COMPARATIVE STUDY AND
CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
To demonstrate thorough understanding of
what is curriculum and differentiate
between curriculum and syllabus.
Present a comparative study of our
designed curriculum and National
Curriculum of Pakistan.
WHAT IS CURRICULUM?
Hass (1987) provides a broader definition, stating that “a
curriculum includes all of the experiences that individual learners
have in a program of education whose purpose is to achieve
broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in
terms of a framework of theory and research or past and present
Cronbleth (1992) defines curriculum as answering three
What knowledge, skills and values are most worthwhile?
Why are they most worthwhile?
How should the young acquire them?
CURRICULUM & SYLLABUS
Functionally a “Syllabus” is
document. It merely presents the
content or the subject matter to be
Curriculum is three dimensional
document, because it takes into
The needs of the learner.
The content (in terms of specific
FOUR PHASES OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (CDP)
Involves the following phases:
The decision about
philosophy and aim
Way curriculum is
Selection and organization of
content & learning activities.
3. Implementation: 4. Evaluation:
extent to which the
curriculum has been
NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF
The first National Curriculum
The National Curriculum of
Pakistan 2006 is a Standard-
was developed in 1975-76.
Next it was reviewed in 2000
Recent document is National
The main objectives are to
make the curriculum more
vibrant and responsive to;
Curriculum of Pakistan 2006.
- Modern socio-economic
The Current National
Curriculum of Pakistan is a
- Professional and
- Labour market needs
developed by a team of
of the country.
COMPERATIVE STUDY Of
CURRICULUM GOALS AND OBJECTIVES:
• To build conceptual
foundation for skillful
utilization in further learning.
• To demonstrate use of
mathematical skills in daily life.
• Integration of mathematics
with new technologies.
• To enable learner to express
ideas clearly and effectively,
analyze information and draw
• Development of geometrical
concepts to enable learner
think logically, reason
systematically and conjecturer
• To make learner enable to
descriptions and explanation in
• To enable learner to visualize
• To develop the link between
COMPARATIVE STUDY of
STANDARDS OF MATHEMATICS
National Curriculum for Mathematics
However, we feel that in order to
is divided into these five categories or
provide students with essential
mathematical skills and knowledge,
1. Numbers and Operations
Reasoning and Logical
Thinking‟ must be
3. Measurements and Geometry
• Encouraged at every level AND
4. Information Handling
• integrated with all the categories
5. Reasoning and Logical
Thus the standards may be redevised
1. Numbers and Operations
National Curriculum of Mathematics-2006/7
To enable students to acquire understanding of
concepts of mathematics and apply them to
problems of the world they live in.
To provide the students with a sound basis for
specialization in math at higher stages or and
apply it in scientific and technical fields.
NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF MATHEMATICS
Focus is on promoting creative
and analytical critical thinking
skills for learners rather than rote
Promote Active learning.
Providing reasonable weightage
to assessment to develop the
practical approach of
AIMS OF NMC:
SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS FOR
THE „4 R‟S‟: AN ALTERNATIVE
PROPOSED BY DOLL
THE „4 R‟S‟: AN ALTERNATIVE
CURRICULUM – An Overview
The concept of 4R‟s is as following;
RICHNESS: Are the multiple possibilities
and interpretations that a negotiated
curriculum would produce.
RECURSION: Is a process of looping
thoughts‟ which leads to meaning that
curriculum is a living and open document.
RELATIONS: Connections that establish
meaning for students.
RIGOUR: Observation on logic, scientific
facts and observation and measurements.
IMPROVED AIMS OF
Students should be confident
communicators of mathematics
able to investigate, represent and
interpret situations in their personal and
develop an increasingly sophisticated
understanding of mathematical concepts
fluency with processes
able to pose and solve problems
recognize connections between the areas
of mathematics and other disciplines
appreciate mathematics as an accessible
and enjoyable discipline to study.
OUR VISION OF CURRICULUM
Creative and analytical critical thinking skills
about complex issues.
Analysis and adaptation of new situations.
Ability to solve complex kinds of problems.
Communicating efficient thinking.
Development of effective and efficient class for
both teachers and learners.
Deduction and analysis of real life situation.
THE CURRICULUM APPROACH OF
The national curriculum to an extent
follows many approaches of the two
modern philosophies :
eg: Our culture has a core of common
knowledge that the schools are
obliged to transmit in a systematic and
TO THE CURRICULUM APPROACH
Integrating a few assumptions of
„PROGRESSIVISM‟ PHILOSOPHY by John Dewey,
in the design of national curriculum of mathematics
The content of the curriculum should be derived
from students‟ interests rather than from the
Effective teaching takes into account the interests
and needs in relation to COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE
and PSYCHOMOTOR domains.
Learning is essentially ACTIVE rather than
Effective teachers provide students with
experiences that enable them to LEARN BY
EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION
Content up-gradation accordingly to the fulfillment
of curriculum goals and objectives.
Provision of audio-visual aid to improve the delivery
of instructional objectives.
Integration of reasonable weightage to assessment
to develop the practical approach.
Examinations may be held on qualitative approach
rather than only on quantitative approach.
Schools should be given greater freedom over the
curriculum but will be a constitutional requirement
for all schools as a national benchmark of
Provision of knowledge and skills that young people
need to excel confidently and successfully through
Curriculum is a guiding ,living document it must
improved through integrating feedback,
and evaluation with the following
WHAT STUDENT NEEDS WERE NOT MET?
WERE THE OBJECTIVES MET?
HOW CAN THE CURRICULUM BE MODIFIED
TO MEET THE UNMET NEEDS AND
IS THE CURRICULUM BALANCED AND
WHAT ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ARE
HOW WILL WE KNOW THAT THE
STUDENTS LEARNED THE CONTENT OR