ITFT-Tourism Geography


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Tourism and geography

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ITFT-Tourism Geography

  1. 1. Tourism & Hospitality Geography Introduction to the Geography of Travel & Tourism
  2. 2. Objectives • Distinguish between the different forms of tourism, and the relationship of different types of tourist with the environment. • Identify the three major geographical components of tourism. • Explain the push and pull factors that give rise to tourist flow. • Appreciate the main methods used to measure tourist flows and be aware of their problems.
  3. 3. Leisure, Recreation & Tourism • Leisure is often seen as a measure of time and is usually used to mean the time left over after work, sleep, and personal household chores have been completed. Leisure is free time for individuals spend as they please.
  4. 4. Leisure, Recreation & Tourism • Recreation is variety of activities taken during leisure time. It refreshes a person’s strength and spirit and can include activities as diverse as watching television or holidaying abroad.
  5. 5. Leisure, Recreation & Tourism • Tourism is “the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.”
  6. 6. Geography & Tourism • Spatial Scale • the human activities, focusing on both tourist-generating and tourist-receiving areas as well as the links between them. • The spatial study can be undertaken at a variety of scales; • world distribution of climatic zones • regional assessment of tourist resources • the local landscapes of resorts
  7. 7. • The geographical components of the tourism system • The places of origin of tourists – the tourist-generating areas. • Represent the homes of tourists, where journey begin and end. • Examine the features that stimulate demand for tourism, include the geographical location of an area; its socioeconomic and demographic characteristic. • These areas represent the main tourist markets in the world. • Major marketing functions of tourist industry are found here, such as tour operation, and travel retailing.
  8. 8. • The tourist destinations – the receiving areas. • Places that attract tourist to stay temporarily and will have features and attractions that may not be found in the generating areas. • comprise of the accommodation, retailing, and service functions, entertainment, and recreation. • most important part of the tourism system, which attract the tourists and energizing the system. • recognized as the impacts recipient of the tourism industry, and therefore where the planning and management of tourism is so important.
  9. 9. • The routes travelled between tourist- generating areas and the receiving areas. • Link the tourist-generating area and the tourist destination area. • As the key element in the system as their effectiveness and characteristics shape the size and direction of tourist flows. • It represents the location of the main transportation component of the tourist industry.
  10. 10. • Spatial interaction between the components of the tourist system • Tourist flows • tourist flows between regions is the fundamental to the geography of tourism • between two areas with the destination area containing a surplus of a commodity (ex. tourist attraction) and the generating area having a deficit, or demand for that commodity. • The regular patterns of tourist flows, which do not occur randomly but follow certain rules and are influenced by a variety of push and pull factors.
  11. 11. • Push factors • Mainly concerned with the stage of economic development in the generating area, including the factors as levels of affluence, mobility and holiday entitlement. • Economic development may cause the pressure of life will provide the “push” to engage in tourism. • An unfavourable climate will also provide a strong impetus to travel.
  12. 12. • Pull factors • Include accessibility, and the attractions and amenities of the destination area. • The relative cost of the visit is important, as is the marketing and promotion of the receiving area.
  13. 13. • Explaining tourist flows • A number of attempts have been made to explain the factors that affect tourist flows and to provide rules governing the magnitude of flows between regions
  14. 14. 1. Williams and Zelinsky (1970) • Selected 14 countries that had relatively stable tourist flows over a few years, which accounted for the bulk of the world’s tourist traffic. • A number of factors that helped to explain these flows: • Distances between countries (the greater the distance, the smaller the volume of flow). • International connectivity (shared business or cultural ties between countries). • The general attractiveness of one country for another.
  15. 15. 2. The gravity model • It based on two main factors that influence flows: • a) The push and pull factors which generate flows, and the model states that the larger the “mass” of the pushing or pulling regions, the greater the flow between them. • b) The restraining factor, which based on the distance between the origin and the destination of the flow. • The time and cost involved in travel act to reduce the flows with distance. • Known as the friction of distance.
  16. 16. • Measuring tourist flows • The measurement of both international and domestic flows has been introduced by the national governments and international organizations. • reasons why this statistical of flows is important: • To evaluate the magnitude of tourist flows and to monitor any change. This allows projection of future flows and the identification of market trends to be made. • Act as a base of hard fact to allow tourism planners and developers to operate effectively and plan for the future of tourism. • Both public and private sectors use it as a basis for their marketing.
  17. 17. • Measurement of tourist flows can be divided into three main types: • Statistics of volume • Give the number of tourists leaving an area or visiting a destination in a given period of time. • Provide basic count of the volume of tourist traffic. • It also includes the length of stay of the visitors at their destinations.
  18. 18. • Tourist characteristics. • Measure the quality of tourist flows. • Include information on types of tourist (sex, age, socioeconomic group) and their behaviour (structure of the trip, attitudes to the destination) • Expenditure statistics. • Tourist flows have important economic significance for the destination, the generating region, and the transport carriers. • Tourism represents a flow of money that is earned in one place and spends in another.
  19. 19. Forms of Tourism • Type of destination • the important distinction is between international and domestic tourism. • Domestic tourism embraces those travelling within their own country. • International tourism comprises those who travel to a country other than that in which they normally live. • Inbound tourism – non- residents travelling in a given country • Outbound tourism – involving residents of a particular country travelling abroad to other countries
  20. 20. • use another currency and encounter a different language. • Larger countries have a variety of tourist attractions and resorts, and greater physical distances. • Classifying tourists according to their relationship with the destination.
  21. 21. • The characteristics of the tourism system • forms of tourism based dominantly on the destination visited. • the destination visited influence the other components of the tourism system • (the market and its motivation to travel, and the means and form of transport used.
  22. 22. • The tourism product determine the nature of the tourism system • Rural tourism • Urban tourism • Heritage tourism • Cultural tourism • Eco-tourism
  23. 23. • The market • Forms of tourism based on its market, in terms of the purpose of visit of the tourist; • Holiday tourism (Holloway, 1989). • can be divided into “sun, sea, and sand” type where good weather and beach-related activities are important. • the “touring, sightseeing, and culture” type where new destinations, and different life styles are sought.
  24. 24. • Common-interest tourism; • those travelling with a purpose common to those visited at the destination • visiting friends and relatives [VFR], religion, health or education reasons. • make little or no demand upon accommodation or other tourist facilities at the destination.
  25. 25. • Business and professional tourism; • includes all those who are attending the trade fairs and conferences or participating in incentive travel schemes. • The business travellers use the same facilities as those travelling for pleasure and they are not permanent employees or residents of the host destination • Therefore they must be included in any definition of tourist. They are constrained in terms of where and when to travel.
  26. 26.  Other market-based approach is to consider; • The nature of the tourist themselves; the youth tourism, grey tourism, and gay tourism. • The type of travel arrangement purchased • inclusive tour where two or more components of the tour are purchased together and one price is paid. • independent travel arrangements where the traveller purchases the various elements of the trip separately. • tailor-made which is a combination of the two.
  27. 27. • The Distance Travelled • Long-haul tourism; taken to be journeys of over 3000 kilometres • Short-haul tourism; comprises journeys below that distance
  28. 28. Conclusion • The distinction is important in terms of aircraft operation and for marketing. • It is important to recognise that each particular form of tourism involve all of the geographical components.