Microbes and disease name
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  • 1. Microbes and DiseaseName:_________<br />List 6 methods by which pathogens are transmitted and gain entry to the body <br />How are some of these diseases transmitted? <br />Athlete´s Foot:<br />Cholera:<br />Measles:<br />Malaria:<br />Syphilis:<br />Tetnus:<br />Case Study: Streptecoccus <br />Extracellular bacteria <br />
    • damages tissues form outside cells
    Presence produces antibodies known as opsonins <br />Produce acute diseases <br /> -begin rapidly<br /> -last a short time<br /> -distinct symptoms<br />Virulence of Streptococcus <br />
    • G +ve
    • 2. Strep-throat, tonsilitis, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever
    • 3. Produces virulence factors
    -producd by plasmids<br /> -cause pathogenicity <br />Case Study: Chlamydia <br />Intracellular bacteria<br /> -replicate in phagocytes or epithelial cells<br />Causes chronic disease<br /> -persists for a long time <br />Developmental lifecycle of Chlamydia <br />Toxins <br />Chemicals released by pathogen especially bacteria<br />2 types<br /> -exotoxins e.g. Salmonella <br /> -enterotoxins e.g. Clostridium tetani <br />More about exotoxins <br />
    • main types
    1. Toxins that act upon connective tissue<br /> -allows further spread of bacteria and therefore infection of underlying tissues<br /> -Staphylococcus aureus produces hyaluronidase <br />
    • Toxins that act as enzymes
    -enter cells and affect their metabolism<br /> -Diptheria exotoxin <br />
    • Membrane damaging toxins
    -puncture cell membrane killing cells<br /> -C. perfringens produces phospholipase that digests the plasma membrane <br />