As per wikipedia,“Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits”The need for biometrics o -> Rapid development in technology o -> Globalization
1936 • Idea was proposed by ophthalmologist Frank Burch1980 • Appeared in the Bond Films1987 • Aram Safir & leonard Flom patented the idea and asked John Doug man to create actual algorithms for that. John Dougman created this algorithm and patented that in the same year..1987 • Licensee Sensar deployed special cameras in ATMs of NCR corps and Diebold Corps1997-1999 • “Panasonic Authenticam” was ready for use in public places like airports
The iris is a Protective internal organ of the eye. It is easily visible from yardsaway as a colored disk, behind the clear protective window of the cornea,surrounded by the white tissue of the eye. It is the only internal organ of thebody normally visible externally. It is a thin diaphragm stretching across theanterior portion of the eye and supported by lens. Going the layman way the biometric identification ofthe iris is called as “IRIS SCANNING”.But as per WIKIPEDIA, “Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern-recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irides of anindividuals eyes.”
The iris is a living passwordArtificial duplication is virtually impossible400 identifying featuresProbability of matching of two irises is 1:1078Genetic independencyIts inherent isolation and protection fromthe external environment.
The design and implementation of a system for automated iris recognition can be subdivided in to 3 major parts:- 1. IMAGE ACQUISITION To acquire images with sufficient resolution and sharpness to support recognition. 2. IRIS LOCALIZATION To delemit the iris from the rest of the image. 3. PATTERN MATCHING The Iris Code derived from this process is compared with previously generated Iris Code.
· Highly protected, internal organ of the eye · Externally visible; patterns imaged from a distance · Iris patterns possess a high degree of randomness .Uniqueness: set by combinatorial complexity · Changing pupil size confirms natural physiology · Limited genetic penetrance of iris patterns · Patterns apparently stable throughout life
· Small target (1 cm) to acquire from a distance (1m) · Located behind a curved, wet, reflecting surface · Obscured by eyelashes, lenses, reflections · Partially occluded by eyelids, often drooping · Deforms non-elastically as pupil changes size · Illumination should not be visible or bright
. ATMs .Fugitive track record .Computer login: The iris as a living password. · National Border Controls: The iris as a living password. · Ticket less air travel. · Premises access control (home, office, laboratory etc.). · Driving licenses and other personal certificates. · Entitlements and benefits authentication. · Forensics, birth certificates, tracking missing or wanted person · Credit-card authentication. · Automobile ignition and unlocking; anti-theft devices. · Anti-terrorism (e.g.:— suspect Screening at airports) · Secure financial transaction (e-commerce, banking). · Internet security, control of access to privileged information.
Iris recognition system is also finding unexpected applications. The best knowexample involved using iris recognition to confirm the identification of a mysteriousyoung afghan woman named Sharbat Gula originally photographed by SteveMcCurry in 1984.Some 18 years later, McCurry photographed Sharbat Gula inAfghanistan .At the behest of National Geographic, Dr.John Dougman,developer ofthe Iris recognition system, then compared the irises in the photographs using hisalgorithms. He concluded that the eyes were a match.
The technical performance capability of the iris recognition process far surpasses that of any biometric technology now available. Iridian process is defined for rapid exhaustive search for very large databases: distinctive capability required for authentication today. The extremely low probabilities of getting a false match enable the iris recognition algorithms to search through extremely large databases, even of a national or planetary scale. Iris-based biometric technology has always been an exceptionally accurate one, and it may soon grow much more prominent.
· http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk ·http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_recognitio n .www.seminars4u.com Daugman J (1999) "Biometric decision landscapes." Technical Report No TR482, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory etric decision landscapes." Technical Report No TR482, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory