PERSONAL RAPIDTRANSIT SYSTEM1 BY - HIMANSHU SINGH B090847CE
PersonalRapid Transit is a fully automated rail- based public transportation system. Ituses small automated electric driven „pod cars‟ with capacity of 4 to 6 people, on a network of narrow segregated guide ways . Stations are located on sidings ,with merge/ diverge points. This approach allows for nonstop, point-to- point travel, bypassing all intermediate stations. 2
It is cost-effective ,provides highly “on-demand” , congestion free and 24X7 operation. Any destination can be reached directly, in a private atmosphere and without intermediate stops or transfers with very short waiting times. 3
NEED OF PRTS ! INCREASING TARNSPORT DEMAND As the population is increasing so the transport demand, especially in urban cities where problem of traffic have become a great concern. 4
LIMITED LAND AND FUEL RESOURCES Mostof the metropolitan cities are already facing problem of land shortage to manage the growing population so , its very difficult to extend and expand roads inside the city. Depleting natural gas and petroleum reserve is a major concern, vehicle running on electricity can be helpful in decreasing load on fossil fuel. 5
DEVELOPMENT OF PRTS ! First PRT came into service at West Virginia University ,Morgantown in 1972. It has 8.7 miles guide-way with 5 stations and 70 pod cars with about 15,000 riders per day. 6
In November 2010, a PRT system went into operation in Masdar City in the UAE. It has only 1.2 km of one-way track, serving the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology. SinceSeptember 2011, Heathrow PRT is fully operational, connecting business car park to the central terminal 5 area through 3.8 km of guide way and 18 podcars. 7
UPCOMING PROJECTS ! InSuncheon, South Korea , PRT System will connect Suncheon to the future site of the International Gardening Festival with 9.8 km guideway 2 stations and 40 podcars by end of 2013. In India, Amritsar will have the first and largest urban PRT System with route length of total 22km with 35 stations. The initial phase connects 3.3km route with 7 stations being 500m apart with cost of 60crore per km with 30 podcars. It will be open for 8 public in 2014.
INFRASTRUCTURE PODCARS : Fabricated Aluminium „Ladder Frame‟. Dimensions - 3.7 x 1.47 x 1.8 m Weighs 850kg with maximum payload of 500kg. 13" Wheels with automotive tubeless radial tyres. Average speed is 40km/h. It is of two types on basis of usage : a) short distance b) high speed ,high capacity 9
GUIDWAYS The guideways are usually designed as elevated systems with concrete and steel beams and columns. Theyare interconnected at “ junctions “ which allows podcar to select various paths. Guideway density and extent is determined by maximum walking distance to nearest station and number of origin and destination point to be served. 11
TypicalElevated Guideway Headroom for main road crossings is 5.7m whereas 2.5m over pedestal crossing. Typicalcolumn weighs 10 tonnes with dead load requirement of minimum 2.2kN/m². Guideways can be integrated into existing building without significant strengthening or modifications. 13
STATIONS Off-linestations are designed with a “siding” track or so that vehicles not stopping at a particular station can bypass that station . Usinga 30 second dwell time, one typical station bay can serve about 120 Pods per hour. These stations have all basic facilities ex passenger interface which allows destination selection 14 console, communications, and segregation doorset.
OPERATING COST Podcars costs 92k USD each and Infrastructure costs 4.6M USD/km with general formula of overall cost: 1.23 (1,600 + 67.0(L-5) + 11.0(N-25)) K USD *per annum Where L is the length of single track guideway (km) , N is the number of vehicles 16 *www.niches-transport.org
SAFTEY AND SECURITY No human error so much safer than vehicles on road. Running gear mechanism to prevent derailment and grade-separated guideways prevent conflict with pedestrians or manually controlled vehicles. Public transit safety engineering approaches, such as redundancy and self-diagnosis of critical systems, are also included in designs. 17 Less crowded so less prone to terrorist attacks.
PROPULSION Electricitypowered 7kw linear induction motors and rotary motors used. power is generally transmitted via lineside conductors Systems retain a small on-board battery to reach the next stop after a power-failure increasing the safety and reducing the complexity, cost and maintenance of the guideway. Laser sensors maintains vehicle to prescribed path. 18
SWITCHING Two types of switching: Vehicle-switching permits faster switching Simplifies the guideway, makes junctions less visually obtrusive and reduces the impact of malfunctions Track-switching replaces in-vehicle mechanisms with larger track- moving components. simplifies the vehicles, reducing the number of small 19 moving parts in each car.
APPLICATIONS Airport shutles : connecting parking to terminals etc. Private property developments : ex educational institutes , private firms and industry etc. Shortdistance urban connections: connecting tourists spots etc. Fasterouter suburban connections:connecting industrial areas to city center etc. 20
CHARACTERISTICS PRT is sustainable. PRT is safe. PRT produces zero local emission. Infrastructure fit within most urban fabric. PRT offers a 24h, on- demand, direct origin to destination service. PRT has relatively low capital costs. 21 PRT is accessible for all
IMPEDIMENTS TO DEVELOPMENT There is very less tested. There is a lack of awareness of the concept. Would not produce much employment. Financialrisk as implementing test program requires substantial finance support . PRT may attract vandalism and pods may be target of crime. 22 Not feasible for rural areas.
Terminal 5 at London Heathrow Airport is connected to its business passenger car park, by a 3.8 km PRT system. Since september 2011 it is fully operational. The system cost £30 million to develop. The pods use 50% less energy than a bus. It uses 18 podcars that runs 22 hours a day with 24 maximum speed of 40km/h.
Operational statistics in May 2012 demonstrate more than 99% reliability . Average passenger wait time over the one year period of 10 seconds. 25
PRT SYSTEM IN AMRITSAR World’s largest urban PRT system will start in 2014. 3.3km elevated guideway with 7 stations and 30 podcars running in phase one. It is a high-capacity system, projecting to carry approx 35 million passengers a year. At peak capacity the Amritsar system can carry up to 100,000 passengers a day. 26
The route will focus on railway and bus stations to the Golden Temple . The land area required for transportation will reduce by 30%. The project costs nearly Rs 250 crore and is to be taken up on a public-private partnership. Second phase : 22 km of total length with 35 stations with cost of Rs 880 crore. 27
CONCLUSION Personal Rapid Transit System is an emerging approach to sustainable transportation. It fulfils almost all the requirements of modern transportation. It provides a good solution to the increasing transportation demand . It provides solution to limited land resource and helps in decreasing burden on fossil fuel resource . Its cost effectiveness make it accessible to every individual. 29 Thus helps in economic development of the society.
REFERENCE Ultra Personal Rapid Transit System, Heathrow Airport, London, England: http://www.ultraprt.com/.(Accessed, august 2012) Alain L. Kornhauser, et al (2004-2005). Personal Rapid Transit for New Jersey: P.R.T.—the New Mass Transit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. http://www.princeton.edu/~alaink/Orf467F04/NJ%20PRT%20Final%20Small.pdf Kerr, A.D. et al, Infrastructure Cost Comparisons for PRT and APM, ASCE APM05 Special Sessions on PRT, 2005 “PersonalRapidTransit.” Wikipedia. (Accessed august 2012) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_rapid_transit Advanced Transport Systems Ltd. (2003). “Summary Report on ULTra Passenger Trials.” Provided on CD ROM by ULTra in August 2005 West Virginia University (http://transportation.wvu.edu/prt/)(Accessed, august 2012) PRTS, Amritsar (http://www.fairwoodindia.com/personal-rapid-transport-system- amritsar) (Accessed ,august 2012) 30