The organelles of animal and plant cells are similar to each other except that __________ are present only in animal cells, and ___________ are present only in plant cells. ORGANELLES Animal and plant cells have organelles . Organelles compartmentalize functions within the cell.
Electron micrographs of cells show mitochondria as rod like structures.
0.5 μ ,m-1 μ m in diametre
7 μ m in length
Component of electron transport system.
Impermeable to most ions and large molecules e.g; H,Na,ATP,GTP ,Pyruvate,Citrate etc.
For transport special carriers are present e.g Adenine nucleotide carrier system(ATP-ADP Transport)
Complex II,Succinate dehydrogenase
Complex V,ATP Synthetase complex.
Permeable to all ions
Inclosed by inner mitochondrial membrane.
Contain enzymes of:
Citric acid cycle
β oxidation of fatty acids
Amino acid oxidation
Urea and heme synthesis
Circular DNA,has information for 13 mitochondrial proteins and some RNAs
Mitochondrial cytochrome P450 system
P450 system is involved in the hydroxylation of cholesterol to steroid hormones(placenta,adrenal cortex,ovaries and testes)
Bile acid Synthesis (liver)
Vitamin D formation(kidney)
Mitochondria plays a key role in aging.Cytochrome C component of ETC plays a main role in cell death and Apoptosis.
Fatal infantile mitochondrial myopathy and renal dysfunction.
MELAS(Mitochondrial encaphalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke)
Myoclonic epilepsy etc.
Biosynthesis of proteins.
Special proteins called CHAPERONS are present ,involved in proper folding of proteins.
Synthesis of lipids,cholesterol and steroid hormones.
Detoxification of endogeneous and exogeneous substances