Introduction to c++

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Introduction to c++ tutorial
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Introduction to c++

  1. 1. Introduction to C++ BY HIMANSHU KAUSHIK
  2. 2. What is c++ ?  C++ is a object-oriented language  It is the “successor” to C, a procedural language  (the “++” is called the successor operator in C++)  C was derived from a language called B which was in turn derived from BCPL  C was developed in the 1970’s by Dennis Ritchie of AT&T Bell Labs  C++ was developed in the early 1980’s by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T Bell Labs.  Most of C is a subset of C++
  3. 3. People & Programs  User: an individual who runs, or executes, a program  Programmer: an individual who creates, or writes, a program
  4. 4. C++ Programming  Consists of… Declarations  Define the use of various identifiers, thus creating the elements used by the program (computer) Statements  Or executable statements, representing actions the computer will take on the user’s behalf
  5. 5. Identifiers  Names for various entities used in a program; used for...  Variables: values that can change frequently  Constants: values that never changes  Functions: programming units that represents complex operations  Parameters: values that change infrequently
  6. 6. A Simple c++ Program #include <iostream.h> int main() { // Declarations // Statements return 0; }
  7. 7. The Header File #include <iostream.h> int main() { // Declarations // Statements return 0; }  Compiler directive: Tells the compiler what to do before compiling  This one includes source code from another file
  8. 8. The Main Statement #include <iostream.h> int main() { // Declarations // Statements return 0; }  Header for main function States…  data type for the return value  identifier for function  list of arguments between parenthesis (none for this function)
  9. 9. The Braces #include <iostream.h> int main() { // Declarations // Statements return 0; } Braces enclose the body of the function They represent the start and end of the function
  10. 10. The Declaration Statement #include <iostream.h> int main() { // Declarations // Statements return 0; }  Declarations and statements  Main body of function (or main part)  “//” represents the start of a comment
  11. 11. The return Statement #include <iostream.h> int main() { // Declarations // Statements return 0; }  Return statement  specifies the value the function returns  All (almost) declarations and statements end with a semi-colon “;”
  12. 12. Sample C++ Program #include <iostream.h> void main() { int number; cout << “Enter a number” << endl; cin >> number; cout << “You entered: “ << number << endl; } What is the Output of this Program?
  13. 13. The DataTypes #include <iostream.h> void main() { int number; cout << “Enter a number” << endl; cin >> number; cout << “You entered: “ << number << endl; }  Variable declaration  The identifier number is declared as being of data type int, or integer
  14. 14. The Count ? #include <iostream.h> void main() { int number; cout << “Enter a number” << endl; cin >> number; cout << “You entered: “ << number << endl; }  cout the output statement for C++  Note the direction of “<<“  endl represents an end-of-line
  15. 15. Cin ? #include <iostream.h> void main() { int number; cout << “Enter a number” << endl; cin >> number; cout << “You entered: “ << number << endl; } cin the input statement for C++ Note the direction of “>>”
  16. 16. Copy That Down #include <iostream.h> void main() { int number; cout << “Enter a number” << endl; cin >> number; cout << “You entered: “ << number << endl; }
  17. 17. Value Assignment In c++  Assignment is an operation that assigns the value of an expression to a variable  Ex. Total = 2 + 3 + 5  First, the expresssion “2 + 3 + 5” is evaluated  Then, this value is assigned to the variable “Total”
  18. 18. Assignment  When a variable is declared, space is allocated in the computer’s memory for the variable  Each data type requires a different number of bytes in memory for storing a variable  int - 2 float - 4 double - 8 char, bool - 1
  19. 19. Arithmetic Operations Addition: 2 + 3 Subtraction: 5 - 2 Multiplication: 10 * 4 Division: 12 / 3
  20. 20. I Have A problem for you Problem: To determine the average of three numbers Task: Request, from the user, three numbers, compute the average and the three numbers, and print out the original values and the computed average Do it! You have 20 minutes!
  21. 21. Any Queries ?

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