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    2005 apr jun_47_56 2005 apr jun_47_56 Document Transcript

    • R E S E A R C H Managerial Competence:includes research articles that focus on the analysis and Do Technical Capabilities Matter? resolution of managerial and academic issues based on analytical and empirical or Ujvala Rajadhyaksha case research Executive Globalization and rapid technological change is a reality for companies today. It has changed the Summary manner in which business has been routinely conducted and has brought into focus delivery of results in real time. Newer forms of organizational structures have emerged that are flatter with fewer hierarchical levels. Career paths are no longer linear and unbroken but are spiralling and lateral in nature. The traditional employment contract between employees and organization has altered. While earlier it was normal to assume a life time of security in exchange for doing a good job, now employees are increasingly looking for opportunities for professional development that will enhance their future employability. All these changes have had implications for HR departments and performance appraisal in the new business context. Instead of evaluating primarily on the basis of quantitative results and on what is achieved, the focus is shifting to how it is achieved as an indication of an employee’s ability to keep performing well in the future. It has made ‘competencies’ the new mantra for the HR departments aiming to effect change within organizations. Based on a sample data of over 250 executives in one of India’s largest vehicle manufacturing companies, this paper reviews the concept of competency, how it is assessed, and brings out the need for assessing technical competency. The final model that emerges from the study goes beyond managerial competencies — a model of techno-managerial competency that may be better suited to emerging jobs in a more technology-driven future. This model consists of four factors: technical skills comprising of knowledge fundamentals, engineering drawing appreciation, manufacturability appreciation, materials choice appreciation, knowledge of emerging trends, etc. group problem-solving skills comprising of problem analysis, creativity and originality, technical leadership ability, communication ability, people management skills, etc. KEY WORDS managerial skills comprising of perseverance, quest for learning, business understanding, KEY WORDS Techno-managerial visualization, attention to detail, etc. Privatization Competencies Indian Banking aptitude comprising of analytical ability, creativity, risk-taking orientation, etc. Assessment Efficiency Automobile Sector PerformanceVIKALPA • VOLUME 30 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2005 47 47
    • I n the literature, competence has been defined largely neurial, self-management, and thinking skills. in terms of the desire to see specific work-related behaviour very clearly: HOW ARE COMPETENCIES IDENTIFIED• The ability to perform effectively the functions AND MEASURED? associated with management in a work situation A comprehensive method to identify and measure com- (Hornby and Thomas, 1989). petencies is the one adopted by McBer which involves• A knowledge, skill, ability or characteristic associ- five stages (Boyatzis, 1982): ated with high performance on a job (Mirable, 1997). • Identification of criterion measure: Choosing an• Observable or habitual behaviours that enable a appropriate measure of job performance to identify person to succeed in her activity or function (Car- top performers and collecting data on managers. dona and Chinchilla, 1999). • Job analysis: Generating a list of characteristics• A combination of motives, traits, self-concepts, perceived as leading to effective and/or superior attitudes or values, skills, and abilities that differ- performance and obtaining ratings from the man- entiate superior performers from average perform- agers to compute a weighted list of characteristics ers (Lee and Beard, 1994). which are then analysed in clusters.• The capacity to transfer skills and abilities from one • Behaviour event interviews (BEI): Conducting BEIs area to another (Hogg, 1989 as cited in Lee and to obtain a detailed description of the manager’s Beard, 1994). performance, coding interview data, and relating it The above definitions of competence clearly suggest to job performance data.that, though implicitly, yet, competence is underlying • Tests and measures: Choosing tests and measuresand does project itself as skilled behaviour. It includes to assess competencies, administering and scoringself-knowledge and motivation. In other words, a com- them, and relating them to job performance data.petent manager is one who has both the desire and the • Establishing the competency model: Integratingwillingness to demonstrate effective behaviour. The self- results from the previous three steps and statisti-knowledge component of competence suggests that a cally and theoretically determining and document-competent person is able to transfer skills and abilities ing causal relationships among the competenciesfrom one area to another. Finally, competency refers to and between the competencies and job perform-effective performance. ance. Early research on competencies can be attributed to While job competence assessment is an extremelyMcClelland (1973) who showed that a person’s success rigorous approach for developing a competency model,in a job could not be predicted solely on the basis of it is time-consuming and expensive. Sometimes, com-intelligence tests. Around the same time, McBer, a US panies rely on a panel method for identifying compe-company, was commissioned by the American Manage- tencies. In this approach, a group of experts get togetherment Association (AMA) to identify those personal and identify a list of characteristics that they think ischaracteristics of managers that result in effective and/ relevant for superior performance. Even though theor superior performance within a job. McBer’s research competencies resulting from the panel method are notwhich was documented by Boyatzis (1982) identified six empirically tested against performance data, very often,clusters of competencies that were related to managerial they come close to explaining performance. In fact,effectiveness. These included goal and action manage- constructing competencies through the natural languagement cluster, leadership cluster, human resource man- interaction of organization members has been suggestedagement cluster, directing subordinate cluster, focus on as being particularly suitable for organizations operat-others cluster, and specialized knowledge. ing in a turbulent environment where competencies Since then, the human resource consultants and frequently change (Michellone and Zollo, 2000).experts have developed several competency models.Most of these models capture a set of competencies CURRENT DEBATE ON COMPETENCIESsimilar to the ones identified in McBer’s research includ-ing administrative, communication, interpersonal, lead- While considerable development of the concept of com-ership, motivation, organizational strategy, entrepre- petencies has taken place since the 1970s, debate still48 MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE: DO TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES MATTER ? 48
    • continues on the use of the term. Most of this debate (Boyatzis, 1982). The advantage of the first approach iscentres around the following themes: that it tends to make the assessment of competencies• level of competence (individual vs. organizational) relatively easy and objective. However, the advantage• depth of competence (observable skills vs. under- of the second approach is that it allows us to delve lying characteristics) beyond conscious behaviours to unconscious levels of• degree of competence (effective vs. superior per- competence at work such as motives (e.g., desire to formance) achieve goals) and self-image (e.g., I am a forward• specificity of competence (generic/managerial vs. planner). specific/technical) Spencer and Spencer (1993) have proposed an ar- chitecture of individual competence that encompassesLevel of Competence both the approaches and define them as a series of layers,Although the term ‘competence’ originally meant “basic like an iceberg, where only the top layers are visible andpersonal characteristics that are determining factors for observable through behaviour (Figure 1).acting successfully in a job or a situation” (McClelland, The first layer of the iceberg competence structure1993), in recent times, another close-sounding term called is concerned with observable knowledge and skills that‘core competence’ has been popularized by Hamel and relate to tasks and work and that can be learned inPrahalad (1990). The two terms are distinct from each professional and technical training courses. The secondother, yet, attempts have been made to relate them. layer refers to non-job-specific skills that can be trans-While competence refers to the individual level of ana- ferred from one situation to another such as communi-lysis, core competence refers to the organizational level cation and problem-solving skills. The third layer of theof analysis. Core competencies are a company’s charac- iceberg competence structure refers to values, stand-teristic areas of expertise and consist of the synergy of ards, and morals of the person and how they relate tointellectual assets such as motivation, employee effort, the social and political expectations of the organizationtechnological and professional expertise, and methods or the professional association. Finally, the fourth layerof collaboration and management processes that are comprises of personal characteristics that are difficultdifficult for competitors to duplicate. to assess directly through behaviour such as pragma- Godbout (2001) has integrated the two concepts of tism, commitment to results, etc. Clearly, the ease ofindividual and core competence to develop the idea of assessing competencies through observable behaviourscompetency-based organization. According to him, core and criteria increases as one progresses to the uppercompetencies are created through the logical and prac- layers.tical linkages between the organization’s goals, struc- Degree of Competenceture, and culture which transform into a series of man-agement concepts and business rules reflecting the Boyatzis (1982) distinguished between threshold com-expertise of its employees and the degree to which the petency and differentiating competencies. Thresholdemployees’ know-how is appreciated by the manage-ment. This entails that skills and motivation of employ- Figure 1: Iceberg Modelees are important factors in achieving a company’sobjectives. In short, according to Godbout, individual Ease of observationcompetence is a necessary condition to develop core Highcompetency. Know-howDepth of Competence Transferable skillsCompetency approaches fall loosely into two categories Values— those that essentially value the definition and mea-surement of competence as displayed in observable Motives, self-imagebehaviours (Cardona and Chinchilla, 1999), and those Lowthat essentially value the underlying characteristics thatlead to behavioural demonstration of a competence Source: Spencer and Spencer (1993).VIKALPA • VOLUME 30 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2005 49 49
    • competency refers to that minimum quality that a person audit of technical competencies possessed by the com-needs in order to do a job such as the ability to speak pany executives helps the HR department to re-deploythe native language. Differentiating competencies refer and retrain employees according to business needs.to those factors that distinguish superior from average Further, if we take an instance of a product devel-performers. Most threshold competencies are consid- opment executive whose job is to modify vehicle engineered to be generic in nature in that they tend to apply features in keeping with more stringent pollution con-to most managerial jobs whereas differentiating compe- trol norms, no doubt, he would be required to be a goodtencies may be more organization-specific. For instance, leader, a communicator, and a manager. However, thesetime and again, the list of basic management competen- qualities, though necessary, are not sufficient by them-cies has included analysis, communication, creativity, selves. This employee must also be a trained engineerdecision-making, etc. However, a competency such as with, say, the skill to read engineering drawings andawareness of international ways of approaching busi- understand the petrol cycle as well as have knowledgeness deals may be a critical factor determining job success specific to the function — for example, understand termsand high performance in a particular global company like EURO II and EURO III. Such details are unfortu-(Lee and Beard, 1994). nately not assessed in the standard available managerial competency models.Specificity of Competence Therefore, organizations need to move beyondThis debate concerns whether competencies are unique assessment of generic managerial competencies to moreto a particular job or organization or whether they are specific technical competencies and adopt a holisticgeneric. Most threshold competencies for management approach to competency assessment as it applies to realare often treated as being generic rather than specific. jobs in the work place. Some organizations have alreadyIn fact, competency models developed by HR consult- started doing this (for instance, see the technical com-ants usually give us a plethora of generalized behaviour- petencies for software engineers in Philips Digitalal and attitudinal information about employees such as Networks – Product Services (DPS) within Royal Philipstheir communication ability, leadership ability, and Electronics by Begeer and Banerjee, 2002). However,problem-solving ability, to name a few. This is due to there is ample scope for research-based contributions inthe fact that managerial behaviours in all sectors or this area. It is in this context that this paper attemptsorganizations tend to be based on a triumvirate of in- to validate a model of techno-managerial competencies.terpersonal roles, informational roles, and decision-making roles (e.g., Mintzberg, 1973). However, more RESEARCH METHODOLOGYrecently, there have been suggestions (e.g., Turner and Company Profile and SampleCrawford, 1994) that examining general managerialcompetencies may not be enough to differentiate be- To validate our model of techno-managerial competen-tween average and high performance and that an exten- cies, we gathered data from an assessment exercisesion into assessing specific technical and functional conducted on executives (N = 271) in one of India’scompetencies may be required even for senior manage- largest vehicle manufacturing companies. The companyment levels in a technology-driven future. is a leading player in the medium and heavy commercial A look at the recent developments in the automobile vehicle segment in India with a market share of aboutsector in a developing country like India demonstrates 33 per cent in 2000 and is a dominant market player inthis point. In order to survive, the Indian vehicle manu- the south of India. Executives who participated in thefacturers have had to upgrade products by replacing assessment exercise belonged to product development,manually operated product features with electronically corporate quality engineering, and manufacturing func-controlled ones. This change in product features has tions. Their grades ranged from 22 (just over entry level)resulted in a change in job specifications. An auto com- to 27 (just below top management cadre), covering apany today requires maintenance and service engineers range of total work experience from 3-25 years. Most ofwho, in addition to being mechanical engineers, should the participants had been inducted into the company asalso have an understanding of certain aspects of elec- trainee engineers and had risen through the ranks totronics and electrical engineering. At such times, an senior levels.50 MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE: DO TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES MATTER ? 50
    • Method assessed using a written test that was specially designed for the purpose. Items for assessing analytical abilityAssessment exercises were conducted between the years were adapted from standard books and tests on IQ (Alder,2000 and 2002 as a part of the company’s larger efforts 2002; Barrett, 2000) in the context of an automobileto gear itself up to the threat of increased competition engineering company. Numerical reasoning, verbalfrom other players as well as to cope with changes reasoning, visual-spatial reasoning, and logical reason-resulting from the enforcement of stringent pollution ing were tested (Box 1 gives an example).control norms in the country. The assessment was con- Items to test creativity were adapted from booksducted by a team of experts in human resource manage- and websites on creativity and visual puzzles (DiSpezio,ment and automobile engineering drawn from academia 1998) keeping in mind the context of the company andalong with senior company executives. Since the com- the automobile sector. Both divergent and convergentpany in question was treating the assessment as a forms of creativity were examined based on techniquesdevelopmental tool rather than an appraisal tool, the such as lateral thinking, assumption smashing and askingfollowing four elements generally considered to be crucial questions, attribute listing, and analogy. Since somefor an effective development centre (Lee and Beard, items on the creativity tests had open-ended answers,1994) were made an integral part of the entire exercise: initially, two raters, one from the company and the other• setting up of an appropriate criteria (competencies) from the external expert team, assessed these items against which to measure participants separately and compared responses. Only when a suf-• selection of instruments (interviews, exercises, and ficiently high degree of consistency in evaluation by the tests) that accurately measure the appropriate cri- assessors was established was the rest of the evaluation teria of the creativity test completed. Each response in the• identification of skilled assessors who can recognize test carried one mark. A high score indicated a higher effective performance as defined by the appropriate creative potential (Box 2 gives an example). criteria Risk-taking was assessed using an adapted and• provision of feedback of the assessment data in abridged version of Kogan and Wallach’s (1964) mea- order to improve individual and organizational per- sure of risk-taking behaviour cited in Robbins (2001).1 formance. Situations were placed before the participants who were Accordingly, the team began by conducting focus asked to indicate the minimum odds of success theygroup discussions and interviews with senior manage- would demand before recommending one alternativement to identify competencies that were relevant for over another by placing themselves in the position ofsuperior performance particularly given the future advisor to the central person in each of the situations.business goals of the company. This resulted in a set of24 items that were broadly clubbed into managerial (11 1 Although it was difficult to calculate traditional measures of alpha reliabilityitems) and technical (13 items) competencies (Exhibit 1). of some of these measures given the ‘live’ nature of the assignment, successive Once the competencies had been identified, top use of the same written test provided consistent results.managers were asked to assign suitable weights to them Box 1: An Item in the Analytical Section of the Testusing a paired ranking technique to indicate the relative In the question below is a given statement followed by two conclusionsimportance of the particular criterion to successful numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statementperformance. to be true and then decide which of the two given conclusions logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the informationMeasures given in the statement. Give answer (1) if only conclusion I follows; give answer (2) if onlyThe next stage in the assessment involved the selection conclusion II follows; give answer (3) if either I or II follows; give answer (4) if neither I nor II follows; and give answer (5) if bothof instruments and measures for the identified criteria. I and II follow.A combination of techniques including written tests, Statement: Some four-wheelers are blue. Mahindra Bolero is a four-wheeler.leaderless group discussions around a case analysis, and Conclusions: I. Mahindra Bolero is blue.in-depth interviews was used for the final assessment. II. Mahindra Bolero is not blue.The measures that were used for each of the listed Answer: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)competencies are discussed below in brief. Each correct answer carried one mark. There was no penalty for wrong answers. Analytical ability, creativity, and risk-taking wereVIKALPA • VOLUME 30 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2005 51 51
    • Box 2: An Item from the Creativity Test The participant groups were given 20 minutes to read the case and 45 minutes for the discussion. They were free to decide among themselves the best modalities for arriving at a solution — whether they should appoint a leader or split up the task into smaller sub-tasks, etc. A panel of technical and behavioural experts observed them without intervening. Through this exercise, tech- (A) (B) (C) nical competencies such as problem definition, problem analysis and choice definition, choice evaluation and solution, creativity and originality, technical leadership ability, and behavioural competencies such as commu- (D) (E) (F) nication ability, team working ability, and people man- agement ability were assessed. Scoring was done on a Find three things that you can do by combining objects (A) and (F) above. Look for applications which use the properties of both scale of 1 to 10 with 1 indicating a poor score and 10 objects and which could not be done (or would be very difficult) indicating a good score. if you had only one of the objects. The final stage in the assessment exercise was an in-depth interview lasting between 30 and 45 minutesEach alternative scored a few points with more risky with the panel of behavioural and technical experts.alternatives scoring fewer points than less risky alter- During the interview, questions were asked to assess thenatives. Overall, the lower the score, the greater the risk- remaining competencies. Answers were rated on a scaletaking orientation of the participant (Box 3 gives an of 1 to 10 with 1 indicating a poor score and 10 indicatingexample). a good score. Exhibit 2 indicates a sample of questions Other than the written tests, participants were that were asked to assess each of the remaining com-assessed through a group problem-solving exercise petencies.around a case analysis. Some of the cases were devel-oped based on actual problems faced by the company. ANALYSIS As the panel of assessors did not remain constant overBox 3: An Item from the Risk-taking Measure the two-year period during which the exercise was Mr. L, a 30-year old research physicist has been given a five-year appointment by a major university laboratory. As he contemplates conducted panel-bias free, normalized scores of candi- the next five years, he sees himself working on a difficult, long- dates were computed and used for analysis. Complete term problem. If a solution could be found, it would resolve basic scientific issues in the field and bring high scientific honours. If data were available for 271 executives who formed the no solution was found, however, Mr. L would have little to show final data set for analysis. Descriptive statistics of the for the five years in the laboratory and it would be hard for him competencies is given in Exhibit 3. to get a good job afterwards. On the contrary, as most of his professional associates are doing, he could work on a series of Based on discussions with senior executives, it was short-term problems for which solutions would be easier to find expected that the competency model for the company but they are of lesser scientific importance. Imagine that you are advising Mr. L. Listed below are several would comprise of two broad set of competencies — probabilities or odds that a solution will be found to the difficult technical and behavioural/managerial competencies. An long-term problem that Mr. L has in mind. Check the lowest probability that you would consider acceptable to make it worthwhile for Mr. exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to test L to work on the more difficult long-term problem. this notion and explore the clusters of competencies that _____ The chances are 1 in 10 that Mr. L will solve the long- emerged from the data. EFA gave five factors in place term problem _____ The chances are 3 in 10 that Mr. L. will solve the long- of a neat two-factor model of competencies. The results term problem of EFA are given in Exhibit 4. The factors included _____ The chances are 5 in 10 that. Mr. L. will solve the long- technical skills, group problem-solving skills, manage- term problem _____ The chances are 7 in 10 that. Mr. L. will solve the long- rial skills, aptitude, and risk-taking ability. These factors term problem together explained about 80 per cent of the total variance _____ The chances are 9 in 10 that. Mr. L. will solve the long- term problem with the first three factors alone explaining 70 per cent _____ Place a check here if you think that Mr. L should not choose of the variance. the long-term difficult problem no matter what the proba- Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS 4.0 bilities are. was further conducted to test for a two-factor model of52 MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE: DO TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES MATTER ? 52
    • techno-managerial competencies as had been expected in one of India’s largest vehicle manufacturing compa-as well as a five-factor model of competencies as had nies during a consulting assessment exercise conductedemerged in the EFA. After several attempts at model- within the company. A total of 24 competency itemsfitting, the best-fit model that emerged was a four-factor were identified based on discussions with senior man-model of competencies comprising of technical skills, agers in the company, 13 of which were technical ingroup problem-solving skills, managerial skills, and nature and 11 were managerial. A panel of experts usingaptitude. In this model, risk-taking as a factor was a combination of written test, group discussion, and in-included in the factor labelled aptitude since it contrib- depth interview conducted the assessment of executivesuted only 4 per cent to the total variance in the EFA. on the listed competencies.Following the recommendation of Bollen (1989), multi- Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factorple indexes of fit were examined to interpret the results analysis were conducted on the 24 competency items.of CFA. These included chi-square, root mean square It was expected that the items would load on two di-error (RMSEA), normed fit index (NFI), and comparative mensions — technical and managerial. However, EFAfit index (CFI). The CFA showed a good fit for the four- and CFA confirmed instead a four-factor model of com-factor model, χ 2 (246, N = 324) = 1514.12, p < 0.001, petencies comprising of technical skills, group problem-RMSEA = 0.13, NFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.93. Factor loadings solving skills, managerial skills, and aptitude.of all items were satisfactory and above 0.50, except for The results of the study, therefore, supported therisk-taking, which was –0.03, suggesting that it would basic premise of a model of competencies that extendedperhaps be more suitable to consider dropping this item beyond managerial competencies to include technicalfrom the model altogether in future studies. competencies. However, two additional dimensions of The final model of competencies that emerged from group problem-solving skills and aptitude came up inthe study, therefore, consisted of the following four the model. In a sense, these additional dimensions arefactors: not surprising. Much of the work in an automobileTechnical skills — comprising of knowledge fundamen- manufacturing company, especially the work associatedtals, application and judgement, engineering drawing with new product development and quality, is done inappreciation, regulatory test requirements, manufactur- teams. Similarly, the importance of aptitude comprisingability appreciation, test and validation requirements, of analytical ability and creativity to effective perform-materials choice appreciation, and knowledge of emerg- ance of a manager has been supported time and againing trends. through various other competency models. The prob-Group problem-solving skills — comprising of problem lematic item was risk-taking that did not load well ondefinition ability, problem analysis and choice determi- the factor of aptitude. Perhaps, this item was not relevantnation ability, choice evaluation and solution generation for this particular company as it had a largely conserva-ability, creativity and originality, technical leadership tive culture or perhaps a better measure of risk-takingability, communication ability, team working ability, is required. Future research should attempt to rectifyand people management skills. this problem.Managerial skills — comprising of perseverance, quest Further, since the company was using assessmentfor learning, visualization, business understanding, and as a developmental rather than an appraisal tool, it hadattention to detail. consciously sought to de-link assessment from the pastAptitude — comprising of analytical ability, creativity, job performance. As a result, it was not possible toand risk-taking orientation. correlate the dimensions from the four-factor model that emerged in the study to job performance. Perhaps, futureSUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS researchers could use this model for automobile sectorThis paper tested a model of techno-managerial compe- companies and relate it to job performance to test itstencies based on data gathered from over 250 executives concurrent and predictive validity.VIKALPA • VOLUME 30 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2005 53 53
    • Exhibit 1: List of Managerial and Technical CompetenciesManagerial Competencies Technical CompetenciesAnalytical ability (AN) Knowledge of fundamentals (of automobile engineering) (KF)Creativity (CR) Application and judgement (of automobile engineering principles) (AJ)Risk-taking orientation (RT) Engineering drawing appreciation (EDA)Perseverance (PERS) Regulatory test requirements (RTR)Quest for learning (QFL) Materials choice appreciation (MCA)Attention to detail (ATTN) Test and validation requirements (TVR)Visualization (VIZ) Manufacturability appreciation (MA)Business understanding (BU) Knowledge of emerging trends (in automobile engineering) (ET)Communication ability (COM) Problem definition (PD)People management skills (PM) Problem analysis and choice determination (PACD)Team work skills (TW) Choice evaluation and solution (CES) Creativity and originality (CO) Technical leadership ability (TLA)Exhibit 2: Sample Questions for Assessing Managerial and Technical CompetenciesManagerial Competencies Sample QuestionsPerseverance Can you talk about some technical problem / design that you have solved or are currently involved in solving at work? What are the barriers and obstacles (both technical and non-technical) that you faced while attempting to solve the problem? How long did you commit yourself to solving the problem?Quest for learning What technical magazines/journals do you read? Have you made any further additions to your qualifications in the last few years? What new skills have you picked up in the last year?Attention to detail What is the total number of vehicle models that your company manufactures? (This competency was also assessed based on the detail to which responses were given to technical questions)Visualization If a vehicle were to be made more accessible for a handicapped person, what broad changes in design features would you expect to make?Business understanding What do you think will be the implications of the government announced ‘Golden Quadrilateral’ project for your company’s sales?Technical Competencies Sample QuestionsKnowledge of fundamentals What are the different kinds of gears? What are the different kinds of welds?Application and judgement Why do you put a vehicle in the first gear while climbing up a slope?Engineering drawing appreciation (Actual engineering drawings from the company were used to ask questions to the candidates) What is the difference between first angle and third angle drawing?Regulatory test requirements What is the meaning of EURO III? What are some of the safety regulations pertaining to vehicle tyres?Materials choice appreciation What is the exact composition of the metal used for the body of a truck? Can the radiator be made of brass? Why or why not?Manufacturability appreciation What are the advantages and disadvantages of using fibreglass for the body of a vehicle? What implication does this material have for welding?Emerging trends What are some of the emerging trends in the choice of materials for vehicle bodies?54 MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE: DO TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES MATTER ? 54
    • Exhibit 3: Descriptive Statistics of the Competencies KF AJ EDA RTR MCA TVR MA ET PD PACD CES CO TLA AN CR RT PERS QFL ATTN VIZ BU TW PM COMMKF 1AJ .84a 1EDA .78a .76a 1RTR .79a .84a .74a 1MCA .77a .78a .71a .81a 1TVR .77a .81a .67a .84a .84a 1MA .74a .72a .73a .77a .80a .78a 1ET .79a .72a .70a .76a .72a .76a .78a 1PD .56a .53a .60a .57a .58a .55a .62a .60a 1PACD .54a .53a .55a .56a .53a .54a .54a .60a .88a 1CES .49a .44a .46a .48a .45a .46a .44a .56a .72a .86a 1CO .60a .52a .63a .56a .58a .53a .60a .61a .88a .84a .70a 1TLA .60a .57a .60a .60a .56a .55a .60a .60a .88a .87a .76a .86a 1AN .22a .22a .12b .17a .19a .15a .19a .18a .13b .10 .16a .11 .13b 1CR .28a .29a .27a .29a .32a .28a .28a .28a .23a .18a .16a .20a .22a .43a 1RT -.15b -.04 -.12 -.06 -.09 -.09 -.08 -.21a -.19a -.24a -.29a -.25a -.21a .05 -.03 1PERS .39a .34a .29a .32a .32a .36a .29a .37a .22a .30a .31a .24a .28a .14b .16a -.15b 1QFL .43a .32a .32a .31a .33a .37a .30a .43a .24a .29a .28a .28a .30a .18a .16a -.14b .74a 1ATTN .53a .46a .43a .40a .44a .45a .39a .52a .31a .32a .31a .36a .36a .17a .20a -.22a .70a .74a 1VIZ .44a .38a .37a .34a .38a .39a .39a .46a .31a .35a .31a .36a .37a .18a .18a -.15b .75a .73a .78a 1BU .44a .38a .39a .32a .38a .37a .35a .46a .30a .30a .29a .32a .33a .25a .31a -.08 .56a .56a .63a .70a 1TW .50a .43a .43a .45a .41a .41a .44a .52a .59a .64a .66a .56a .63a .15b .16a -.19a .47a .44a .51a .54a .49a 1PM .48a .41a .45a .45a .39a .39a .45a .50a .60a .66a .67a .60a .66a .19a .17a -.14b .45a .42a .46a .50a .48a .93a 1COMM .51a .48a .45a .47a .46a .46a .47a .52a .57a .62a .61a .56a .60a .22a .23a -.11 .49a .47a .53a .56a .53a .91a .88a 1MEAN 47.9 53.5 46.6 52.1 47.2 52.3 47.3 43.5 38.2 43.4 46.4 33.3 34.0 37.7 35.3 41.6 41.0 36.0 40.4 39.3 35.4 41.5 35.2 47.6S.D. 18.8 18.6 19.2 17.7 18.5 17.8 18.4 21.4 21.0 20.6 21.1 20.6 22.8 12.9 19.0 20.8 17.3 18.7 20.1 18.7 16.9 17.0 17.8 15.6a = Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).b = Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).List-wise valid N = 271. Exhibit 4: Results of Exploratory Factor Analysis on the List of Competencies a Rotated Component Matrix 1 2 3 4 5 RTR 0.863 TVR 0.857 MCA 0.851 AJ 0.851 MA 0.815 KF 0.807 EDA 0.777 ET 0.747 PACD 0.828 CES 0.803 PM 0.796 TLA 0.779 TW 0.770 PD 0.770 CO 0.737 COMM 0.710 VIZ 0.855 PERS 0.842 QFL 0.835 ATTN 0.823 BU 0.703 AN 0.832 CR 0.804 RT 0.874 Extraction method: Principal component analysis. Rotaton method: Varimax with Kaiser normalization. a Rotation converged in eight iterations.VIKALPA • VOLUME 30 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2005 55 55
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