AN ASSINGMENT ON               UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OFPHARMACOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY & PHYSIOLOGYSUBMITTED BY:Sudipta Nag Hime...
EYE :  The organ of VISION Eyes are the paired organsthat detect light and convert itinto electro-chemical impulsesin neur...
Types of eye:    Simple eye            is presence in            all chordates    Compound eye            is presence in  ...
Parts of EYE    EYEcomponent mainly   divided into     parts
Parts of EYE1.Eyeball    • Three layers:     – Fibrous outer layer       • Sclera       • Cornea     – Vascular middle lay...
Parts of EYE2.Accessory structures       •Conjunctiva       •Eyelid       •Eyelashes       •Lacrimal gland       •Extraocu...
Fibrous outer layer        Cornea       Thin, transparent epithelium           Allow the free entry of light.           ...
Vascular middle layer        Choroid          – Pigmented to absorb excess            light          – Supplies the retina...
Vascular middle layer       Ciliary Body       Ring of smooth muscle around lens          Regulates the shape of the     ...
The inner nervous layer          Retina          is a light-sensitive layer of          tissue, lining the inner surface  ...
The inner nervous layer         Cells of retina-              I. Photoreceptor cells              II. Bipolar cells       ...
Difference betweem CONE cell and ROD cellProperty                 Cones                 RodsLocation                 In th...
The inner nervous layer                                  Special Areas of the Retina                                   Th...
The inner nervous layerPupilIs a hole located inthe center of the iris.     It helps to pass     the light into the     ...
Structures inside the eyeball Closely-packed   concentric columnar cells Focuses image on the retina. The lens and cili...
Anterior Chamber of EyeContains aqueous  humor which is  secreted by ciliary  body Maintains shape  of anterior eye.     ...
Posterior Chamber of EyeContains vitreous  humor Maintains shape of  posterior eye. Refracts light rays. Is not constant...
Accessory structuresLacrimal glandThe lacrimal glands are the sites of tearproduction.   Tears function to keep the   con...
Accessory structuresEyelashesEyelashes are short hairs of eye thatmay occur in double or triple rows.   They function to ...
Accessory structuresConjunctivaThe conjunctiva refers to the lining of theeye.It has 2 partsPalpebral conjunctivaBulbar ...
Accessory structuresEyelidThe main function of the eyelidis to provide the eye withprotection. There are severaltypes of g...
Accessory structures       Extraocular Musclesi. Rectus dorsalisii. Rectus ventralisiii. Rectus medialisiv.Rectus laterali...
Functions of Extraocular                   Muscles  IO       SR        IO/SR            SR/IO         SR    IOThese six m...
VisionSteps of vision    Light    Refraction      •Cornea and lens    Accommodation    Photo-pigments    Photo-transd...
Visual Pathway    Pathway       of   LIGHT
Refraction   Refraction is the phenomenon which makes image formation    possible by the eye as well as by cameras and ot...
Accommodation The process of changing the  shape of the lens while  focusing on an object is  termed as accommodation. A...
Photopigments There are four types of photopigments, one in the rods and one ineach of three types of cones.          Th...
Rhodopsin       The photon is absorbed by rhodopsin.       The light receptor molecule tightly-packed in the         dis...
   Vitamin A is present both in    the cytoplasm of the rods    and in the pigment layer of    the retina.    Therefore, ...
Phototransduction The retina therefore signals the brainLight stimulation through an inhibitory    response involving a se...
ERRORS OF REFRACTION• Astigmatism– defective  curvature of the cornea  or lens of the eye.• Presbyopia– impaired  vision o...
COMMON DISORDERS OF THE            EYE(A) Acute bacterial conjunctivitis.(B) Anisocoria.(C) Color Blindness        Monoch...
Some other Symptoms found          in a serious        Ocular conditionVisual lossDouble visionSevere eye painForeign ...
BooksTextbook of medical physiology /  C. Guyton, John E. Hall.—11th edReview of Medical Physiology /  William F . Ganon...
QUESTIONS
Physiology of sense organ EYE
Physiology of sense organ EYE
Physiology of sense organ EYE
Physiology of sense organ EYE
Physiology of sense organ EYE
Physiology of sense organ EYE
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Physiology of sense organ EYE

  1. 1. AN ASSINGMENT ON UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OFPHARMACOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY & PHYSIOLOGYSUBMITTED BY:Sudipta Nag Himel(11/26) An undergraduate student ofChittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Khulshi, Chittagong-4225.
  2. 2. EYE : The organ of VISION Eyes are the paired organsthat detect light and convert itinto electro-chemical impulsesin neurons.
  3. 3. Types of eye: Simple eye is presence in all chordates Compound eye is presence in case of arthopods
  4. 4. Parts of EYE EYEcomponent mainly divided into parts
  5. 5. Parts of EYE1.Eyeball • Three layers: – Fibrous outer layer • Sclera • Cornea – Vascular middle layer • Choroid, • Ciliary body and • Iris – The inner nervous layer • Retina • Pupil • Structures inside the eyeball are the lens, aqueous fluid and vitreous body.
  6. 6. Parts of EYE2.Accessory structures •Conjunctiva •Eyelid •Eyelashes •Lacrimal gland •Extraocular muscles
  7. 7. Fibrous outer layer Cornea Thin, transparent epithelium  Allow the free entry of light.  Act as refractive media. Sclera “White part of the eye”  Maintaining the shape and form of the eye ball.  Contains BVs and insertion site for extrinsic eye muscles.
  8. 8. Vascular middle layer Choroid – Pigmented to absorb excess light – Supplies the retina with nutrients and oxygen via blood supply Iris “Colored part” of the eye which contains BVs, pigment cells, loose connective tissue and pupillary muscle. Adjusts the pupil Regulates amount of light
  9. 9. Vascular middle layer Ciliary Body Ring of smooth muscle around lens Regulates the shape of the lens for accommodation Suspensatory Ligaments – Attach the ciliary body to the lens
  10. 10. The inner nervous layer Retina is a light-sensitive layer of tissue, lining the inner surface of the eye. Functions It helps in Photopic vision Scoptic vision Mesopic vision Steroscopic vision Acuity of vision Color vision Perception of movement
  11. 11. The inner nervous layer Cells of retina- I. Photoreceptor cells II. Bipolar cells III.Horizental cells IV.Amacrine cells V. Ganglion cells • The photo receptor cells are 2 types - (1)The cone cells (2)The rod cells
  12. 12. Difference betweem CONE cell and ROD cellProperty Cones RodsLocation In the fovea Outside the foveaResolution and visual Large SmallacuityTotal number of 5 million 120 millionelementsColor sensitivity Yes NoBrightness sensitivity Small, for daylight Large, for night vision vision Figure
  13. 13. The inner nervous layer Special Areas of the Retina  The macula lutea and foveaOptic disc Macula lutea centralis  The blind spot Artery Vein  Retinal blood vessels. The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped highly pigmented yellow spot near the center of the retina Fovea centralis (fovea) is a depresion, located in the center of the macula region of the retina.
  14. 14. The inner nervous layerPupilIs a hole located inthe center of the iris. It helps to pass the light into the eye.
  15. 15. Structures inside the eyeball Closely-packed concentric columnar cells Focuses image on the retina. The lens and ciliary body divide the eye into two cavities. The anterior cavity The posterior cavity
  16. 16. Anterior Chamber of EyeContains aqueous humor which is secreted by ciliary body Maintains shape of anterior eye. Anterior Chamber Constantly produced - leaves eye thru canal that carries it to bloodstream.
  17. 17. Posterior Chamber of EyeContains vitreous humor Maintains shape of posterior eye. Refracts light rays. Is not constantly being produced. Loss of vitreous Vitreous Chamber humor may mean loss of eye.
  18. 18. Accessory structuresLacrimal glandThe lacrimal glands are the sites of tearproduction. Tears function to keep the conjunctiva and corneal epithelium moist and wash away foreign material from the eye.Lacrimal apparatus Secretes and drains tears from the eye
  19. 19. Accessory structuresEyelashesEyelashes are short hairs of eye thatmay occur in double or triple rows. They function to protect the eye from debris. Lashes may also have different lengths and diameters to one another.
  20. 20. Accessory structuresConjunctivaThe conjunctiva refers to the lining of theeye.It has 2 partsPalpebral conjunctivaBulbar conjunctiva It helps lubricate the eye by secreting mucous, and serves as a protective barrier again microbes. It contains many goblet cells which secrete a component of the tears that bath the eye.
  21. 21. Accessory structuresEyelidThe main function of the eyelidis to provide the eye withprotection. There are severaltypes of glands in theeyelids, including tarsal glandsthat produce a sebaceoussecretion that results in an oilysurface of the tear film toprevent the evaporation of thenormal tear layer.
  22. 22. Accessory structures Extraocular Musclesi. Rectus dorsalisii. Rectus ventralisiii. Rectus medialisiv.Rectus lateralisv. Obliqus dorsalisvi.Obliqus ventralis
  23. 23. Functions of Extraocular Muscles IO SR IO/SR SR/IO SR IOThese six muscles responsible for eye movement. Four rectus muscles control the movement of the eyein the four cardinal directions: LR MR MR LR Up, Down, SO IR Left and SO/IR IR/SO IR SO Right. The remaining two muscles control the adjustments MR MRinvolved in counter acting head movement. CONVERGENCE
  24. 24. VisionSteps of vision Light Refraction •Cornea and lens Accommodation Photo-pigments Photo-transduction Photoreceptor activity •In the dark •When exposed to light
  25. 25. Visual Pathway Pathway of LIGHT
  26. 26. Refraction Refraction is the phenomenon which makes image formation possible by the eye as well as by cameras and other systems of lenses. The eye, is optically equivalent to the usual photographic camera. The lens system of the eye is composed of four refractive interfaces. Formation of an Image on the Retina. The lens system of the eye can focus an image on the retina. The image is inverted and reversed with respect to the object. However, the mind perceives objects in the upright position because the brain is trained to consider an inverted image as the normal.
  27. 27. Accommodation The process of changing the shape of the lens while focusing on an object is termed as accommodation. At rest focused on distant objects, needs to increase focal power than focus on close objects. The ciliary muscles contract and release tension in the ligaments and the lens becomes rounder in case of close objects.
  28. 28. Photopigments There are four types of photopigments, one in the rods and one ineach of three types of cones. The pigment in the rods is called rhodopsin. Rhodopsin absorbs all visible wavelengths, so that rods provide vision only in shades of grey by detecting different intensities rather than colours. The three types of cones - red, green and blue photopsin, can respond selectively to various wavelengths of light, giving rise to colour vision.
  29. 29. Rhodopsin  The photon is absorbed by rhodopsin.  The light receptor molecule tightly-packed in the disk membranes  One rod contains 10 billion rhodopsin molecules, which ensures an optimum photon capture rateRhodopsin has 2 components Retinal- Vitamin A aldehyde Opsin- single polypeptide containing 7 transmembrane domains
  30. 30.  Vitamin A is present both in the cytoplasm of the rods and in the pigment layer of the retina. Therefore, vitamin A is normally always available to form new retinal when needed. Conversely, when there is excess retinal in the retina, it is converted back into vitamin A, thus reducing the amount of light-sensitive pigment in the retina. Night blindness.
  31. 31. Phototransduction The retina therefore signals the brainLight stimulation through an inhibitory response involving a series of physiological reactions Action potentials, Only originate in the ganglion cells,The first neurons in the chain that carry the visual stimuli to the brain. Vision occurs This process is called phototransduction.
  32. 32. ERRORS OF REFRACTION• Astigmatism– defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye.• Presbyopia– impaired vision of the cornea or lens of the eye, associated with aging.• Hyperopia– can’t see close objects, rays of light focus behind retina• Myopia- can’t see far away objects, rays of light focus in front of the
  33. 33. COMMON DISORDERS OF THE EYE(A) Acute bacterial conjunctivitis.(B) Anisocoria.(C) Color Blindness  Monochromacy lack of 2 of the 3 types of cones  Dichromacy: lack of 1 type of normally-function cones  Anomalous trichromacy shift in the normal spectrum
  34. 34. Some other Symptoms found in a serious Ocular conditionVisual lossDouble visionSevere eye painForeign body sensation
  35. 35. BooksTextbook of medical physiology / C. Guyton, John E. Hall.—11th edReview of Medical Physiology / William F . Ganong .—22nd edAnimal Physiology / Eckert & Randall -2nd ed Internet
  36. 36. QUESTIONS
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