount of energy. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 63. Cells and Energy: Respiration <ul><li>If oxygen is not present in the environment, anaerobic respiration takes place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation : the process of cells releasing energy without oxygen. There are two types of fermentation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholic fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 64. Cells and Energy: Respiration <ul><li>If oxygen is present in the environment, aerobic respiration can occur. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After sugar in the cytoplasm is broken down, the smaller pieces travel to the mitochondria and are broken down even more. This produces energy, called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen also enters the mitochondria and combines hydrogen to produce water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glucose + Oxygen  Energy + Water + CO 2 </li></ul>
  58. 65. Cells and Energy: Photosynthesis <ul><li>Plant cells gain energy through the process of photosynthesis . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, the green pigment that captures sunlight for the plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water enter the chloroplasts while the chlorophyll captures sunlight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The energy from the sunlight changes the CO2 and water into oxygen and sugar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 + Water + Energy  Oxygen + Sugar </li></ul></ul>
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