COMPARATIVE STUDY AND
CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON
CURRICULUM
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
 To demonstrate thorough understanding of
what is curriculum and differentiate
between curriculum and ...
WHAT IS CURRICULUM?




a)
b)
c)

Hass (1987) provides a broader definition, stating that “a
curriculum includes all of ...
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
CURRICULUM & SYLLABUS




I.
II.

III.

Functionally a “Syllabus” is
generally uni-dimensional
docume...
FOUR PHASES OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (CDP)
DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION

EVALUATION

Feedback Loop

Cyclical Process

D...
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS (CDP)


Involves the following phases:
1. Design:
•

The decision about
philosophy and aim...
NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF
PAKISTAN 2006


The first National Curriculum



The National Curriculum of

Pakistan 2006 is a S...
COMPERATIVE STUDY Of
CURRICULUM GOALS AND OBJECTIVES:

National
Curriculum

Our
Perspective

• To build conceptual
foundat...
COMPARATIVE STUDY of
STANDARDS OF MATHEMATICS

National
Curriculum
 National Curriculum for Mathematics

Our Perspective
...
National Curriculum of Mathematics-2006/7
KEY FEATURES:


To enable students to acquire understanding of
concepts of math...
NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF MATHEMATICS
AIMS:

Focus is on promoting creative
and analytical critical thinking
skills for learn...
AIMS OF NMC:
SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS FOR
IMPROVEMENT

RECOMMENDATIONS
BASED ON
THE „4 R‟S‟: AN ALTERNATIVE
CURRICULUM
PROP...
THE „4 R‟S‟: AN ALTERNATIVE
CURRICULUM – An Overview


The concept of 4R‟s is as following;



RICHNESS: Are the multipl...
IMPROVED AIMS OF
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM:














Students should be confident
creative users
communicators ...
OUR VISION OF CURRICULUM
KEY FEATURES


Creative and analytical critical thinking skills
about complex issues.



Analys...
THE CURRICULUM APPROACH OF
NCM
The national curriculum to an extent
follows many approaches of the two
modern philosophies...
OUR RECOMMENDATIONS

TO THE CURRICULUM APPROACH
Integrating a few assumptions of
„PROGRESSIVISM‟ PHILOSOPHY by John Dewey,...
EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION


Content up-gradation accordingly to the fulfillment
of curriculum goals and objectives.



P...
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Curriculum is a guiding ,living document it must
always be
improved through integrating feedback,
thoro...
THANKYOU
FOR YOUR
PATIENCE!
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Analysis on curriculum

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  • Beginning course details and/or books/materials needed for a class/project.
  • A schedule design for optional periods of time/objectives.
  • Introductory notes.
  • Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning.
  • Relative vocabulary list.
  • A list of procedures and steps, or a lecture slide with media.
  • Example graph/chart.
  • Example graph/chart.
  • Conclusion to course, lecture, et al.
  • An opportunity for questions and discussions.
  • Analysis on curriculum

    1. 1. COMPARATIVE STUDY AND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON CURRICULUM
    2. 2. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY  To demonstrate thorough understanding of what is curriculum and differentiate between curriculum and syllabus.  Present a comparative study of our designed curriculum and National Curriculum of Pakistan.
    3. 3. WHAT IS CURRICULUM?   a) b) c) Hass (1987) provides a broader definition, stating that “a curriculum includes all of the experiences that individual learners have in a program of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in terms of a framework of theory and research or past and present professional practice.” Cronbleth (1992) defines curriculum as answering three questions: What knowledge, skills and values are most worthwhile? Why are they most worthwhile? How should the young acquire them?
    4. 4. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CURRICULUM & SYLLABUS   I. II. III. Functionally a “Syllabus” is generally uni-dimensional document. It merely presents the content or the subject matter to be studied. Curriculum is three dimensional document, because it takes into account: The needs of the learner. The content (in terms of specific performance) Instructional methodology
    5. 5. FOUR PHASES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (CDP) DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Feedback Loop Cyclical Process DEVELOPMENT
    6. 6. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (CDP)  Involves the following phases: 1. Design: • The decision about philosophy and aim of education. 2. Development: • • Way curriculum is conceptualized. Selection and organization of content & learning activities. 3. Implementation: 4. Evaluation: • • Actualizing the curriculum entities. Determines the extent to which the curriculum has been successful.
    7. 7. NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF PAKISTAN 2006  The first National Curriculum  The National Curriculum of Pakistan 2006 is a Standard- was developed in 1975-76. Based Curriculum.  Next it was reviewed in 2000 2002.  Recent document is National The main objectives are to make the curriculum more vibrant and responsive to; Curriculum of Pakistan 2006.  - Modern socio-economic The Current National - Technical Curriculum of Pakistan is a - Professional and comprehensive document - Labour market needs developed by a team of of the country. qualified professionals.
    8. 8. COMPERATIVE STUDY Of CURRICULUM GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: National Curriculum Our Perspective • To build conceptual foundation for skillful utilization in further learning. • To demonstrate use of mathematical skills in daily life. • Integration of mathematics with new technologies. • To enable learner to express ideas clearly and effectively, analyze information and draw conclusions. • Development of geometrical concepts to enable learner think logically, reason systematically and conjecturer astutely. • To make learner enable to interpret instructions, descriptions and explanation in appropriate mathematical language. • To enable learner to visualize • To develop the link between
    9. 9. COMPARATIVE STUDY of STANDARDS OF MATHEMATICS National Curriculum  National Curriculum for Mathematics Our Perspective  However, we feel that in order to is divided into these five categories or provide students with essential standards: mathematical skills and knowledge, 1. Numbers and Operations Reasoning and Logical 2. Algebra Thinking‟ must be 3. Measurements and Geometry • Encouraged at every level AND 4. Information Handling • integrated with all the categories 5. Reasoning and Logical Thinking. Thus the standards may be redevised as: 1. Numbers and Operations
    10. 10. National Curriculum of Mathematics-2006/7 KEY FEATURES:  To enable students to acquire understanding of concepts of mathematics and apply them to problems of the world they live in.  To provide the students with a sound basis for specialization in math at higher stages or and apply it in scientific and technical fields.
    11. 11. NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF MATHEMATICS AIMS: Focus is on promoting creative and analytical critical thinking skills for learners rather than rote learning.  Promote Active learning.  Providing reasonable weightage to assessment to develop the practical approach of mathematics. 
    12. 12. AIMS OF NMC: SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON THE „4 R‟S‟: AN ALTERNATIVE CURRICULUM PROPOSED BY DOLL
    13. 13. THE „4 R‟S‟: AN ALTERNATIVE CURRICULUM – An Overview  The concept of 4R‟s is as following;  RICHNESS: Are the multiple possibilities    and interpretations that a negotiated curriculum would produce. RECURSION: Is a process of looping thoughts‟ which leads to meaning that curriculum is a living and open document. RELATIONS: Connections that establish meaning for students. RIGOUR: Observation on logic, scientific facts and observation and measurements.
    14. 14. IMPROVED AIMS OF MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM:          Students should be confident creative users communicators of mathematics able to investigate, represent and interpret situations in their personal and work lives develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of mathematical concepts fluency with processes able to pose and solve problems recognize connections between the areas of mathematics and other disciplines appreciate mathematics as an accessible and enjoyable discipline to study.
    15. 15. OUR VISION OF CURRICULUM KEY FEATURES  Creative and analytical critical thinking skills about complex issues.  Analysis and adaptation of new situations.  Effective learning.  Ability to solve complex kinds of problems.  Communicating efficient thinking.  Development of effective and efficient class for both teachers and learners.  Deduction and analysis of real life situation.
    16. 16. THE CURRICULUM APPROACH OF NCM The national curriculum to an extent follows many approaches of the two modern philosophies :  ESSENTIALISM  PERENNIALISM. eg: Our culture has a core of common knowledge that the schools are obliged to transmit in a systematic and disciplined way. 
    17. 17. OUR RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE CURRICULUM APPROACH Integrating a few assumptions of „PROGRESSIVISM‟ PHILOSOPHY by John Dewey, in the design of national curriculum of mathematics fore.g.  The content of the curriculum should be derived from students‟ interests rather than from the academic standards.  Effective teaching takes into account the interests and needs in relation to COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE and PSYCHOMOTOR domains.  Learning is essentially ACTIVE rather than PASSIVE.  Effective teachers provide students with experiences that enable them to LEARN BY DOING.
    18. 18. EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION  Content up-gradation accordingly to the fulfillment of curriculum goals and objectives.  Provision of audio-visual aid to improve the delivery of instructional objectives.  Integration of reasonable weightage to assessment to develop the practical approach.  Examinations may be held on qualitative approach rather than only on quantitative approach.  Schools should be given greater freedom over the curriculum but will be a constitutional requirement for all schools as a national benchmark of excellence  Provision of knowledge and skills that young people need to excel confidently and successfully through their education.
    19. 19. CONCLUDING REMARKS Curriculum is a guiding ,living document it must always be improved through integrating feedback, thorough analysis and evaluation with the following questions:       WHAT STUDENT NEEDS WERE NOT MET? WERE THE OBJECTIVES MET? HOW CAN THE CURRICULUM BE MODIFIED TO MEET THE UNMET NEEDS AND OBJECTIVES? IS THE CURRICULUM BALANCED AND SEQUENCES PROPERLY? WHAT ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ARE NEEDED? HOW WILL WE KNOW THAT THE STUDENTS LEARNED THE CONTENT OR
    20. 20. THANKYOU FOR YOUR PATIENCE!
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