Diarrhea by hina hussain

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  • 1. Paediatric Management ofDiarrheaHina Hussain
  • 2. DiarrheaA symptom of underlined Pathological conditionse.g., Malnutrition, Short Bowel syndrome,Gastroentritis, Diabetis Mellitus, Lactoseintolerance, Antibiotic therapy6/4/2013 2
  • 3. DefinitionThe passage of more than three watery stoolsa day is diarrhea• Frequency• Consistency6/4/2013 3
  • 4. TYPES OF DIARRHEA• Acute Diarrhea• Chronic diarrhea6/4/2013 4
  • 5. COMMON CAUSES OFDIARRHEA- BACTERIA– Vibrio cholera– Shigella– Escherichia coli– Salmonella– Campylobacter jejuni– Yersinia enterocolitica– Staphylococcus– Vibrio parahemolyticus– Clostridium difficile
  • 6. COMMON CAUSES OFDIARRHEA- VIRUS• Rotavirus• Adenoviruses• Caliciviruses• Astroviruses• Norwalk agents and Norwalk-like viruses
  • 7. How body gets effectedDiarrhea results in excessive water and electrolyteslose in the body called dehydration.Signs of dehydration• Increased thirst• Irritability• Sunken eyes• Decresed skin turger6/4/2013 7
  • 8. Standard Treatment Guidelines(STG’s)• These are the guidelines set by certainorganization to standardize the treatment ofthe patients and to maximize the cure rate.e.g., WHO, WGO, CDC etc.6/4/2013 8
  • 9. WHO STG’s on DiarrheaWHO have STG’s on the basis of grade ofDehydration:• No dehydration: Treatment Plan ‘A’• Mild: Treatment Plan ‘B’• Severe: Treatment Plan ‘C’6/4/2013 9
  • 10. Grading/ AssesmentDehydrationNo dehydration Mild SevereAppearance Irritable, thirsty Irritable, Lethargicvery thirsty or ComaEyes Normal depressed markedlydepressedSkin Normal Slow Very slowretraction retraction6/4/2013 10
  • 11. Objective of these STG’ s• Rehydration– replace the loss of fluid andelectrolytes• Antibiotics– according to the type of pathogens• Start food as soon as possible6/4/2013 11
  • 12. Treatment Plan ‘A’Home based treatment• ORS, other fluidsHow much to give, what kind of fluids are given• Increase feed• Oral Zinc6/4/2013 12
  • 13. Treatment Plan ‘B’Oral rehydration therapy• ORS + Zinc supplementation• Amount of ORS given for first 4 hoursAccording to the weight and age of the child• If abdominal distension• Reassesment and selection of Plan6/4/2013 13
  • 14. Treatment Plan ‘C’• IV RL at the 100ml/kg• Reassesment of the patient• Selection of treatment plan accordingly6/4/2013 14
  • 15. BUTA good saying prevention is better than cure• Safe drinking water and food“Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it. "• Hand washing• Proper sanitation6/4/2013 15