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Earth’s landmasses nn
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Earth’s landmasses nn

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  • 1. Earth’s Landmasses
  • 2.
    • Islands – small landmasses completely surrounded by water
    • Four – number of major landmasses on Earth; Eurasia and Africa, North and South America, Antarctica (2x the size of the US; first known exploration occurred in 1901) , Australia (only continent that is single country; sometimes referred to as the island continent)
  • 3.
    • Continent – landmass that measures millions of square km and rises a considerable distance above sea level; each has at least one large area of very old rock exposed at its surface (this area is called a shield)
    • Seven continents on the Earth – Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, N and S America, and Antarctica
  • 4. Topography
    • Scientists refer to the shape of the Earth’s surface as its topography
    • The Earth’s topography is made up of different kinds of landscapes
    • A landscape is the physical features of the Earth’s Surface found in an area
  • 5.
    • Each type of landscape has different characteristics
    • Elevation – height above sea level (high or low)
    • Relief – difference in region’s elevation
  • 6. Three Main Types of Landscape Regions
    • Mountains – natural landforms that reach high elevations
    • Have narrow summits or tops, and steep slopes, or sides
    • These landscapes have very high relief
    • All mountains did not form at the same time
  • 7. Mountain Formation
    • Fault-block Mountain – result from the folding and breaking of the Earth’s surface
    • Volcanic Mountain – created when hot magma from the Earth’s interior breaks through the Earth’s surface
    • Mountain Range – roughly parallel series of mountains that have the same general shape and structure
  • 8.
    • Mountain System – a group of mountain ranges in one area
    • Mountain Belt – a larger group of mountains composed of mountain ranges and systems
  • 9. Folded Mountains
    • Formed when rock layers are squeezed from opposite sides and rock layers buckle and fold
    • Example: The Appalachian Mountains
  • 10. Unwarped Mountains
    • Formed when rocks are pushed up by forces inside earth
  • 11. Fault-Block Mountains
    • Made of huge tilted blocks of rocks that are separated from surrounding rock by faults.
    • Example: Sierra Nevada Mountains in California
  • 12. Volcanic Mountains
    • Begin when molten material reaches the surface through a weak area of the crust. The materials pile up, one layer on top of another, until one cone-shaped structure forms.
    • Example: The Hawaiian Islands
  • 13. Some of the World’s Famous Mountains
  • 14.
    • Aconcagua, Andes Argentina
    • 6569 m, Highest Mountain in Western Hemisphere
  • 15.
    • Cotopaxi, Andes in Ecuador
    • 5897 m, Highest active volcano in the world
  • 16.
    • Elbert, Colorado
    • 4399 m, Highest mountain in Rockies
  • 17.
    • Everest, Himalayas (Nepal-Tibet border)
    • 8848 m, Highest mountain in the world
  • 18.
    • K2, Kashmir
    • 8611 m, 2nd highest mountain in the world
  • 19.
    • Kanchenjunga, Himalayas (Nepal-India border)
    • 8598 m, 3 rd highest mountain in the world
  • 20.
    • Logan, Yukon
    • 5950 m, Highest mountain in Canada
  • 21.
    • Mauna Kea, Volcanic Island in Hawaii
    • 4205 m, Highest Island Mountain in the world
  • 22.
    • Mauna Loa, Volcanic Island in Hawaii
    • 4169 m
  • 23.
    • McKinley, Alaska
    • 6194 m, Highest mountain in North America
  • 24.
    • Mitchell, North Carolina
    • 2037 m, Highest mountain in the Appalachians
  • 25.
    • Mont Blanc, France
    • 4807 m, Highest mountain in the Alps
  • 26.
    • Mt. St. Helens, Cascades in Washington
    • 2549 m, Recent active volcano in the US
  • 27.
    • Pikes Peak, Colorado
    • 4301 m, most famous in the Rocky Mountains
  • 28.
    • Rainier, Cascades in Washington
    • 4392 m, Highest mountain in Washington
  • 29.
    • Vesuvius, Italy
    • 1277 m, only active volcano on the mainland of Europe
  • 30.
    • Whitney, Sierra Nevada in California
    • 4418 m, Highest mountain in California
  • 31. Plains
    • Flat land areas that do not rise far above sea level
    • They are areas of low relief
    • Characterized by broad rivers and streams
  • 32.
    • Coastal Plains – Low flat areas along the coasts
    • Coast – a place where the land meets the ocean
    • Interior Plains – low, flat areas found inland on a continent
  • 33. Plateaus
    • Broad, flat areas of land that rise more than 600 m above sea level
    • They are not considered mountains because their surfaces are fairly flat
    • Many plateaus of the world are dry, nearly desert areas
    • Often used for grazing