CASE STUDY Presented to:Dr. Anjum ZiaPresented By: Hina Anwar
What is Descriptive Research?? Descriptive research involves the collection of information directly from individuals who possess the information. e.g. you are walking across your Department and some one stops you to provide some opinions concerning University services and facilities.
Categories of Descriptive researchDescriptive data-collection techniques fall into three categories: Surveys Interviews observations The observation method gathers data through systematic watching, studying or interpreting the source of data and source may be an individual, a group, or a document.
What is a Case studyThe term "case study" has multiple meanings. Itcan be used to describe a unit of analysis (e.g. acase study of a particular organization to exploreits strengths and weakness) or to describe aresearch method.A case study is a research methodology commonin social science. It is based on an in-depthinvestigation of a single individual, group, or eventto explore causation. (changing cinema culture: acase study of Lahore)
Definition of case study Yin defines a case study as an empirical enquiry that: – investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, (e.g. what problems a HIV/AIDS positive person is facing in society ) especially when – the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident" ( Yin, 1994: 13).
Historical Roots Case-study method was first introduced into social science by Frederic Le Play in 1829 as a handmaiden to statistics in his studies of family budgets. From the early 1900s until 1935, The Chicago School was on the top in the field of case study methodology. (Les Ouvriers Europeans (2nd edition, 1879 Theory in social sciences has been further developed by the sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss who presented their research method, Grounded theory, in 1967.
Difference between case study and grounded theory Case study Grounded theory to describe one or more to inductively generate a cases in depth and address grounded theory the research questions and describing and explaining issues a phenomena. Multidisciplinary roots, sociology including business, law, Interview with 20-30 social sciences, medicine, people. Observations are and education. also frequently used. Multiple methods are used interviews, observations, documents
Types of case study Robert Stake classifies case study research into three types: Intrinsic case study (when the researcher has an interest in the case ). e.g. a researcher has interest to conduct a study on Benazir assassination Instrumental case study (where the interest is in understanding something more general than the case). E.g. Benazir assassination focus on the family background of the Benazir and after effects of the assassination. Collective case study (where interest is in studying and comparing multiple cases in a single research study). E.g. Literature review based studies. Agenda setting role of mass media in Pakistan
Methods of data collection Multiple methods of data collection are often used in case study research Interviews e.g. Structured or non-structured Direct observation Participant-observation Physical artifacts e.g. a tool, a piece of furniture, or even computer printout. Documents e.g. letters, study reports , minutes, agendas, historical record. Archival records service records, maps, charts, lists of names, survey data, and even personal records such as diaries. (Ethical rules should be followed)
Features of case study Use multiple source of evidence. Data can be collected over a period of time, and it is contextual. (respondents environment breast cancer health facilities) Real life context. (In depth interviews, informal conversations also observed) It involves detailed and holistic investigation. E.g. special news reports The case study method is not recommended in all research situations.
Features of case study Case studies are Not – Only qualitative – Case studies can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence and should not be confused with qualitative research. Case studies lend researcher to both generating and testing hypotheses.for example: Benazir assasination focus political killing but some one can focus on investigation points.
Steps to design a case study 1st Design the research questions-the first concern in a case study is what to ask? Which begin with “How” or “why”.-A second design concern is what to analyze? What exactly constitute a “case”?
2 construct a study protocol nd A protocol contains the procedures to be used in the study and also includes the data gathering instrument or instruments. A good case study protocol contains the procedures necessary for gaining access to a particular person or organization and methods for accessing records. It also contains the schedule of data collection and addresses the problems logistics.For example: the protocol should note whether copy machine will be available in the field to duplicate record. The protocol should also list the questions central to the inquiry and the possible sources of information to be tapped in answering these questions. If interviews are to be used in the case study, the protocol should contain the question to be asked.
3 Data Collection rd At least five sources can be used in case studies. 4 Data Analysis th There are no specific formulas to guide the researcher in analyzing the data. Yin (1984) has suggested three broad analytic strategies: -Pattern matching -Explanation building -Time series
Pattern matching This technique compares an empirically based pattern with a predicted one. Campbell (1975) asserted that pattern- matching is a situation where several pieces of information from the same case may be related to some theoretical proposition. Example: Suicide bombing, intelligence agencies? Religious? Non Muslims? Poverty?
Explanation building– Explanation-building is an iterative process that begins with a theoretical statement, refines it, revises the proposition, and repeating this process from the beginning. This is known to be a technique that is fraught with problems for the investigate . As we can say it as part of a hypothesis-generating process
Time series In the third analytic strategy, time series analysis, the investigator tries to compare a series of data points to some theoretic trend that was predicted before the research, or some rival trend. For example: media curbs in Musharaf regime, Nawaz sharif era, Benazir era and present situation. Time to time conducted data and after analyze it.
6 Report writing th The case study report can take several forms. the report can follow the traditional research format: problem, methods, findings and discussion. Or it can use a nontraditional technique. For example: a case study report written for policy makers would be done in a style different from one that was to be published in a scholarly journal.
Limitations of case study research Researchers do not focus on the discovery of a universal, generalized truth, nor do they typically look for cause-effect relationships; instead, emphasis is placed on exploration and description Another disadvantage is that the researcher has no control over the situation Case study research can be time consuming and may occasionally produce massive quantities of data that are hard to summarize. Because of its emphasis on "deep data," the case study is out of reach for many large-scale research projects.
What makes an exemplary case study? The case study must be ‘interesting’ The case study must display sufficient evidence The case study must be ‘complete’ The case study should be written in an engaging manner The case study should contribute to knowledge.
Conclusion Case study is a valuable method of research, with distinctive characteristics that make it ideal for many types of investigations. It can also be used in combination with other methods. Its use and reliability should make it a more widely used methodology.
Conclusion Case studies are complex because they generally involve multiple sources of data, may include multiple cases within a study, and produce large amounts of data for analysis. Case study results relate directly to the common readers everyday experience and facilitate an understanding of complex real- life situations.()
Future Agenda A comparative case study of the newsroom practices at Voice of America, the BBC, two of the world’s largest international radio stations, can be conducted. Interviews of the staff members of the two stations, observations of their editorial meetings, and actual newsroom practices and access to their corporate documents, these sources can be applied to find out what are the common problem both stations are facing dealing with foreign language services.
References Research in speech communication, Raymond K. Tucker, Richard L. Weaver ii, Cynthia Berryman-Fink Mass media Research An Introduction second addition, Roger D. Wimmer, Joseph R. Dominick Unversity of Georgia. Yin, R. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing. Yin, R. (1993). Applications of case study research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing. Miles, M., & Huberman, M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: A source book for new methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
References Pyecha, J. (1988). A case study of the application of noncategorical special education in two states. Chapel Hill, NC: Research Triangle Institute. Tellis. W. (1997, September). Application of a case study methodology [81 paragraphs]. The Qualitative Report [On- line serial], 3(3). Available:http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR3-3/tellis2.html